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Nymphalis Kluk, 1780
Anglewings
Nymphalis Kluk, 1780; Hist. nat. pocz. gospod. 4: 86, TS: Papilio polychloros Linnaeus
Hamadryas Hübner, [1806]; Tentamen determinationis digestionis ...: [1] (reject.), TS: Papilio io Linnaeus
Aglais Dalman, 1816; K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 56, TS: Papilio urticae Linnaeus
Polygonia Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (3): 36, TS: Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus
Eugonia Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (3): 36, TS: Papilio angelica Stoll
= Polygonia ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 250]
Inachis Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (3): 37, TS: Papilio io Linnaeus
= Aglais ; [Wahlberg]
Comma Rennie, 1832; Conspectus Butts. Moths: 8, TS: Papilio c-album Linnaeus
= Polygonia ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 250]
Grapta Kirby, 1837; in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 292, TS: Vanessa c-argenteum Kirby
= Polygonia ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 250]
Scudderia Grote, 1873; Can. Ent. 5 (8): 144 (preocc. Scudderia Stål, 1873), TS: Papilio antiopa Linnaeus
= ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 249]
Euvanessa Scudder, 1889; Butts eastern U.S. Canada 1: 387, TS: Papilio antiopa Linnaeus
= ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 249]
Kaniska Moore, [1899]; Lepidoptera Indica, 4 : 91, TS: Papilio canace Linnaeus
= Polygonia ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 250]
Ichnusa Reuss, 1939; Ent. Z. 53: 3, TS: Papilio (Vanessa) ichnusa Bonelli
= Aglais ; [Wahlberg]
Roddia Korshunov, 1995; Dnevnye babochki Aziatskoi chasti Rossii. Spravochnik.: 81, TS: Papilio l-album Esper
= ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 250]
Antiopana Korb, 2005; A catalogue of butterflies of the ex-USSR: ?, TS: Papilio antiopa Linnaeus
= ;
Nymphalis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Grapta ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 216
Nymphalis (Nymphalidae) ; [BRU2, 28]
Nymphalis (Nymphalini) ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 249]
Aglais (Nymphalidae) ; [BRU2, 29]
Aglais (Nymphalini) ; [Wahlberg]
Polygonia (Nymphalidae) ; [BRU2, 26]
Polygonia (Nymphalini) ; [NL4A, 250]; [Wahlberg]
Kaniska (Nymphalini) ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 208
Kaniska (Nymphalidae) ; [BRU2, 32]
Inachis (Nymphalidae) ; [BRU2, 26]

Subgenus Nymphalis Kluk, 1781
Nymphalis Kluk, 1781; Hist. nat. pocz. gospod. 4: 86, TS: Papilio polychloros Linnaeus
Nymphalis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Nymphalis californica (Boisduval, 1852)
WNA. See [About maps] California Tortoiseshell
Vanessa californica Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 306, TL: California
Nymphalis californica, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Nymphalis californica, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Nymphalis californica, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Nymphalis californica, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis californica, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Nymphalis californica californica, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Eugonia californica ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Nymphalis californica ; [EBW]; [NACL, #4431]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #2030]
[californica-1u.jpg] 951x624 (~122Kb) upperside east of Lebanon, Oregon, USA, 9-91, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [californica-2v.jpg] 500x627 (~40Kb) underside USA: FR 9712 nr. Liberty, Lion Gulch, (47°15'47N 120°40'15W ±0.5km), Kittitas Co., WA, 14.8.2001, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Ceanothus [NAB]


California, ... Nymphalis californica californica ; [NL4A, #2030a]
Nymphalis (Nymphalis) californica californica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. herri Field, 1936
Nymphalis californica herri Field, 1936; , TL: Washington
Nymphalis californica herri ; [NACL, #4431a]
[herri-1v.jpg] 1024x1192 (~186Kb) underside Canada, British Columbia, Genelle, 22 June 2005, Photo © Norbert Kondla [herri-2o.jpg] 1000x1287 (~196Kb) ova Canada, British Columbia, Wanata, May 2006 (egg mass), Photo © Norbert Kondla [herri-3fv.jpg] 1228x1122 (~297Kb) underside female Canada: British Columbia, Wanata, May 2006 (ovipositing on Ceanothus velutinus), Photo © Norbert Kondla


fiNymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758)
SEU, CEU, NAF, AM, Himalayas, Chitral - Murree. See [About maps] Kirsikkaperhonen Large Tortoiseshell Blackleg Tortoiseshell Large Tortoiseshell Körsbärsfuks Großer Fuchs Le Grand Tortue Olmera Rusałka wierzbowiec
Papilio polychloros Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 477, TL: Sweden
Papilio testudo Esper, 1781; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (4): 118, pl. 73, f. 1
pyrrhomelaena Hübner, [1824]
Vanessa pyromelas Freyer, [1834]
Vanessa dixeyi Standfuss, 1895
polychloros fervida Standfuss, 1896; , TL: Volga
Vanessa polychloros lucida Fruhstorfer, 1907
Vanessa polychloros dilucidus Fruhstorfer, 1907
Nymphalis polychloros, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis polychloros, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Nymphalis polychloros, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis polychloros, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Nymphalis polychloros, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Nymphalis polychloros, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Nymphalis polychloros ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 26]; [EBW]; [BRU2: 29, pl. 17, f. 8-10]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[polychloros-1u.jpg] 951x624 (~105Kb) upperside Alter Hof, Berlin, Germany, 3-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [polychloros-2p.jpg] 472x634 (~44Kb) pupa Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schönenberg, Siedlungsbereich (8°49'E, 48°57'N, 250m), 04.06.2000, Photo © Karl Hofsäß [polychloros-3l.jpg] 597x400 (~47Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[polychloros-3p.jpg] 371x550 (~42Kb) pupa Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [polychloros-3u.jpg] 597x400 (~94Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [polychloros-4u.jpg] 600x435 (~44Kb) upperside Morocco, Tizi-n-Tretten, Moyen Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier
[polychloros-5v.jpg] 1400x1050 (~261Kb) underside Hibernating in an abandoned bunker, Sumava, Czech Republic observed by Libor Dvorák, 2004, Photo © NP & CHKO Sumava [polychloros-6v.jpg] 795x1002 (~185Kb) underside Greece: Ipiros, Gliki, Acheron River, 9.6.2006, Photo © Harri Arkkio
Nymphalis polychloros det. Joseph Belicek
[polychloros-6vU.jpg] identification uncertain 795x1002 (~185Kb) underside Greece: Ipiros, Gliki, Acheron River, 9.6.2006, Photo © Harri Arkkio

Larva on Pyrus, Prunus, Salix, Ulmus [SPRK], Salix viminalis [BRU2, 29]


Nymphalis (Nymphalis) polychloros polychloros ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. p. erythromelas (Austaut, 1885)
W.Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Vanessa polychloros var. erythromelas Austaut, 1885; Le Naturaliste (Ser.1) 7: 142, TL: Nemours, Algeria
Nymphalis polychloros erythromelas ; [H&R, 84]; [BMAT: 47, pl. 14, f. 4-6]
Nymphalis (Nymphalis) polychloros erythromelas ; [Joseph Belicek]
Nymphalis erythromelas ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 26 (text only)]
[erythromelas-1u.jpg] 600x435 (~57Kb) upperside Morocco, Djebel Lakraa, Rif, Photo © Michel Tarrier

Larva on Salix pedicellata, Ulmus campestris, U. americana, Sorbus tormilis, Pyrus communis, Malus domestica, Crataegus sp., Populus nigra, Crataegus monogyna [BMAT]



fiNymphalis xanthomelas (Esper, 1781)
CEU, SEEU, C.Asia, China, Japan, Baluchistan, N.Waziristan - Kumaon. See [About maps] Isonokkosperhonen Yellow-legged Tortoisehell Large Tortoiseshell Videfuks Rusałka drzewoszek
Papilio xanthomelas Esper, 1781; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (3): 77, pl. 63, f. 4
Papilio xanthomelas [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 175 (nom. nud.)
Nymphalis xanthomelas, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis xanthomelas, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Nymphalis xanthomelas, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis xanthomelas, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Nymphalis xanthomelas, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Nymphalis xanthomelas, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Nymphalis xanthomelas ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 27]; [EBW]; [MRS, 572]; Kudrna & Belicek, 2005, Oedippus 23: 28; [Otakar Kudrna]
[xanthomelas-1l.jpg] 533x400 (~51Kb) larva The Izdrevaya Rivulet valley meadow 1 km of its mouth, surroundings of Novosibirsk, West Siberia, Russia. 22nd June 1996 (A colony of caterpillars on a willow branch hanging just above the water), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [xanthomelas-1v.jpg] 800x600 (~115Kb) underside A road in the woody (pine/birch) Zyryanka Rivulet valley, Botanical Garden, Akademgorodok [Academy Town], Novosibirsk, West Siberia, Russia. 11th April 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [xanthomelas-2v.jpg] 672x650 (~117Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 22.08.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov
[xanthomelas-3u.jpg] 1544x1028 (~203Kb) upperside Hungary: Menes Valley, Aggtelek National Park, 20.VI.2006, Photo © Szabolcs Safian [xanthomelas-4u.jpg] 732x600 (~95Kb) upperside Russia: Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 22.08.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Salix [SPRK], Salix elegans, Pistacia integerrima, Celtis australis [BIR] [MRS], Salix excelsa [BRU2, 28]


CEU, SEEU, Caucasus, Siberia, Far East, Amur, Ussuri cibinensis Dannehl, 1925
Nymphalis xanthomelas chosenessa Bryk, 1946
Nymphalis xanthomelas xanthomelas ; [BRU2, 28]
Nymphalis (Nymphalis) xanthomelas xanthomelas ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. x. hazara Wyatt & Omoto, 1966
Ghissar-Darvaz, Pamirs-Alai, Tian-Shan, Saur, Tarbagatai Nymphalis (Nymphalis) xanthomelas hazara ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. x. modesta Bryk, 1946
N. x. mongolica Bryk, 1946
N. x. japonica (Stichel, 1902)
Japan, Sakhalin, Kuriles Vanessa xanthomelas japonica Stichel, 1902
Nymphalis xanthomelas sachalinensis Matsumura, 1925; , TL: Sakhalin
jezoensis (Matsumura, 1925)
Nymphalis xanthomelas japonica ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 27 (text only)]; [BRU2, 28]
Nymphalis (Nymphalis) xanthomelas japonica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. x. formosana (Matsumura, 1925)
Nymphalis xanthomelas formosana ; [MRS, 572]
Nymphalis (Nymphalis) xanthomelas formosana ; [Joseph Belicek]
[formosana-1u.jpg] 640x464 (~69Kb) upperside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin [formosana-2v.jpg] 640x451 (~40Kb) underside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin

N. x. anna Krzywicki, 1967
Nymphalis xanthomelas anna Krzywicki, 1967; , TL: Bielowieza, Poland
N. x. fervescens (Stichel, [1908])
Transcaucasia, Kopet-Dagh Vanessa xanthomelas fervescens Stichel, [1908]; , TL: Mardan, India
fervida Staudinger, 1901; (preocc.)
Nymphalis xanthomelas fervescens ; [MRS, 572]; [BRU2, 28]

