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Melanitis Fabricius, 1807
Evening Browns
Melanitis Fabricius, 1807; Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 282, TS: Papilio leda Linnaeus
Hipio Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (4): 56, TS: Papilio constantia Cramer
Cyllo Boisduval, 1832; in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 151, TS: Papilio leda Linnaeus
Melanitis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Melatanis ; Mabille, 1876, Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 1 : 199 (missp.)
Melanitis (Satyrinae) ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 14
Melanitis (Melaniniti) ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172
Melanitis (Melanitini) ; [Wahlberg]; [AfrL]

Melanitis amabilis (Boisduval, 1832)
Moluccas, New Guinea. See [About maps] Cyllo amabilis Boisduval, 1832; in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 140
Melanitis amabilis ; [BOW: pl. 168, f. 7]
Bismarck Archipelago Melanitis amabilis amabilis ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. a. crameri (Butler, 1866)
Ambon, Serang Cyllo crameri Butler, 1866; Ent. mon. Mag. 3 (28) : 77, TL: "Oceania"
Melanitis amabilis crameri ; [BAUR, 264 (text)]
M. a. kajelana Fruhstorfer, 1908
Buru Melanitis amabilis kajelana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Buru
Melanitis amabilis kajelana ; [BAUR, 263]
M. a. valentina Fruhstorfer, 1908
Fergusson I., New Guinea - Papua Melanitis amabilis valentina Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: New Guinea; Fergusson I.
Melanitis amabilis valentina ; [BAUR, 263]
M. a. insulicola Rothschild, 1915
Dampier I., Vulcan I. Melanitis amabilis insulicola Rothschild, 1915; Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 199, TL: Dampier Island; Vulcan Island
M. a. angulata Joicey & Noakes, 1915
Biak Melanitis amabilis angulata Joicey & Noakes, 1915; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 (2) : 196, TL: Biak
Melanitis amabilis angulata ; [BAUR, 264 (text)]
M. a. cristobali Samson, 1980
Solomons Melanitis amabilis cristobali Samson, 1980; Tyô to Ga 30 (3,4) : 229, f. 9, TL: San Cristoval, Kira Kira

Melanitis ansorgei Rothschild, 1904
E.Zaire (Ituri), W.Uganda (Bwamba Valley). See [About maps] Melanitis ansorgei, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Melanitis ansorgei ; [BAFR, 162]; [AfrL]

Melanitis atrax (C. & R. Felder, 1863)
Philippines. See [About maps] Cyllo atrax C. & R. Felder, 1863; Wien. ent. Monats. 7 (4) : 122
Melanitis atrax ; [BOW: pl. 168, f. 9]; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
Philippines (Luzon, Poliloo, Burias) Melanitis atrax atrax ; [BOR, 410]
M. a. erichsonia (C. & R. Felder, 1863)
Philippines (Mindoro) Cyllo erichsonia C. & R. Felder, 1863; Wien. ent. Monats. 7 (4) : 123
Melanitis atrax erichsonia f. violetta Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Mindoro
Melanitis atrax erichsonia f. pseudaswa Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Mindoro
Melanitis atrax erichsonia ; [BOR, 412]
M. a. cajetana Semper, 1886
Philippines (Samar, Bohol, Cebu, Camotes) atrax cajetana Semper, 1886; Reisen Philipp. (1): 42, (2): pl. 9, f. 7-8
Melanitis atrax cajetana ; [BOR, 412]
M. a. lucillus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Philippines (Mindanao) Melanitis atrax lucillus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Mindanao
Melanitis atrax lucillus ; [BOR, 412]
M. a. bazilana Fruhstorfer, 1908
Philippines (Basilan) Melanitis atrax bazilana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Bazilan
Melanitis atrax bazilana ; [BOR, 412]
M. a. clya Fruhstorfer, 1911
Philippines (Jolo Is.) Melanitis atrax clya ; [BOR, 412]
M. a. pitya Fruhstorfer, 1911
Sanghie, Talaud Melanitis atrax pitya ; [BOR, 412]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173

Melanitis belinda Grose-Smith, 1895
-. See [About maps] Melanitis belinda Grose-Smith, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (2): 79, TL: Adonara
Melanitis belinda ; [BOR, 410]
Alor, Adonara, ?Sumba, ?Sumbava Melanitis belinda belinda ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. cruentula Fruhstorfer, 1897
Lombok, ?Bali Melanitis cruentula Fruhstorfer, 1897; Soc. Ent. 11 (21): 172, TL: Lombok
Melanitis belinda cruentula Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 86, TL: Lombok
Melanitis cruentula ; Fruhstorfer, 1897, Berl. Ent. Zs. 41 (4) : 386, pl. 9, f. 5
Melanitis belinda cruentula ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. adingi Hanafusa, 2008
E.Java Melanitis belinda adingi Hanafusa, 2008; Futao (54): 6, pl. 2, f. 23-24, TL: Watu Ulo, E.Java