Subgenus Aglais Dalman, 1816
Aglais Dalman, 1816; K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 56, TS: Papilio urticae Linnaeus
Ichnusa Reuss, 1939; Ent. Z. 53: 3, TS: Papilio (Vanessa) ichnusa Bonelli
Aglais, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

fiNymphalis urticae (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, Asia Minor, C.Asia, Siberia, China, Mongolia, Korea. See [About maps] Nokkosperhonen Small Tortoiseshell Mountain Tortoiseshell Nässelfjäril Kleiner Fuchs La Petite Tortue Ortiguera Rusałka pokrzywnik
Papilio urticae Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 477
ichnusoides (Sélys, 1837)
atrebatensis (Boisduval, 1873)
osborni (Donckier de Douceel, 1881)
nigricaria (de Moffarte, 1895)
discolor (Rühl, 1896)
pygmaea (Rühl, 1896)
nigrita (Fickert, 1897)
thibetana (Austaut, 1898); , TL: Tibet
turcicoides (Staudinger, 1901); , TL: Turkmenistan
conjuncta (Neuburger, 1905)
dannenbergi (Neuburg, 1905)
?xanthomeleana repetita (Jachontov, 1905)
consentanea (Jachontov, 1906)
bolandii (Lambillion, 1907)
brunneoviolacea (Raynor, 1909)
alba (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
flavotessellata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
ignea (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
ioformis (Raynor, 1909)
lutea (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
magniguttata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
magnilunulata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
magninotata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
magnipuncta (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
nubilata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
parviguttata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
parvipuncta (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
punctijuncta (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
radiata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
strigata (Raynor, 1909); , TL: Essex, England
subtusornata (Reuss, 1910)
pseudoconnexa (Cabeau, 1911); , TL: Belgium
erythrophaea (Fritsch, 1913); , TL: Germany
fervida (Fritsch, 1913); , TL: Germany
teruelensis (Sheldon, 1913)
fasciata (Manslowscy, 1923); , TL: Poland
obtusa (Bang-Haas, 1927); , TL: Kansu, China
semiichnusoides (Pronin, 1928); , TL: Germany
Vanessa urticae coreensis Kleinschmidt, 1929
impuncta (Lempke, 1931); Belgium
Aglais urticae, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Aglais urticae, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Aglais urticae, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Aglais urticae, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis urticae, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Aglais urticae, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Aglais urticae, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Aglais urticae, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Aglais urticae ; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 11]; [EBW]; [MRS, 569]; [BMAT: 104, pl. 32, f. 28 (two records in N.Africa)]; [BRU2: 29, pl. 19, f. 1-9]; [Opler]
Nymphalis urticae ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[urticae-1.jpg] 1200x873 (~91Kb) FINLAND: Ka: Virolahti, 671:53, 7.8.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [urticae-2.jpg] 500x378 (~125Kb) Plymbridge woods, Devon, UK 24/06/95, Photo © Simon Coombes [urticae-3u.jpg] 600x435 (~32Kb) upperside FINLAND: Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 28.4.1997, Photo © Markku Savela
[urticae-4mfu.jpg] 800x600 (~112Kb) upperside male female The Zyryanka Rivulet valley, the surroundings of Akademgorodok [Academy Town], Novosibirsk, West Siberia, Russia. 7th April 1995 (Playing male and female), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [urticae-4p.jpg] 400x533 (~52Kb) pupa Nettle (Urtica cannabina L.) thickets in ravines on the south-exposed slopes of the mountain Kuku-Khadan on the northern bank of Lake Zun-Torei, Onon District, SE Chita Province, Siberia, Rissia (just at the Mongolian border). 24th June 1995, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [urticae-4v.jpg] 636x574 (~43Kb) underside An Irtysh River left arm within the city of Omsk, West Siberia, Russia. 29th July 1998 (on Butomus umbellatus), Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[urticae-5p.jpg] 474x671 (~25Kb) pupa Nettle (Urtica cannabina L.) thickets in ravines on the south- exposed slopes of the mountain Kuku-Khadan on the northern bank of Lake Zun-Torei, Onon District, SE Chita Province, Siberia, Rissia (just at the Mongolian border) (A just hatched pupa, still soft and not fully coloured, which is sucked by a group of bugs (not carnivorous ones!)). 24th June 1995, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [urticae-6l.jpg] 590x400 (~70Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [urticae-6u.jpg] 600x400 (~44Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[urticae-7u.jpg] 1000x760 (~88Kb) upperside FINLAND: Ka: Virolahti, Virojoki 671:53, 26.8.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [urticae-8x.jpg] 600x800 (~89Kb) Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 30.6.2002(?), Photo © Leif Wahlberg [urticae-8y.jpg] 600x800 (~87Kb) Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 4.8.2003, Photo © Leif Wahlberg
[urticae-8z.jpg] 779x584 (~102Kb) Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 2.9.2003, Photo © Leif Wahlberg [urticae-9u.jpg] 1100x1005 (~128Kb) upperside Russia, Udmurtia, Izhevsk (parklike areas along shore of "Izhevsky Prud"), 5.8.2004, Photo © Markku Savela [urticae-a1l.jpg] 1095x749 (~133Kb) larva Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 16.6.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov
[urticae-a1u.jpg] 687x605 (~113Kb) upperside Russia: Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 08.08.2007, Photo © D. Smirnov [urticae-a2l.jpg] 976x457 (~99Kb) larva Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 30.7.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [urticae-a2p.jpg] 517x831 (~87Kb) pupa Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 3.8.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov
[urticae-a2u.jpg] 1016x707 (~110Kb) upperside Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 19.8.2009 (ex.l), Photo © D. Smirnov [urticae-l.jpg] 800x578 (~66Kb) larva Finland, Järvenpää 670:39, 29.6.1977, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen

Larva on Urtica, U. urens, U. dioeca, Humulus lupulus [SPRK], Urticaceae [MRS], Urtica angustifolia, Cannabis sativa [BRU2, 30]


EU, W.Siberia - Altai Aglais urticae urticae
Aglais urticae urticae ; [BRU2, 30]
Nymphalis (Aglais) urticae urticae ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. u. polaris (Staudinger, 1871)
N.Europe, Siberia, Far East Aglais urticae polaris Staudinger, 1871
Aglais urticae polaris ; [BRU2, 30]
N. u. turcica (Staudinger, 1871)
SEU, Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Kopet-Dagh, Middle Asia Aglais urticae turcica ; [BRU2, 30]
N. u. baicalensis (Kleinschmidt, 1929)
Sayan, Transbaikalia Aglais urticae baicalensis Kleinschmidt, 1929
Aglais urticae baicalensis ; [BRU2, 30]
N. u. eximia (Sheljuzhko, 1919)
Amur, Ussuri ussuriensis (Kleinschmidt, 1929)
mandschuriensis (Kleinschmidt, 1929)
Aglais urticae eximia ; [BRU2, 30]
N. u. stoetzneri (Kleinschmidt, 1929)
Szechuan urticae stoetzneri (Kleinschmidt, 1929); , TL: Szechuan
Aglais urticae stoetzneri ; [BRU2, 30]
N. u. kansuensis (Kleinschmidt, 1940)
Vanessa urticae kansuensis Kleinschmidt, 1940; , TL: NW.China
Aglais urticae kansuensis ; [MRS, 569]
Nymphalis (Aglais) urticae kansuensis ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. u. chinensis Leech, 1893
urticae chinensis Leech, 1893; Butts China Japan Corea (1): 258, pl. 25, f. 1
Aglais urticae chinensis, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Aglais urticae chinensis ; [MRS, 569]
Aglais nixa chinensis ; [BRU2, 31]
Nymphalis (Aglais) urticae chinensis ; [Joseph Belicek]
Aglais urticae chinensis ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 80 (note)
N. u. connexa (Butler, [1882])
S.Ussuri, S.Sakhalin, Kuriles, Japan Vanessa urticae connexa Butler, [1882]; , TL: Toshima, Hokkaido
Aglais connexa ; [BRU2: 30, pl. 19, f. 10-12]
Nymphalis (Aglais) urticae connexa ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis ichnusa (Hübner, [1823-1824])
Corsica, Sardinia. See [About maps] Papilio ichnusa Hübner, [1823-1824]; Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : pl. 170, f. 840
Papilio (Vanessa) ichnusa Bonelli, 1826; Memorie R. Acc. Sci. Torino 30: 174, 186, pl. 2, f. 2
Nymphalis (Aglais) ichnusa ; [Joseph Belicek]
Nymphalis ichnusa ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[ichnusa-1mu.jpg] 1600x1246 (~300Kb) upperside male Corsica, Ventiseri, 5.VI.1971, e.l, coll. NMSB, Photo © O. Kudrna [ichnusa-1mv.jpg] 1600x1243 (~209Kb) underside male Corsica, Ventiseri, 5.VI.1971, e.l, coll. NMSB, Photo © O. Kudrna


Nymphalis caschmirensis (Kollar, [1844])
Himalaya, ?Pamirs. See [About maps] Indian Tortoiseshell
Vanessa caschmirensis Kollar, [1844]; in Hügel, Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek, 4: 442, pl. 9, f. 3-4, TL: Kashmir
Vanessa caschmirensis aesis Fruhstorfer, 1912; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 527
Vanessa cashmiriensis; [BIR]
Aglais caschmirensis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Aglais cashmirensis aesis ; Morishita & Inomata, 1998, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (1): 6
Aglais kaschmirensis[sic] ; auct.
Aglais caschmirensis ; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 11 (text only)]; [EBW]; [BRU2: 31, pl. 20, f. 4-6]

[kaschmirensis-1u.jpg] 1600x1200 (~208Kb) upperside India: Kalimpong nr. Darjeeling, 10.10.1960 (T.W. Davies leg.), Photo © Norbert Kondla [kaschmirensis-1v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~242Kb) underside India: Kalimpong nr. Darjeeling, 10.10.1960 (T.W. Davies leg.), Photo © Norbert Kondla [kaschmirensis-2u.jpg] 1400x1072 (~164Kb) upperside Nepal: Thorung Phedi, between Manang and Muktinath, 4400m, 16.6.2007, Photo © Visa Mäkelä

Nymphalis (Aglais) caschmirensis caschmirensis ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. nixa (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)
Ghissar-Darvaz, Pamirs-Alai, Afghanistan, Pakistan, W.China Vanessa urticae nixa Grum-Grshimailo, 1890
Aglais urticae nixa ;
Aglais nixa ; [BRU2: 30, pl. 19, f. 13-18]
Nymphalis (Aglais) caschmirensis nixa ; [Joseph Belicek]
[nixa-1u.jpg] 533x400 (~60Kb) upperside A large-stoned scree, at about 2500 m altitude in the headwaters of the Artuch River, Fanskie Gory - a mountain massif between the Zeravshanskii and Ghissarskii mountain ranges, Tadjikistan. 30th April 1991, Photo © Oleg Kosterin


Nymphalis rizana (Moore, 1872)
Pamirs-Alai, Afghanistan, NW.Himalayas. See [About maps] Vanessa rizana Moore, 1872; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 559, TL: Cheeni, Middle Kunawur, NW. Himalaya
Aglais rizana ; [BRU2: 31, pl. 20, f. 1-3]
Nymphalis (Aglais) rizana ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis ladakensis (Moore, 1878)
W.Himalayas - Tibet. See [About maps] Ladak Tortoiseshell
Vanessa ladakensis Moore, 1878; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 1 (3) : 227, TL: Tibet
Nymphalis (Aglais) ladakensis ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis milberti (Godart, 1819)
California - Canada - Virginia, Oklahoma. See [About maps] Milbert's Tortoiseshell Fire-rim Tortoiseshell
Vanessa milberti Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 307
Nymphalis milberti, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Aglais milberti, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Aglais milberti, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Aglais milberti, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Nymphalis milberti, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Aglais melbirti ; Edwards, 1872, (missp.)
Nymphalis milberti ; [BOW: pl. 14. f. 12]
Aglais milberti ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23; [EBW]; [NACL, #4433]; [Opler]
[milberti-1u.jpg] 800x532 (~84Kb) upperside USA: Glacier Basin Path, Mt. Rainier, (46°57'12N 121°40'09W), Pierce Co., WA, 21.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [milberti-2u.jpg] 600x516 (~42Kb) upperside USA: FR 9711, (47°18'23N 120°36'31W), Kittitas Co., WA, 7.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [milberti-3u.jpg] 1600x1178 (~242Kb) upperside Canada: Savona, British Columbia, 14.9.2009 (D.L. Threatful coll.), Photo © Norbert Kondla
[milberti-3v.jpg] 1600x1183 (~268Kb) underside Canada: Savona, British Columbia, 14.9.2009 (D.L. Threatful coll.), Photo © Norbert Kondla

Larva on Urtica [NAB]


Nymphalis (Aglais) milberti milberti ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. m. furcillata (Say, 1825)
Vanessa furcillata Say, 1825
Vanessa milberti var. subpallida Cockerell, 1889; Ent.: 185, TL: Colorado
Aglais rothkei Gunder, 1927; , TL: Pennsylvania
Aglais milberti subpallida, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Aglais milberti subpallida, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Aglais milberti subpallida ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Aglais milberti furcillata ; [NACL, #4433a]
Nymphalis (Aglais) milberti furcillata ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. m. viola (dos Passos, 1938)
Newfoundland Aglais milberti viola dos Passos, 1938; Can. Ent. 70: (72-73), TL: Doyles Station, Newfoundland
Aglais milberti viola ; [NACL, #4433b]
Nymphalis (Aglais) milberti viola ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. m. pullum (Austin, 1998)
Arizona Aglais milberti pullum Austin, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts.: 578, f. 21-24, TL: White Mountains, Arizona

Subgenus Euvanessa Scudder, 1889
Euvanessa Scudder, 1889; Butts eastern U.S. Canada 1: 387, TS: Papilio antiopa Linnaeus

fiNymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, Temperate Eurasia, Chumbi Valley, Bhutan, NA, Mexico. See [About maps] Suruvaippa Camberwell Beauty Mourning Cloak Sorgmantel Trauermantel Le Morio Antiopa Rusałka żałobnik
Papilio antiopa Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 476, TL: Sweden, America
morio (Retzius, 1783)
?hippolita (Skinner, 1898)
Vanessa borealis Wnukowsky, 1927
Nymphalis antiopa, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Nymphalis antiopa antiopa, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Nymphalis antiopa antiopa, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Nymphalis antiopa, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis antiopa, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Nymphalis antiopa, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Nymphalis antiopa, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis antiopa, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Nymphalis antiopa, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Nymphalis antiopa, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Nymphalis antiopa, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Nymphalis antiopa, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Vanessa antiopa ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 215; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 682
Euvanessa antiopa ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Nymphalis antiopa ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 25]; [EBW]; [NACL, #4432]; [MRS, 571]; [BMAT: 104, pl. 32, f. 26 (not in N.Africa)]; [BRU2: 29, pl. 18, f. 4-6]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #2029]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[antiopa-1l.jpg] 640x430 (~34Kb) larva Southern Poland, Pieniny Mts., 20.7.1996, Photo © Marek Michalski [antiopa-2p.jpg] 624x951 (~62Kb) pupa Sukayu, Aomori, Japan, 8-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [antiopa-2u.jpg] 951x624 (~135Kb) upperside Sukayu, Aomori, Japan, 8-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt
[antiopa-3l.jpg] 797x400 (~63Kb) larva An edge of a riparian poplar wood in the valley of the Shivilig- Khem River just leaving the mountains, the southern foot of the East Tannu-Ola mounatin range, Tes-Khem District, Tuva Republic, Siberia, Russia. 17th July 1990, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [antiopa-4u.jpg] 1000x685 (~80Kb) upperside FINLAND, Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 6.9.1998, Photo © Markku Savela [antiopa-5u.jpg] 900x625 (~80Kb) upperside Finland, Järvenpää, 670:39, 16.8.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[antiopa-6l.jpg] 597x400 (~65Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [antiopa-6u.jpg] 597x400 (~67Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [antiopa-7p.jpg] 600x812 (~73Kb) pupa FINLAND: Ka: Virolahti, 671:53, 12.8.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[antiopa-8u.jpg] 991x712 (~128Kb) upperside Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 30.8.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [antiopa-8ux.jpg] 830x634 (~110Kb) upperside Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 30.8.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [antiopa-8v.jpg] 739x691 (~105Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 30.8.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov
[antiopa-9l.jpg] 1200x811 (~221Kb) larva USA: Alabama, 12.5.2001, Photo © Vitaly Charny [antiopa-9u.jpg] 1315x1070 (~185Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 9.4.2000, Photo © Vitaly Charny [antiopa-9v.jpg] 1000x905 (~156Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 20.5.2001, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Salix, S. pentandra, S. starkeana, S. caprea, S. aurita, S. cinerea, S. phylicifolia, Betula sp., B. verrucosa, Alnus incana, Populus tremula [SPRK], Populus spp., Ulmus spp., Betula chinensis [MRS]


Sweden, ... Papilio pompadour Pollich, 1781; , TL: Germany
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
var. hygiea (Heydenreich, 1846) (Vanessa); Verz. eur. Schmett.: 7 (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
ab. hygiaea (Heydenreich, 1851) (Vanessa); , TL: ?
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Vanessa lintnerii Fitch, 1856; , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Vanessa thomsonii Butler, 1887; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 19 (110) : 104, TL: "British Honduras?"
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
var. obscura (Cockerell, 1890) (Vanessa); , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
ab. hippolyta (Lyman, 1898) (Vanessa); , TL: Canada
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
var. grandis (Ehrmann, 1900) (Vanessa); Can. Ent. 32 (11) : 348, TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Vanessa betulae Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name)
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Vanessa bibla Fabricius, 1938; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Euvanessa antiopa hygiaea ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Nymphalis antiopa antiopa ; [NL4A, #2029a]
Nymphalis (Euvanessa) antiopa antiopa ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. a. hyperborea (Seitz, 1914)
Vanessa antiopa hyperborea Seitz, 1914; , TL: Alaska
Nymphalis antiopa hyperborea ; [NACL, #4432a]
Nymphalis (Euvanessa) antiopa hyperborea ; [Joseph Belicek]
[hyperborea-1l.jpg] 1600x1200 (~373Kb) larva Canada: ex ova, June 2006 (2md. 3rd & 4th instars, on Ulmus americana), Photo © Joseph Belicek [hyperborea-1o.jpg] 1600x1200 (~225Kb) ova Canada: Edmonton, Alberta, 7.5.2006 (on Ulmus americana), Photo © Joseph Belicek

N. a. asopos (Fruhstorfer, 1909)
Japan asopos (Fruhstorfer, 1909) (Vanessa); Int. ent. Zs. 3 (17): 94
[asopos-1.jpg] 1600x1200 (~294Kb) Japan, Hokkaido, Mt. Kariba, 18. VIII. 1990, Photo © Joseph Belicek


Nymphalis cyanomelas (Doubleday, [1848])
Mexico - El Salvador. See [About maps] Vanessa cyanomelas Doubleday, [1848]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 201 (Lep.), (1): pl. 26, f. 5 , TL: Mexico
Nymphalis cyanomelas, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Nymphalis cyanomelas, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Vanessa cyanomelas ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 215
Nymphalis cyanomelas ; [NL4A, #2031]
Nymphalis (Euvanessa) cyanomelas ; [Joseph Belicek]
[cyanomelas-1u.jpg] 1600x1127 (~330Kb) upperside Honduras: Photo Joseph Belicek © BMNH [cyanomelas-1v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~285Kb) underside Honduras: Photo Joseph Belicek © BMNH

Miller & Miller, 1990. The Entomologist 109(2): 106-115.

"... From the mountains of Mexico to El Salvador, the striking, steel-blue N. cyanomelas flies in cloud forest patches, which often are completely surrounded by drier upland areas in which typical antiopa may occur."


Subgenus Inachis Hübner, [1819]
Inachis Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (3): 37, TS: Papilio io Linnaeus
Inachis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

fiNymphalis io (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, Temperate Asia, Japan. See [About maps] Neitoperhonen Peacock Påfågelsöga Tagpfauenauge Paon de Jour Pavo Real Rusałka pawik
Papilio io Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 472
ioides (Ochsenheimer, 1807); Schmett. Europa 1 (1) : 109
sardoa (Staudinger, 1871); , TL: Sardinia
exoculata (Weymer, 1878)
dyophtalmica (Garbini, 1883)
veronensis (Garbini, 1883)
belisaria (Oberthür, 1889)
fischeri (Standfuss, 1892)
calorefacta (Urech, 1897)
jocaste (Urech, 1897)
narses (Schultz, 1899)
pavo (Stichel, 1902)
cyanosticta (Raynor, 1903)
fulva (Oudemans, 1905)
Inachis io, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Inachis io, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Inachis io, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Inachis io, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis io, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Inachis io, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Inachis io, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Inachis io, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Inachis io ; [BOW: pl. 2, f. 17]; [EBW]; [MRS, 576]; [BMAT: 104, pl. 32, 27 (Algiers, 1961)]; [BRU2: 26, pl. 20, f. 7-9]
Nymphalis io ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[io-1u.jpg] 500x383 (~55Kb) upperside Plymbridge woods, Devon, UK 15/08/92, Photo © Simon Coombes [io-2u.jpg] 500x438 (~26Kb) upperside Finland, Kangasala, Murto, 6818:340, 25.8.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [io-3u.jpg] 533x400 (~49Kb) upperside A valley meadow at the Shadrikha Rivulet at the village Mel'nichikha, Novosibirsk District and Province, West Siberia, Russia. 24th May 1992, Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[io-4u.jpg] 512x768 (~64Kb) upperside Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Ötisheim, 8° 49' E, 48° 58' N, altitude 300m, 15.10.1995, Photo © Karl Hofsäß [io-5l.jpg] 600x673 (~52Kb) larva Finland, Askola, ex.l. 17.7.1977, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [io-5p.jpg] 520x785 (~45Kb) pupa Finland, Askola, ex.l. 17.7.1977, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[io-5u.jpg] 900x1074 (~131Kb) upperside Finland, Helsinki 3.8.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [io-6l.jpg] 596x400 (~75Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [io-6p.jpg] 400x598 (~40Kb) pupa Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[io-6u.jpg] 592x400 (~75Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [io-7.jpg] 600x800 (~72Kb) Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 8.8.2003, Photo © Leif Wahlberg [io-8l.jpg] 800x600 (~95Kb) larva Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 13.7.2004, Photo © Leif Wahlberg
[io-9l.jpg] 800x467 (~91Kb) larva Russia, Moscow area, 1.7.2005 (young), Photo © D. Smirnov [io-a1.jpg] 960x768 (~158Kb) Russia, Moscow area, 3.8.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov [io-a2v.jpg] 568x642 (~96Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 09.08.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov
[io.jpg] 900x628 (~63Kb) FINLAND, Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 13.9.1998, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Urtica dioeca [SPRK], Humulus lupulus, Urtica angustifolia, Urticaceae [MRS]