Melanitis boisduvalia (C. & R. Felder, 1863)
Philippines. See [About maps] Boisduval's Evening Brown
Cyllo boisduvalia C. & R. Felder, 1863; Wien. ent. Monats. 7 (4) : 123, TL: Mindoro?
?Maniola boisduvalia ; [BOW: pl. 168, f. 8]
Melanitis boisduvalia ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
Philippines (Luzon) Melanitis boisduvalia boisduvalia ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. palawanica Fruhstorfer, 1908
Philippines (Palawanica) Melanitis boisduvalia palawanica Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 86, TL: Palawan
Melanitis boisduvalia palawanica ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. carales Fruhstorfer, 1911
Philippines (Mindoro) boisduvalia carales Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 367
Melanitis boisduvalia carales ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. pompeja Fruhstorfer, 1911
Philippines (Basilan) boisduvalia pompeja Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 367
Melanitis boisduvalia pompeja ; [BOR, 410]
M. b. ernita Fruhstorfer, 1911
Sulawesi, Talaud, Sangihe boisduvalia ernita Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 367
Melanitis boisduvalia ernita ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173

Melanitis constantia (Cramer, [1777])
Moluccas, Solomon Islands, New Guinea. See [About maps] Constantia Evening Brown
Papilio constantia Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 57, pl. 133, f. A, B, TL: Amboina
Hipio constantia ;
Melanitis constantia ; [BOW: pl. 168, f. 10]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173

Larva on Imperata, Saccharum, Setaria Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173

Kai I., Moluccas, West Irian (Geelvink Bay) - New Guinea (Finisterre Mts.) Melanitis gylippa Swinhoe, 1893; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 12 (70) : 255, TL: Ké I.
Melanitis constantia batjana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Batjan
Melanitis constantia batjana f. microphthalma Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Batjan
Melanitis constantia dampierensis Rothschild, 1915; Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 199, TL: Dampier Island
Melanitis constantia dictatrix Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Buru
Melanitis constantia geluna Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: New Guinea, Mt. Gelu
Melanitis constantia jobina Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Jobi I.
Melanitis constantia kapaura Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Kapaur
Melanitis constantia meforica Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Mafoor or Melor I.
Melanitis constantia minuscula Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Key I.
Melanitis constantia obiana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Obi
Melanitis constantia constantia ; [BAUR, 264]
M. c. despoliata Fruhstorfer, 1908
Shortland Is.?, New Britain, Duke of York, New Ireland Melanitis constantia despoliata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Neu-Pommern; Neu-Hannover
Melanitis constantia despoliata ; [BAUR, 264 (text)]
M. c. salapia Fruhstorfer, 1911
Sula I. Melanitis constantia salapia Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 368, TL: Sula-Mangoli
Melanitis constantia salapia ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173

Melanitis leda (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pacific Islands, Riu Kiu, Australia, AS, S.Arabia, Tropical Africa, Madagascar. See [About maps] Common Evening Brown
Papilio leda Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 474
Papilio solandra Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 500
taitensis (Felder, 1862); Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 492
Melanitis[sic] barnardi Lucas, 1892; Proc. R. Soc. Qd 8 (3) : 71, TL: Rockhampton to Brisbane
?Melanitis leda sumbana van Eecke, 1933; Zool. Meded. 16 (6): 62, TL: Kambera, NE. Soemba
Melanitis leda, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Melanitis leda leda, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Melanitis leda, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
bernardi ; Gaede, 1931, (missp.)
Melanitis leda solandra ; Fruhstorfer, 1908, Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87
Melanitis leda ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 15, pl. 10, f. 1a-b; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 169, f. 1]; [BOR, 410]; [MRS, 317]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172; [AfrL]
[leda-1v.jpg] 512x341 (~57Kb) underside India: Itanagar, 14.11.2005, Photo © Kedar Tokekar

Larva on Apluda mutica, Oryza sativa, Saccarum officnarum, Paspalum spp., Stenotaphrum secundatum [MRS], Imperata [BAUR]

Larva on Imperata sp., Panicum maximum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. sp., Saccharum officinarum, Sorghum verticilliflorum, Stenotaphrum secundatum, (Unidentified grasses) K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140) Cocos, Elaeis, Apluda, Axonopus, Bambusa, Brachiaria, Capillipedium, Chrysopogon, Coix, Cyrtococcum, Digitaria, Eleusine, Heteropogon, Imperata, Leersia, Melinis, Microstegium, Miscanthus, Ophiuros, Oplismenus, Oruza, Panicum, Paspalum, Pennisetum, Poa, Rottboellia, Saccharum, Setaria, Sorghum, Stenotaphrum, Themeda, Thysanolaena, Zea, Zizania Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172