Nymphalis (Inachis) io io ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. i. caucasica (Jachontov, 1912)
Azerbaijan Nymphalis (Inachis) io caucasica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. i. geisha (Stichel, 1908)
Japan, Far East Nymphalis (Inachis) io geisha ; [Joseph Belicek]

Subgenus Roddia Korshunov, 1995

fiNymphalis l-album (Esper, 1781)
EEU, Temperate Asia, China, Japan. See [About maps] Valkotäplänokkosperhonen False Comma Compton Tortoiseshell Vitfläckad Fuks Poppelfuks Weißes L Rusałka laik
Papilio l-album Esper, 1781; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (3): 69, (2): pl. 62, f. 3a, 3b, TL: "Ungarn & Oesterreich"
Papilio vau album Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 176 (nom. nud.), TL: Vienna
Vanessa l-album ab. chelone Schultz, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 324, TL: Oesterreich
Polygonia l-album ab. koentzeyi Diószeghy, 1913; Rovartani Lapok 20: 193, TL: [W.Romania, Arad] Ineu
Polygonia l-album f. mureisana Matsumura, 1939; Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 9 (20): 356, TL: Mt. Murei
Nymphalis vau-album, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia l-album, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis vaualbum, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Nymphalis vaualbum, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Nymphalis vaualbum, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis vau-album, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Nymphalis vau-album ; [H&R, 85]; [EBW]; [NACL, #4430]; [MRS, 573]
Polygonia l-album ; [BOW: pl. 197, f. 6]
Nymphalis l-album ; Kudrna & Belicek, 2005, Oedippus 23: 28; [Otakar Kudrna]
Nymphalis vaualbum ; [BRU2: 28, pl. 17, f. 1-7]
Roddia vaualbum ; [Opler]
Roddia l-album ; [Joseph Belicek]
[l-album-1fu.jpg] 2272x1704 (~249Kb) upperside female Russia, Ekaterinburg suburb, Shabrovskiy village, 2-7 August 2002, Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla [l-album-1fv.jpg] 2272x1704 (~288Kb) underside female Russia, Ekaterinburg suburb, Shabrovskiy village, 2-7 August 2002, Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla

Larva on Hippophae, Populus, Salix, Ulmus [SPRK]


Nymphalis (Roddia) l-album l-album ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. l. samurai (Fruhstorfer, 1907)
Japan, Sakhalin Vanessa l-album samurai Fruhstorfer, 1907; Soc. Ent. 22 (8) : 60, TL: Hondo, Japan
Nymphalis vau-album samurai ;
Nymphalis vaualbum samurai ; [BRU2, 28]
Nymphalis (Roddia) l-album samurai ; [Joseph Belicek]
[samurai-1mu.jpg] 1600x1200 (~349Kb) upperside male Mt. Asahi, nr. Kawara Hut, Yamanochi-cho, Nagano Pref., Japan, 22.VII.2002, Photo © Joseph Belicek [samurai-1mv.jpg] 1600x1200 (~259Kb) underside male Mt. Asahi, nr. Kawara Hut, Yamanochi-cho, Nagano Pref., Japan, 22.VII.2002, Photo © Joseph Belicek

N. l. arbustus Churkin & Zhdanko, 2002
Kirghizstan Nymphalis (Roddia) l-album arbustus ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis j-album (Boisduval & Leconte, 1833)
Alaska - British Columbia, Canada - Michigan. See [About maps] j-album (Boisduval & Leconte, 1833); Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (11-22): 185
pocahontas (Scudder, 1889)
Grapta j-album aureomarginata Cockerell, 1889; Entomologist 22 : 100
Aglais l-album watsoni Hall, 1924
Nymphalis vau-album watsoni ; [NACL, #4430b]
Eugonia j-album ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Polygonia j-album ; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 24]
Nymphalis l-album j-album ; [Jonathan Pelham]
Nymphalis vau-album j-album ; [NACL, #4430a]
Nymphalis (Roddia) j-album ; [Joseph Belicek]
[j-album-1mu.jpg] 1600x1200 (~328Kb) upperside male Canada, Manitoba, Fisher Branch, 22.7.1955, Photo © Joseph Belicek [j-album-2mv.jpg] 1600x1200 (~285Kb) underside male Canada, British Columbia, Blue River, 2003, Photo © Joseph Belicek [j-album-3v.jpg] 800x599 (~139Kb) underside USA, Alaska, mile 17.5 Chena Hot Springs Road east of Fairbanks, 25. I. 2005 (hibernating in a shed), Photo © Kenelm W. Philip
[j-album-4fu.jpg] 800x600 (~73Kb) upperside female Alaska, Mosquito Lake Store, off mile 27 Haines Highway, 23 Sept. 1984, Pam Moore, leg., Photo © Kenelm W. Philip [j-album-4fv.jpg] 800x600 (~78Kb) underside female Alaska, Mosquito Lake Store, off mile 27 Haines Highway, 23 Sept. 1984, Pam Moore, leg., Photo © Kenelm W. Philip [j-album-5u.jpg] 800x600 (~93Kb) upperside Alaska, nr. Fairbanks, summer 2004, Photo © Kenelm W. Philip
[j-album-5v.jpg] 800x600 (~71Kb) underside mile 2.6 on the Forest access road near Fairbanks, Alaska feeding on aphid exudate, 20 July, 2005, Photo © Kenelm W. Philip [j-album-6fv.jpg] 1631x1591 (~540Kb) underside female Canada, British Columbia, 3km W of Nelway, 21.7.2006, Photo © Norbert Kondla [j-album-6mv.jpg] 1410x1457 (~428Kb) underside male Canada, British Columbia, Pend-d'Oreile valley, Tillicum Creek, 21.7.2006, Photo © Norbert Kondla
[j-album-7o.jpg] 1600x1062 (~184Kb) ova USA: Sinhalekin Wildlife Area, Okanogan Co., Washington, 16.4.2007 (eggs 0.9mm on Betula papyrifera), Photo © Dave Nunnallee [j-album-8mu.jpg] 1600x1074 (~388Kb) upperside male USA: Slate Creek Road, Metaline Falls, Pend Oreille Co., Washington, 13.8.2007, Photo © Dave Nunnallee

Larva on Betula papyrifera [Dave Nunnallee], Ulmus americana?


Subgenus Polygonia Hübner, [1819]
Polygonia Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (3): 36, TS: Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus
Polygonia, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Nymphalis c-aureum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Amur, NE.China, Korea, Japan. See [About maps] Asian Comma
Papilio c-aureum Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 477
?c-aureum Linnaeus, 1767
f. pryeri Janson, 1877
c-aureum coreana (Bryk, 1946)
Polygonia c-aureum, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia c-aureum c-aureum, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Polygonia c-aureum ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 197, f. 3]; [MRS, 574]; [BRU2: 27, pl. 16, f. 1-6]
[c-aureum-1u.jpg] 656x481 (~31Kb) upperside Japan, 2002, Photo © Kazuhide Yoshida [c-aureum-2u.jpg] 655x918 (~115Kb) upperside A small pond in the forest, Seonheul-ri, Jocheon-eup, Bukjeju-gun, Jeju-do Island, S Korea. 31st of July 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [c-aureum-2v.jpg] 762x626 (~81Kb) underside A small pond in the forest, Seonheul-ri, Jocheon-eup, Bukjeju-gun, Jeju-do Island, S Korea. 31st of July 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[c-aureum-3u.jpg] 780x1011 (~94Kb) upperside Japan: Lake Kawaguchiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, 23.8.2007, Photo © Peter Payzant

Larva on Humulopsis scandens, H. cordifolius, Cannabis sativa [BRU2, 27]


Papilio angelica Stoll, [1782]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (32-32): 204, pl. 388, f. G, H
Nymphalis (Polygonia) c-aureum c-aureum ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. lunulata (Esaki & Nakahara, 1924)
Taiwan Polygonia c-aureum lunulata Esaki & Nakahara, 1924
Polygonia c-aureum lunulata ; [MRS, 574]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) c-aureum lunulata ; [Joseph Belicek]
[lunulata-1u.jpg] 640x462 (~32Kb) upperside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin [lunulata-2v.jpg] 640x476 (~37Kb) underside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin

Larva on Humulus scandens, Cannabis sativa, Linum usitatissimum, Citrus spp., Pyrus spp. [MRS]



Nymphalis egea (Cramer, [1775])
SEU, Syria, AM, Iran, Baluchistan - Bhutan. See [About maps] Southern Comma Eastern Comma Gelber C-Falter
Papilio egea Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 124, pl. 78, f. C, D
Papilio vau-album Esper, 1780; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (1): 8, pl. 52
Papilio vau-album Borkhausen, 1788
Papilio I-album Esper, 1789; Die Schmett., Suppl. Th 1 (3-4): 14, pl. 95
L-album (Hübner, 1791)
triangulum (Fabricius, 1793)
f-album (Fabricius, 1793)
f. autumnalis Stefanelli, 1873
f. pallida Evans, 1932; (preocc.)
Polygonia egea, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia egea, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Polygonia egea, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Polygonia egea, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Polygonia egea ; [BOW: pl. 3, f. 16]; [EBW]; [BMAT: 104, pl. 32, f. 29-30 (not in N.Africa)]; [BRU2: 27, pl. 16, f. 7-18]
Nymphalis egea ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[egea-1u.jpg] 1266x844 (~251Kb) upperside Monte Negro, Cetinje, Rijeka Crnojevica, 11.8.2005, Photo © Slavko Polak [egea-1v.jpg] 912x912 (~136Kb) underside Monte Negro, Cetinje, Rijeka Crnojevica, 11.8.2005, Photo © Slavko Polak

Larva on Parietaria, less Urtica [H&R], Parietaria officinalis [BIR], Parietaria, Urtica, Parietaria diffusa [BRU2, 27]


Transcaucasia, Kopet-Dagh Polygonia egea egea
balucha (Evans, 1932)
Polygonia egea egea ; [BRU2, 27]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) egea egea ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. e. undina (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)
Ghissar-Darvaz, Pamirs-Alai, Tian-Shan Vanessa egea undina Grum-Grshimailo, 1890
Polygonia egea undina ; [BRU2, 27]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) egea undina ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis gigantea (Leech, 1890)
Tibet - C.China. See [About maps] Grapta gigantea Leech, 1890; Entomologist 23 : 189, TL: Ta-Chien-Lu
Grapta erebina Oberthür, 1911
Grapta bocki Rothschild, 1894; Novit. Zool. 1 (2) : 535, pl. 12, f. 7, Interior of China (W of Ishang)
Polygonia gigantea, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia gigantea ; [BOW: pl. 197, f. 4]; [MRS, 575]
Polygonia giganteum ; [Wahlberg]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) gigantea ; [Joseph Belicek]
[gigantea-1mu.jpg] 1600x1179 (~330Kb) upperside male Western China, in the collection of NHMW - Wien (61mm), Photo 2004 © Joseph Belicek [gigantea-1mv.jpg] 1600x1200 (~323Kb) underside male Western China, in the collection of NHMW - Wien (61mm), Photo 2004 © Joseph Belicek


fiNymphalis c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, NAF, AM, AN, AC, China, Japan. See [About maps] Herukkaperhonen Comma Vinbärsfuks Weißes C Robert le Diable C-blanca Rusałka ceik
Papilio c-album Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 477
Papilio f-album Esper, 1783; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (8): 168, pl. 87
g-album (Fourcroy, 1785)
Polygonia marsyas Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 16 (based on mislabeled specimens)
f. hatchinsonii (Robson, 1881)
f. lunigera (Butler, 1881)
variegata (Tutt, 1896)
pictior (Verity, 1919)
c-album chingana (Kleinschmidt, 1929)
nakaharai (Nomura, 1938)
sagitta (Frohawk, 1938)
suffusa (Frohawk, 1938)
Polygonia c-album f. manchurica Matsumura, 1939; Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 9 (20): 355, TL: Mt. Murei
castanea (Verity, 1950)
Polygonia c-album, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia c-album, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Polygonia c-album, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Polygonia c-album, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Nymphalis c-album, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Polygonia c-album, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Polygonia c-album, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Polygonia c-album, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Polygonia c-album ; [BOW: pl. 3, f. 15]; [EBW]; [MRS, 574]; [BRU2: 26, pl. 15, f. 1-6, 13-18]
Nymphalis c-album ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[c-album-1u.jpg] 500x357 (~25Kb) upperside Plymbridge woods, Devon, UK 20/08/96, Photo © Simon Coombes [c-album-1v.jpg] 389x500 (~72Kb) underside Plymbridge woods, Devon, UK 20/08/96, Photo © Simon Coombes [c-album-2u.jpg] 500x383 (~37Kb) upperside FINLAND: Ta: Renko, 675:35, 1.5.1997, Photo © Markku Savela
[c-album-3.jpg] 700x542 (~51Kb) Finland, Kangasala, Ruutana, 682:34, 8/1997, Photo © Tero Piirainen [c-album-4.jpg] 742x478 (~47Kb) The Bol'shoy Tesh River right bank in its low reaches, 2 km upstream of its junction with the Kondoma River. 17th September 1994 (butterflies greedily suck a rotten Gastromyces fungus (?Lycoperdales gen. sp.)), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [c-album-4u.jpg] 1000x717 (~97Kb) upperside Finland, Järvenpää 670:39, 16.8.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[c-album-5l.jpg] 596x400 (~68Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [c-album-5p.jpg] 400x603 (~45Kb) pupa Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [c-album-5v.jpg] 400x596 (~53Kb) underside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[c-album-6u.jpg] 800x600 (~81Kb) upperside Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 27.7.2002, Photo © Leif Wahlberg [c-album-7u.jpg] 805x604 (~87Kb) upperside Sweden, Ekebo, Julita, 27.7.2002, Photo © Leif Wahlberg [c-album-8u.jpg] 800x621 (~144Kb) upperside Russia, Udmurtia, river banks of Kama, near village Doksha east of Izhevsk, 20.8.2004, Photo © Markku Savela
[c-album-9v.jpg] 698x600 (~103Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 31.7.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov [c-album-a1u.jpg] 960x768 (~168Kb) upperside Russia, Kaluga area, 08.09.2005, Photo © D. Smirnov [c-album-a2v.jpg] 644x707 (~94Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 21.7.2008, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Ribes, R. alpinum, R. nigrum, R. rubrum, Rubus idaeus, Betula spp., Corylus avellana, Salix caprea, S. aurita, S. cinerea, S. phylicifolia, Ulmus laevis, U. glabra, Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioeca [SPRK], Urtica spp., Humulus spp., Ulmus spp., Honicera spp., Salix spp. [MRS]


Nymphalis (Polygonia) c-album c-album ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. imperfecta (Blachier, 1908)
N.Africa Polygonia c-album imperfecta Blachier, 1908
Polygonia c-album ab. imperfecta Blachier, 1908; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 214, TL: Tangier (Morocco)
Grapta c-album f. hutchinsoni Robson, 1880; Young nat. 2: 110, TL: England
[imperfecta-1u.jpg] 600x435 (~53Kb) upperside Morocco, Tizi-n-Ifar, Moyen Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier [imperfecta-2v.jpg] 600x435 (~33Kb) underside Morocco, Tizi-n-Ifar, Moyen Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier

Larva on Ribes grossularia, R. uva-crispa [BMAT]


N. c. extensa (Leech, [1892])
W.China, C.China Grapta c-album var. extensa Leech, [1892]; Butts China Japan Corea (1): 265, pl. 25, f. 5
Polygonia c-album extensa ; [MRS, 574]
N. c. kultukensis Kleinschmidt, 1929
Transbaikalia Polygonia c-album kultukensis ; [BRU2, 26]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) c-album kultukensis ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. hamigera (Butler, 1877)
Ussuri Vanessa hamigera Butler, 1877; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 19 (109) : 92, TL: 370 miles from Tokei (Yedo)
fentoni (Butler, 1878)
Polygonia c-album hamigera ; [BRU2, 26]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) c-album hamigera ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. koreana Bryk, 1946
Korea? Polygonia c-album koreana ; [BRU2, 26]
N. c. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1915
Sakhalin Polygonia c-album sachalinensis ; [BRU2, 26]
N. c. asakurai (Nakahara, 1920)
Taiwan Polygonia asakurai Nakahara, 1920; Can. Ent. 52 (6) : 138, TL: Horisha, Formosa
Polygonia c-album asakurai ; [MRS, 574]
[asakurai-1v.jpg] 484x640 (~36Kb) underside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin

Larva on Celtis sinensis, Ulmus parvifolia, U. uyematsui, Zelkove serrata [MRS]


N. c. agnicula (Moore, 1872)
Nepal Grapta agnicula Moore, 1872; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 559, TL: Katmandu, Nepal; Goolmurg, NE. of Kashmir
Polygonia c-album agnicula ; Huang, 2001

Nymphalis faunus (Edwards, 1862)
British Columbia - California, Canada, Iowa, Applachians, NA.Georgia, Labrador. See [About maps] Faunus Anglewing
Grapta faunus Edwards, 1862; Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 14: 222
Polygonia virescens Scudder, 1875
Polygonia faunus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia faunus faunus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia faunus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia faunus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. faunus, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Polygonia faunus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4423]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 22, pl. 15, f. 2]; [Opler]
[faunus-1mu.jpg] 602x390 (~21Kb) upperside male Edmonton, Canada, (on Ribes), Photo © Robin Leech [faunus-2mv.jpg] 384x256 (~14Kb) underside male Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 2000, Photo © Joseph Belicek [faunus-3v.jpg] 1300x1436 (~251Kb) underside Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla

Larva on Betula, Alnus, Salix, Ribes, Rhododendron? [NAB]


Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus faunus ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. f. smythi (Clark, 1937)
NA.Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia Polygonia faunus smythi Clark, 1937; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 84 (3013) : 221, pl. 10, f. 1-6, TL: Mount Rogers (Balsam Mountain), Grayson Co., Va., ~4000ft
Polygonia faunus smythi ; [NACL, #4423a]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus smythi ; [Joseph Belicek]
[smythi-1mu.jpg] 1600x1200 (~225Kb) upperside male USA: North Carolina, Franklin Macon Co., Coweta Laboratory, July 10 1972, R. Maudslay coll., Photo © Joseph Belicek [smythi-1mv.jpg] 1600x1200 (~274Kb) underside male USA: North Carolina, Franklin Macon Co., Coweta Laboratory, July 10 1972, R. Maudslay coll., Photo © Joseph Belicek

N. f. rustica (Edwards, 1874)
California Grapta rusticus Edwards, 1874; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 5 (2): 107
Grapta silvius Edwards, 1874; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 5 (2): 108
Polygonia faunus rusticus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia faunus rustica ; [NACL, #4423b]
Polygonia faunus rusticus ;
Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus rusticus ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. f. hylas (Edwards, 1872)
Colorado, Rocky Mountains, ? Colorado Anglewing
Grapta hylas Edwards, 1872; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 4 : 68
orpheus (Cross, 1926) (Polygonia); ♀
Polygonia faunus hylas, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia hylas ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4424]
Polygonia faunus hylas ; Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 46-56
Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus hylas ; [Joseph Belicek]

Larva on Salix, Ribes inerme Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 48

N. f. arctica (Leussler, 1935)
Polygonia hylas arcticus ; dos Passos, 1977, Pan-Pac. Entomol. 53: 179-180
Polygonia faunus arcticus ;
Polygonia faunus arctica ; [NACL, #4423c]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus arctica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. f. fulvescens (Emmel, Emmel & Mattoon, 1998)
California Polygonia faunus fulvescens Emmel, Emmel & Mattoon, 1998; in Emmel, Systematics W. North Am. Butts.: (139-140), TL: Pescadero Creek, 400m, nr. Portola State Park, San Mateo Co., California. USA
Nymphalis (Polygonia) faunus fulvescens ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. f. cenveray (Scott & Kondla, 2006)
Polygonia faunus cenveray Scott & Kondla, 2006; in Scott et al., Papilio (n.s.) 12: 40

Nymphalis interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798)
Mexico, USA, New York, West Virginia, Quebec. See [About maps] Question Mark
Papilio interrogationis Fabricius, 1798; Ent. Syst. (Suppl.): 424, TL: N.Amer.
Grapta umbrosa Lintner, 1869; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 2 : 313, TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #2035]
Grapta fabrici Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 5, TL: West Virginia
= ; [NL4A, #2035]
Grapta crameri Scudder, 1870; , TL: USA
= ; [NL4A, #2035]
Cynthia tiliae Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name), TL: N. Amer.
= ; [NL4A, #2035]
Polygonia interrogationis, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia interrogationis, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Polygonia interrogationis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia interrogationis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia interrogationis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Polygonia interrogationis, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Polygonia interrogationis, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Grapta fabricii ;
Grapta interrogationis ; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 683
Polygonia interrogationis umbrosa ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22
Polygonia interrogationis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [EBW]; [NACL, #4420]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 23]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #2035]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) interrogationis ; [Joseph Belicek]
[interrogationis-1u.jpg] 2272x1704 (~280Kb) upperside Canada, Ontario, Delaware, 30.8.1977 (ex. l. Ken Thornton leg.) Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla [interrogationis-1v.jpg] 2272x1704 (~306Kb) underside Canada, Ontario, Delaware, 30.8.1977 (ex. l. Ken Thornton leg.) Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla [interrogationis-2u.jpg] 1513x1177 (~116Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, Jeff. Co., 21.8.1999, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[interrogationis-2v.jpg] 1177x1261 (~114Kb) underside USA: Alabama, Jeff. Co., 21.8.1999, Photo © Vitaly Charny [interrogationis-3u.jpg] 1451x1096 (~310Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, Shelby Co., 5.11.2000, Photo © Vitaly Charny [interrogationis-3v.jpg] 1116x1506 (~216Kb) underside USA: Alabama, Shelby Co., 5.11.2000, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[interrogationis-4a.jpg] 1500x1228 (~292Kb) USA: Alabama, 3.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny [interrogationis-4u.jpg] 1453x1048 (~360Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 3.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny [interrogationis-4v.jpg] 1469x1157 (~214Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 3.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[interrogationis-5v.jpg] 950x1293 (~227Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 12.5.2001, Photo © Vitaly Charny
Polygonia interrogationis det. Dave Ferguson
[interrogationis-6v.jpg] 1500x1088 (~255Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 6.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny
Polygonia interrogationis det. Dave Ferguson

Larva on Urticaceae, Humulus, Ulmus, Celtis [NAB]



Nymphalis comma (Harris, 1842)
Saskatchwan, ENA. See [About maps] Comma
comma (Harris, 1842); Ins. Inj. Veg. (3rd ed.): 221
Grapta dryas Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 17
Grapta harrisii Edwards, 1873
Polygonia comma, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia comma, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. comma, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Polygonia comma dryas ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22
Polygonia comma ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4421]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 21]; [Opler]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) comma ; [Joseph Belicek]
[comma-1u.jpg] 1000x733 (~112Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 12.5.2001, Photo © Vitaly Charny [comma-2v.jpg] 1000x763 (~146Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 4.6.2005 (on left, Polygonia interrogationis on right), Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioica, Boehmeria cylindrica, Ulmus [NAB]



Nymphalis progne (Cramer, [1775])
British Columbia, Wyoming, Kansas - Nova Scotia, Missouri, N.Carolina, Virginia. See [About maps] Gray Comma
Papilio progne Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 9, pl. 5, f. E, F
Polygonia l-argenteum Scudder, 1875; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 2 : 253 (dark f.)
Polygonia progne ab. martineae Coleman, 1919; Ent. News 30 (4) : 112, TL: Connecticut?
Polygonia progne, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia progne, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia progne, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. progne, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Polygonia progne l-argenteum ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23
Polygonia progne ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 23; [NACL, #4429]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 26]; [Opler]
[progne-1fu.jpg] 384x256 (~17Kb) upperside female Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, July/August 2000, Photo © Joseph Belicek [progne-1fv.jpg] 384x256 (~14Kb) underside female Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, July/August 2000, Photo © Joseph Belicek [progne-2u.jpg] 1600x1200 (~280Kb) upperside Wapity Ferry, AB, (reared on Goosberry, emerged 19.VII.1956, FIS 58 A-514-01), Photo 2004 © Joseph Belicek
[progne-2v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~406Kb) underside Wapity Ferry, AB, (reared on Goosberry, emerged 19.VII.1956, FIS 58 A-514-01), Photo 2004 © Joseph Belicek

Vanessa c-argenteum Kirby, 1837; in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 292, pl. 3, f. 6-7
Polygonia progne progne ; Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 46-56
Nymphalis (Polygonia) progne progne ; [Joseph Belicek]

Larva on Ribes

N. p. nigrozephyrus (Scott, 1984)
Colorado - S.Wyoming - Utah - SE.Idaho - NE.Nevada Polygonia progne nigrozephyrus Scott, 1984; J. Res. Lepid. 23: (197-210)
Polygonia progne nigrozephyrus ; Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 46-56
Nymphalis (Polygonia) progne nigrozephyrus ; [Joseph Belicek]

Larva on Ribes inerme, Ribes leptanthum Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 47


Nymphalis oreas (Edwards, 1869)
..., Idaho, Montana, NE.Wyoming. See [About maps] Oreas Anglewing Sylvan Anglewing
Grapta oreas Edwards, 1869; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 : 373
Grapta silvius Edwards, 1874; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 5 (2): 108
= ; [Joseph Belicek]
Polygonia oreas, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia oreas, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia silvius ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4425]
?Polygonia orcas ; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 25 [missp. of oreas?]]
Polygonia oreas ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4428]; [Opler]

Larva on Ribes divaricatum, Ribes?, Rohododendron? [NAB]

California Nymphalis (Polygonia) oreas oreas ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. o. silenus (Edwards, 1870)
Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, Alaska Grapta oreas silenus Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 15
Polygonia oreas silenus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4428a]
Nympahlis (Polygonia) silenus ; [Joseph Belicek]
[silenus-1mu.jpg] 1024x768 (~68Kb) upperside male Canada: British Columbia, Victoria, 9.VII.1934, Photo © Joseph Belicek [silenus-1mv.jpg] 1024x768 (~80Kb) underside male Canada: British Columbia, Victoria, 9.VII.1934, Photo © Joseph Belicek

N. o. threatfuli (Guppy & Shepard, 2001)
British Columbia Polygonia oreas threatfuli Guppy & Shepard, 2001
Nymphalis (Polygonia) oreas threatfuli ; [Joseph Belicek]
[threatfuli-1u.jpg] 1336x1572 (~463Kb) upperside Canada, British Columbia, nr. Rock Creek, 2.5.2005, Photo © Norbert Kondla [threatfuli-1v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~414Kb) underside Canada, British Columbia, nr. Rock Creek, 2.5.2005, Photo © Norbert Kondla

N. o. satellow (Scott, 2006)
Polygonia oreas satellow Scott, 2006; in Scott et al., Papilio (n.s.) 12: 39

Nymphalis satyrus (Edwards, 1869)
Pacific Coast, British Columbia - New Foundland, S.Canada. See [About maps] Satyr Anglewing
Grapta satyrus Edwards, 1869; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 : 374, TL: Colorado
Polygonia satyrus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia satyrus satyrus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Polygonia satyrus satyrus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia satyrus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia satyrus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Polygonia satyrus satyrus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Polygonia satyrus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4422]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 27]; Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 46-56; [Opler]; [NL4A, #2036]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) satyrus ; [Joseph Belicek]
[satyrus-1mu.jpg] 700x517 (~45Kb) upperside male USA: Schmitz Park, West Seattle, King Co., WA, 8.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela
Polygonia satyrus det. Joseph Belicek
[satyrus-2v.jpg] 1192x1204 (~225Kb) underside Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla [satyrus-3fu.jpg] 2272x1704 (~284Kb) upperside female Canada, Alberta, Drumheller, 20.7.1975, Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla
[satyrus-3fv.jpg] 2272x1704 (~249Kb) underside female Canada, Alberta, Drumheller, 20.7.1975, Photo 2006 © Norbert Kondla

Larva on Urtica dioica gracilis, Humulus lupulus Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 48


Colorado, California, ... Grapta chrysoptera Wright, 1905; , TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #2036a]
Polygonia satyrus satyrus ; [NL4A, #2036a]
N. s. neomarsyas (dos Passos, 1969)
Washington, California, ... Polygonia satyrus neomarsyas dos Passos, 1969; Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 95: (135-137), TL: Salmon Meadows, Brewster, Washington
Polygonia satyrus marsyas tr.f. hollandi Gunder, 1927; , TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #2036b]
Polygonia satyrus marsyas auct.;
?Polygonia satyrus marsyas ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22
Polygonia satyrus neomarsyas ; [NACL, #4422a]; [NL4A, #2036b]
N. s. transcanada (Scott & Kondla, 2006)
Polygonia satyrus transcanada Scott & Kondla, 2006; in Scott et al., Papilio (n.s.) 12: 38

Nymphalis gracilis (Grote & Robinson, 1867)
Canada - Michigan. See [About maps] Hoary Comma
Grapta gracilis Grote & Robinson, 1867; Ann. Lyc. nat. Hist. N.Y. 8 : 432
Polygonia gracilis, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Polygonia gracilis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia gracilis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Polygonia gracilis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [NACL, #4427]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #2033]
[gracilis-1v.jpg] 1120x948 (~201Kb) underside Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla

Larva on Ribes [BHR]


Nymphalis (Polygonia) gracilis gracilis ; [Joseph Belicek]
[gracilis_gracilis-1u.jpg] 1600x1200 (~200Kb) upperside Canada, New Brunswick, Kedgwick R., 1.9.1986 (H. Hensel & M. Turgeon leg.), Photo © Norbert Kondla [gracilis_gracilis-1v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~242Kb) underside Canada, New Brunswick, Kedgwick R., 1.9.1986 (H. Hensel & M. Turgeon leg.), Photo © Norbert Kondla

N. g. zephyrus (Edwards, 1870)
Rocky Mountains - Pacific, Nevada Zephyr Anglewing
Grapta zephyrus Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 16, TL: Nevada
Polygonia zephyrus f. thiodamas Scudder, 1875; (unavail.)
= ; [NL4A, #2033a]
Polygonia gracilis zephyrus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Polygonia gracilis zephyrus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia zephyrus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia zephyrus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Polygonia zephyrus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Polygonia zephyrus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 22; [EBW]; [NACL, #4426]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 28, pl. 41, f. 17]
Polygonia gracilis zephyrus ; Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 46-56; [NL4A, #2033a]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) gracilis zephyrus ; [Joseph Belicek]
[zephyrus-1mv.jpg] 600x614 (~44Kb) underside male USA: Glacier Basin Path, Mt. Rainier, Pierce Co., WA, 21.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela
Polygonia gracilis zephyrus det. Joseph Belicek
[zephyrus-2u.jpg] 1600x1200 (~358Kb) upperside California, Los Angeles, ex. larva emerged 12.8.1965, Photo © Joseph Belicek [zephyrus-2v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~403Kb) underside California, Los Angeles, ex. larva emerged 12.8.1965, Photo © Joseph Belicek

Larva on Ribes cereum, R. inerme, R. sanguineum, Rhododendron occidentale Scott, 1988, J. Lep. Soc. 42 (1): 47



Nymphalis interposita (Staudinger, 1881)
Ghissar - Altai, NW.China, Himalaya. See [About maps] Vanessa (Grapta) c-album var. interposita Staudinger, 1881; Stettin ent. Ztg 42 (7-9): 286, TL: "Ala Tau" [Dzhungarsky Alatau, E. Kazakhstan]
Polygonia interposita cognata Moore, 1892
Polygonia interposita, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Polygonia interposita ; [BRU2: 27, pl. 15, f. 7-12]
[interposita-1fu.jpg] 1600x1160 (~271Kb) upperside female Tadzikistan, Ghorog, 25.7.1981 (coll. J. Buzik), Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla [interposita-1fv.jpg] 1600x1177 (~284Kb) underside female Tadzikistan, Ghorog, 25.7.1981 (coll. J. Buzik), Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla

Ghissar-Darvaz, Pamirs-Alai, Tian-Shan, Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Altai Polygonia interposita interposita
Polygonia interposita interposita ; [BRU2, 28]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) interposita interposita ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. i. tibetana (Elwes, 1888)
NW.China Polygonia interposita tibetana Elwes, 1888
chitralica (Evans, 1932)
Polygonia interposita tibetana ; [BRU2, 28]
N. i. adya (Churkin, 2003)
Mongolia Polygonia interposita adya Churkin, 2003
Nymphalis (Polygonia) interpostia adya ; [Joseph Belicek]

Nymphalis haroldii (Dewitz, 1877)
Mexico. See [About maps] Grapta haroldii Dewitz, 1877; Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ver. 1 : 89, pl. 2, f. 6, TL: Mexico, Hidalgo
Polygonia haroldii, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Polygonia haroldii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia haroldii, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Grapta haroldi ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 217; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 683
Polygonia haroldii ; [NL4A, #2034]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) haroldii ; [Joseph Belicek]
[haroldii-1u.jpg] 623x551 (~46Kb) upperside Mexico? coll. LACMNH, Photo via Joseph Belicek © LACMNH


Nymphalis g-argenteum (Doubleday, [1848])
Mexico. See [About maps] Grapta g-argenteum Doubleday, [1848]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 197, pl. 26, f. 3, TL: Mexico
Polygonia g-argenteum, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Polygonia g-argenteum, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Polygonia g-argenteum, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Grapta argenteum ; Doubleday, 1848, (missp.)
Grapta g-argenteum ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 216; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 683
Polygonia g-argenteum ; [NL4A, #2032]
Nymphalis (Polygonia) g-argenteum ; [Joseph Belicek]

Subgenus Kaniska Moore, [1899]
Kaniska Moore, [1899]; Lepidoptera Indica, 4 : 91, TS: Papilio canace Linnaeus
Kaniska, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Nymphalis canace (Linnaeus, 1763)
Himalayas - SE.Siberia, Japan, Korea, Ceylon, S.India (hills), Coorg, NE.India (hills), Burma. See [About maps] Blue Admiral
Papilio canace Linnaeus, 1763; Amoenitates Acad., 6: 406, TL: E.China
?Papilio kollina Meerburgh, 1775
Vanessa glauconia Motschulsky, 1860; , TL: Japan
Vanessa canace siphnos Fruhstorfer, 1912; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 527, TL: Liu-Kiu, Philippines
Vanessa canace f. mandarina Matsumura, 1939; Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 9 (20): 356, TL: Mt. Murei
Kaniska canace oplentia Tsukada, 1985; , TL: Philippines
Kaniska canace oreas Tsukada, 1985; , TL: Philippines
Kaniska canace, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Kaniska canace canace, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Vanessa canace ; [BIR]; [BOW: pl. 152, f. 11]
Nymphalis canace ; [EBW, (name only)]
Kaniska canace ; [BOR, 276]; [MRS, 570]; [BRU2: 32, pl. 18, f. 7-9]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 207
Polygonia canace ;
[canace-1l.jpg] 951x624 (~52Kb) larva Kanazawa, Japan, 8-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [canace-1u.jpg] 951x624 (~102Kb) upperside Kanazawa, Japan, 8-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Smilax [BHR], Smilax china, Tricyrtis hirta, Lilium lancifolum [MRS], Heterosmilax japonica, Lilium lancifolium, Streptopus amplexifolius [BRU2, 32]


Sikkim - S.India, Burma, S.China, Hong Kong Kaniska canace canace
?Vanessa canace himalaya Evans, 1924
?Vanessa viridis Evans, 1924
Kaniska canace canace ; [BOR, 276]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace canace ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. charonides (Stichel, [1908])
S.Ussuri Vanessa charonides Stichel, [1908]
Kaniska canace charonides ; [BRU2, 32]

Larva on Smilax maximowiczii [BRU2, 32]

N. c. nojaponicum (von Siebold, 1824)
Japan no-japonicum (von Siebold, 1824)
glauconia no-japonicum ;
[nojaponicum-1u.jpg] 1600x1200 (~367Kb) upperside Japan, Hamakusu Kamitsushima-cho, Kamiagata-gun, Nagasaki Pref., 26.X.1992, Photo © Joseph Belicek [nojaponicum-1v.jpg] 1600x1200 (~284Kb) underside Japan, Hamakusu Kamitsushima-cho, Kamiagata-gun, Nagasaki Pref., 26.X.1992, Photo © Joseph Belicek

N. c. ishima (Fruhstorfer, 1899)
Japan Vanessa canace ishima Fruhstorfer, 1899; Stettin ent. Ztg 59 (10-12) : 416, TL: Ishigaki
N. c. charonia (Drury, 1770)
Kaniska canace charonia ; [MRS, 570]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace charonia ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. haronica Moore, 1879
Ceylon Vanessa haronica Moore, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 (1) : 137
Vanessa haronica ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (2): 49, pl. 25, f. 2, 2a
Kaniska canace haronica ; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace haronica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. perakana (Distant, 1886)
?Thailand, Peninsular Malaya Vanessa perakana Distant, 1886; Rhopalocera Malayana : 430, pl. 40, f. 1
Kaniska canace perakana, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Kaniska canace perakana ; [BMP: 161, pl. 23, f. 4]; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace perakana ; [Joseph Belicek]

Larva on Smilax [BMP]

N. c. battakana (de Nicéville, 1896)
Sumatra (Battak Mts.) Kaniska canace battakana ; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace battakana ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. javanica (Fruhstorfer, 1912)
Java, ?Bali, ?Lombok Polygonia canace javanica Fruhstorfer, 1912
Kaniska canace javanica ; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace javanica ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. maniliana (Fruhstorfer, 1912)
Borneo, ?Palawan Polygonia canace maniliana Fruhstorfer, 1912
Kaniska canace maniliana ; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace maniliana ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. benguetana (Semper, 1888)
Luzon Vanessa benguetana Semper, 1888; Reisen Philipp. (3): 122, pl. 21, f. 11-12
Kaniska canace benguetana ; [BOR, 277]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace benguetana ; [Joseph Belicek]
[benguetana-1u.jpg] 1600x1175 (~432Kb) upperside Philippines, Bagnis Bengud, (coll. BMNH), Photo 2004 Joseph Belicek © BMNH [benguetana-1v.jpg] 1600x1248 (~424Kb) underside Philippines, Bagnis Bengud, (coll. BMNH), Photo 2004 Joseph Belicek © BMNH

N. c. muscosa (Tsukada & Nishiyama, 1979)
S.Sulawesi Kaniska canace muscosa Tsukada & Nishiyama, 1979
Kaniska canace muscosa ; [BOR, 277]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 208
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace muscosa ; [Joseph Belicek]
N. c. drilon (Fruhstorfer, 1912)
Taiwan Vanessa canace drilon Fruhstorfer, 1912
Kaniska canace drilon ; [BOR, 277]; [MRS, 570]
Nymphalis (Kaniska) canace drilon ; [Joseph Belicek]
[drilon-1v.jpg] 640x473 (~51Kb) underside Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin [drilon-2l.jpg] 640x435 (~46Kb) larva Taiwan, Photo © Felix Lin

Larva on Heterosmilax japonica, Smilax china, Smilax perfoliata, S. bracteata, S. lanceifolia, S. riparia, S. arisanensis [MRS]



20.2.2013 (29)

References:
[ALBERTA]
University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum; Browse Entomology Collection
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BHR]
D'Abrera; Butterflies of the Holarctic Region, Part I-III
[BIR]
Wynter-Blyth, 1957; Butterflies of the Indian Region; (1982 Reprint)
[BMAT]
Tennent, 1996; The butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia; ISBN 0 906802 05 9
[BMP]
Eliot (Ed.), Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992; The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula; 4th edition; ISBN 983-9681-05-2
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOR]
D'Abrera, 1982, 1985, 1986; Butterflies of the Oriental Region, Part I-III
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[BRU2]
Tuzov (ed.), Bogdanov, Churkin, Devyatkin, Dantchenko, Murzin, Samodurov, Zhdanko, 2000; Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories; Libytheidae, Danaidae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae; Volume 2
[Bruce Walsh]
Bruce Walsh; e-mail: Bruce Walsh; The Moths of Southeastern Arizona; Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[Dave Ferguson]
Rio Grande Botanic Garden; Albuquerque, NM USA
[Dave Nunnallee]
Washington, USA
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[ESP]
Heppner, 1981; The dates of E. J. C. Esper's Die Schmetterlinge in Abblidungen... 1776-[1830]; Archives of Natural History (1981) 10 (2): 251-254
[Felix Lin]
Taiwan
[GALEPS]
Moths and Butterflies of Georgia and the Southeastern United States; James K. Adams; Dept. of Natural Science, Dalton State College, Dalton, GA ; http://www.daltonstate.edu/galeps/index.htm
[H&R]
Higgins, L.G, Riley, N.D, 1970; A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Harri Arkkio]
Finland; For the time being these pictures are only for this site. Other usage not allowed.
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[Joseph Belicek]
e-mail: Joseph Belicek
[Karl Hofsäß]
Karl Hofsaess; e-mail: Karl Hofsäß
[Kimmo Silvonen]
Espoo, Finland; Kimmo's Lep Site
[LACMNH]
The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County; http://www.lam.mus.ca.us/
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[Leif Wahlberg]
Julita, Sweden; e-mail: Leif Wahlberg
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[Marek Michalski]
Lodz, Poland; e-mail: Marek Michalski
[Mario Maier]
Europäische Schmetterlinge; e-mail: Mario Maier
[Michael Borsch]
Geesthacht, Germany; contact through; e-mail: Francisco Welter-Schultes
[Michel Tarrier]
Michel R. Tarrier; Malaga, Spain; http://www.tarrier.org
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[NORLEP]
Norges Sommerfugler
[Norbert Kondla]
Canada, BC; e-mail: Norbert Kondla
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.
[Pertti Pakkanen]
e-mail: Pertti Pakkanen; Butterfly and moth observations from Finland
[Peter Payzant]
Canada; http://www.pbase.com/ppayzant/profile
[S. Shuichi Haupt]
e-mail: S. Shuichi Haupt; http://www.tu-berlin.de/fb7/ioeb/biologie/stefan.htm
[SPRK]
Seppänen, E. J, 1970; Suomen suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit, Animalia Fennica 14
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)
[Simon Coombes]
1 Park Street, Plymouth, PL3 4BL, UK; 01752 607854; e-mail: Simon Coombes; http://www.butterfly-guide.co.uk
[Slavko Polak]
e-mail: Slavko Polak
[Szabolcs Safian]
Hungary; Hungarian Lepidopterologial Society; Butterflies of Ghana
[Tero Piirainen]
Tampere, Finland; e-mail: Tero Piirainen
[Vitaly Charny]
Birmingham, Alabama, USA
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group
[Yutaka Inayoshi]
A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China; Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM


Some related literature:
Austaut, 1885
Lépidoptéres nouveaux d'Algérie Le Naturaliste (Ser.1) 7: 141-142
Austin, 1998
New subspecies of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) from Nevada and Arizona Syst. W. N. Am. Butts.: 573-586
Blachier, 1908
Lépidoptères du Maroc - Remarque sur diverses espèces et descriptions de variétés nouvelles Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 209-222
Boisduval, 1852
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 275-324
Boisduval & Leconte, 1833
Histoire générale et iconographie des lépidoptères et des chenilles de l'Amérique septentrionale Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (1): 1-16. pl. 1-3 (1829), (2): 17-24, pl. 4-6 (1829), (3/4): 25-40, pl. 7-12 ([1830]), (5/6): 41-56, pl. 13-18 ([1830]), (7/8): 57-80, pl. 19-24 ([1830]), (9/10): 81-100, pl. 25-30 (1833), (11-22): 101-196, pl. 31-65 ([1835]), (23-26): 197-228, pl. 66-78 ([1837])
Butler, 1877
On Rhopalocera from Japan and Shanghai, with Descriptions of new Species Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 19 (109) : 91-97
Butler, 1887
Description of a new Butterfly allied to Vanessa antiopa Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 19 (110) : 103-104
Clark, 1937
A New Subspecies of the Nymphalid Butterfly Polygonia faunus Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 84 (3013) : 219-222, pl. 10
Cockerell, 1889
On the variation of insects Entomologist 22 : 1-6, 26-29, 54-56, 98-100, 125-130, 147-149, 176-178, 198-202, 226-229, 243-245
Coleman, 1919
An Aberration of Polygonia progne (Lepid.) Ent. News 30 (4) : 112
Cramer, [1775]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 1-132, pl. 1-84 (1775), (8): 133-155, pl. 85-96 (1776)
Dalman, 1816
Försök till systematiks Uppställing af Sveriges Fjärilar K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 48-101, (2): 199-225
Dewitz, 1877
Neue Schmetterlinge des Berliner museums Mitt. Münch. Ent. Ver. 1 : 85-91, pl. 2
Distant, 1886
Rhopalocera Malayana: a Description of the Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula Rhopalocera Malayana : 1-481, pl. 1-27,27A,27B,28-44
dos Passos, 1938
Synonymic notes on Aglais milberti (Godart) with description of a new subspecies Can. Ent. 70: 72-73
dos Passos, 1969
A name for Polygonia satyrus marsyas auctorum Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 95: 153-159, 2 figs
dos Passos, 1977
A taxonomic note on Polygonia faunus arcticus Leussler Pan-Pac. Entomol. 53: 179-180
Doubleday, [1848]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Dyar, 1903
A List of North American Lepidoptera and Key to the Literature of this Order of Insects Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1-723
Edwards, 1862
Descriptions of certain Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and of British America. - No. [1]-3 Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 13: 160-164 (1861), 14: 54-58, 221-226 (1862)
Edwards, 1869
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 : 369-376
Edwards, 1870
Notes on Graptas c-aureum and interrogationis Fab. Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 1-9
Edwards, 1870
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 10-22
Edwards, 1872
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 4 : 61-70
Edwards, 1874
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found in North America Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 5 (1): 13-19, (2): 103-111
Ehrmann, 1900
Variations in Some Common Species of Butterflies Can. Ent. 32 (11) : 348
Emmel, Emmel & Mattoon, 1998
New subspecies of Nymphalidae from California and a neotype designation for Argynnis Behr (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Emmel, Systematics W. North Am. Butts.: 139-140
Esper, 1780; Esper, 1781; Esper, 1783
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Fortsetzung. Band 2 Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (1): 1-36, pl. 51-56 (1780), (2): 37-68, pl. 57-62 (1781), (3): 69-100, pl. 63-68 (1781), (4): 101-124, pl. 69-74 (1781), (5): 125-140, pl. 75-80 (1782), (7): 141-156, pl. 81-82 (1783), (8): 157-172, pl. 83-88 (1783), (9): 173-184, pl. 89-92 (1784), (28): 185-190, pl. 93 (1786)
Esper, 1789
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Supplement Theil 1. Abschnitt 1 Die Schmett., Suppl. Th 1 (1-2): 1-8, pl. 94 (1789), (3-4): 9-60, pl. 95-101 (1789), (5-6): 61-68, pl. 102-106 (1794), ([7]): [69-88], pl. [107-109] (1798), (8-9): 89-104, pl. 110-112 (1800), (10): 105-120, pl. 113-116 ([1803-1804])
Fruhstorfer, 1899
Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna der Liu-Kiu-Inseln Stettin ent. Ztg 59 (10-12) : 405-420 (June)
Fruhstorfer, 1907
Neue Nymphaliden Soc. Ent. 22 (8) : 60 (15 July)
Fruhstorfer, 1909
Neue Vanessa- und Pyrameis-Rassen Int. ent. Zs. 3 (17): 94 (24 July)
Fruhstorfer, 1912
6. Familie: Nymphalidae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 453-456 (31 January, 1912), : 457-488 (18 March, 1912), : 489-496 (25 May, 1912), : 489-496 (10 May, 1912), : 497-504 (15 April, 1912), : 505-512 (10 May, 1912), : 513-528 (11 April, 1912), : 529-552 (20 April, 1912), : 553-592 (15 May, 1912), : 593-616 (25 September, 1912), : 617-632 (15 October, 1912), : 633-640 (25 October, 1912), : 641-656 (10 January, 1913), : 657-664 (12 January, 1913), : 665-680 (13 January, 1913), : 681-688 (25 January, 1913), : 689-696 (16 June, 1913), : 697-704 (5 August, 1913), : 705-712 (20 January, 1914), : 713-720 (20 November, 1913), : 721-744 (9 March, 1914), : 745-751 (30 July, 1915), : 753-760 (28 March, 1914), : 761-766 (14 April, 1914)
Godart, 1819
in Latreille & Godart, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire naturelle Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacés, des arachnides et des insectes Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 3-328 (1819), (2): 329-828 ([1824])
Godman & Salvin, [1882]
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Korshunov, 1995
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Grote, 1873
On Mr. Scudder's systematic revision of some New England butterflies Can. Ent. 5 (4): 62-63, (8): 143-145
Grote & Robinson, 1867
Notes on the Lepidoptera of America. - no. 1 Ann. Lyc. nat. Hist. N.Y. 8 : 432-466
Huang, 2003
A list of butterflies collected from Nujiang (Lou Tse Kiang) and Dulongiang, China with descriptions of new species, and revisional notes Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 3-114
Hübner, [1806]
Tentamen determinationis digestionis alque denominationis singlarum stripium Lepidopterorum, peritisad inspiciendum et dijudicandum communicatum, a Jacob Hübner Tentamen determinationis digestionis ...: -
Hübner, [1823-1824]
Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. I. Papiliones - Falter ("Erste Band") Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : 3-74, : pl. 1-88, f. 1-446 (1799-1800), : pl. 89-96, f. 447-490 (1800-1803), : pl. 97-114, f. 491-588 (1803-1804), : pl. 115-119, f. 589-612 (1805), : pl. 120-124, f. 613-636 (1805-1806), : pl. 125-128, f. 637-652 (1806-1808), : pl. 129-144, f. 653-727 (1808-1813), : pl. 145-147, f. 728-741 (1814-1816), : pl. 148-150, f. 742-756 (1816-1817), : pl. 151, f. 757-762 (1818-1819), : pl. 152-154, f. 757-774 (1819-1822), : pl. 155, f. 775-778 (1822-1823), : pl. 156-161, f. 779-806 (1823), : pl. 162-175, f. 807-874 (1823-1824), : pl. 176, f. 869-874 (1824-1825), : pl. 177-181, f. 875-895 (1825-1826), : pl. 182-187, f. 896-981 (1827-1828), : pl. 188-195, f. 922-968 (1828-1832), : pl. 196, f. 969-974 (1832-1833), : pl. 197-201, f. 975-997 (1834-1836), : pl. 202-203, f. 998-1009 (1836-1838), : pl. 204-207, f. 1010-1029 (1837-1838)
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Kirby, 1837
Fauna Boreali-Americana or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 325pp, 8pls
Kluk, 1780; Kluk, 1781
Historyja naturalna zwierzat domowych i dzikich, osobliwie kraiowych, historyi naturalney poczatki, i gospodarstwo : potrzebnych I pozytecznych donowych chowanie, rozmnozenie, chorob leczenie, dzikich lowienie, oswaienie : za·zycie; szkodliwych zas wygubienie. 4 vols. Hist. nat. pocz. gospod. 4: -
Kudrna & Belicek, 2005
The 'Wiener Verzeichnis', its authorship, publication date and some names proposed for butterflies therein Oedippus 23: 1-32
Leech, 1890
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Leech, [1892]; Leech, 1893
Butterflies from China, Japan, and Corea Butts China Japan Corea (1): 1-297, pl. 1-28 (1892-1894), (2): 297-681, pl. 29-43 (1893-1894)
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Linnaeus, 1763
in Johansson (Thesis), Centuria Insectorum Amoenitates Acad., 6: -,(121) 384-415
Lintner, 1869
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Matsumura, 1939
The butterflies from Jehol (Nekka) Manchoukuo, collected by Marqis Y. Yamashina Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Japan 9 (20): 343-359, pl. XIII-XIV
Moore, 1872
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Moore, 1878
Descriptions of Lepidopterous Insects collected the late Dr. F. Stoliczka during the Indian-Government Mission to Yarkund in 1873 Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 1 (3) : 227-237
Moore, 1879
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Moore, [1881]
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Morishita & Inomata, 1998
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Nakahara, 1920
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Ochsenheimer, 1807
Die Schmetterlinge von Europa. Erster Theil. Falter, oder Tagschmetterlinge Schmett. Europa 1 (1) : 1-322
Rothschild, 1894
Some new species of Lepidoptera Novit. Zool. 1 (2) : 535-540
Schultz, 1903
Vanessa l-albus Esp. aberr. nov. chelone_ Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 324-325
Scott, 1984
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Scott, 1988
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Scott & Kondla in Scott et al., 2006; Scott in Scott et al., 2006
Taxonomic studies and new taxa of North American butterflies Papilio (n.s.) 12: 1-74
Scudder, 1875
Synonymic list of the butterflies of North Amercia, north of Mexico. (1) Nymphales Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 2 : 233-269
Scudder, 1889
The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada, with special reference to New England Butts eastern U.S. Canada 1: 1-766, 2: 767-1774, 3: 1775-1958, pl. 1-89
Semper, 1888
Die Schmetterlinge der Philippinischen Inseln. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen Reisen Philipp. (1): 1-46, pl. 1-8, A (1886), (2): 47-86, pl. 9-16 (1887), (3): 87-134, pl. 17-24 (1888), (4): 135-174, pl. 25-32 (1889), (5): 175-238, pl. 33-38, B (1890), (6): 239-270, pl. 39-46 (1891), (7): 271-380, pl. 47-49 [iv] (1892)
Staudinger, 1881
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Stoll, [1782]
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Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003
The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island faunda Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 3-268, pl. 1-16


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Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.