Africa, S.Yunnan, Sri Lanka, India, Indo-China, China, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Borneo, Philippines, Tanahjampea, Kalao ?Papilio mycena Stoll, [1782]
?Melanitis determinata Butler, 1885; Proc. ent. Soc. 1885 : vi, TL: India
Cyllo helena Westwood, [1851]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (2): 361
leda fulvescens Guenée, 1863²; , TL: Reunion
Melanitis leda leda ; [BK: 264, pl. 28, f. 398]; [BMP: 119, pl. 15, f. 1-2]
?Melanitis ismene var. determinata ; Butler, 1900, in Andrews, Mon. Christmas Isl. : 61
Melanitis leda helena ; [BAFR, 162]; [MadL]
Melanitis leda leda ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172; Huang & Xue, 2004, Neue Ent. Nachr. 57: 140 (name)
M. l. bankia (Fabricius, 1775)
Northern Territory, Cape York - Port Macquarie, Ambon, Serang Papilio bankia Fabricius, 1775; 499
banksia ; Donovan 1805, (missp.)
Melanitis leda bankia ; [BAUR, 263]
M. l. desperata Fruhstorfer, 1908
Timor, Wetar Melanitis leda desperata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 86, TL: Wetter I.
Melanitis leda desperata ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. bouruana Holland, 1900
Buru Melanitis leda bouruana Holland, 1900; Novit. Zool. 7 (1): 61, TL: Buru
Melanitis leda buruana[sic] ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 123; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
Melanitis leda bouruana ; [NHM]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172
M. l. moluccarum Fruhstorfer, 1908
Bachan, Halmahera, Obi Melanitis leda moluccarum Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 86, TL: Batjan; Halmaheira; Obi
Melanitis leda moluccarum ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. offaka Fruhstorfer, 1908
Waigeu - West Irian Melanitis leda offaka Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Wagiu
Melanitis leda offaka ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. angulata Joicey & Noakes, 1915
Biak Melanitis leda angulata ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. destitans Fruhstorfer, 1908
New Guinea Melanitis leda destitans Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: German New Guinea
Melanitis leda destitans ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. kiriwinae Fruhstorfer, 1908
Kiriwina Melanitis leda kiriwinae Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Kiriwina
Melanitis leda kiriwinae ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. dominans Fruhstorfer, 1908
New Ireland?, Duke of York I., New Britain Melanitis leda dominans Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Bismarck Islands
Melanitis leda dominans ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. salomonis Fruhstorfer, 1908
Solomons Melanitis leda salomonis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Solomons
Melanitis leda solomonis[sic?] ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. palliata Fruhstorfer, 1908
Palau Melanitis leda palliata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Palau
M. l. levuna Fruhstorfer, 1908
Fiji (Viti Levu) Melanitis leda levuna Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Viti-Leou
Melanitis leda levuna ; [BAUR, 263 (text)]
M. l. ismene (Cramer, [1775])
Yunnan, ...? Papilio ismene Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 40, pl. 26, f. A,B, TL: China
Melanitis ismene ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 14, pl. 10, f. 2a-b
Melanitis leda ismene ; [MRS, 317]; Huang, 2001
M. l. africana Fruhstorfer, 1908
Transvaal, Rhodesia, Moçambique Melanitis leda africana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87, TL: Matabeland
?Melanitis leda africana f. zitenides Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 87

Larva on (Grasses) Setaria sulcata [PBSA]

?M. l. simessa Fruhstorfer, 1911
Bali? Melanitis simessa Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 362, TL: Java
Melanitis leda simessa ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 123
M. l. celebicola Martin, 1929²
Sulawesi, Sangihe, Banggai Melanitis leda celebicola ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172

Melanitis libya Distant, 1882
Rhodesia, Moçambique - Kenya (coastal), Zaire (Shaba) - Gambia. See [About maps] Melanitis libya Distant, 1882; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 10 (59) : 405
Melanitis libya nyassae Bartel, 1905; Novit. Zool. 12 : 130, TL: n.Nyassa-See
Melanitis libya ; [BK: 264, pl. 28, f. 39]; [BOW: pl. 116, f. 13]; [AfrL]
Malanitis lybia[sic] ; [BAFR, 162 (missp.)]

Melanitis phedima (Cramer, [1780])
Ceylon, Burma, S.India, Pachmarti, Kasmir - Assam, China, Japan, Riu Kiu. See [About maps] Dark Evening Brown
Papilio phedima Cramer, [1780]; Uitl. Kapellen 4 (25-26a): 8, pl. 292, f. B, TL: Java
Melanitis suyudana Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 4, TL: Java
Melanitis bethami de Nicéville, 1887; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1887 (3) : 451, TL: Pachmarhi, Central Provinces, 3500ft
Melanitis phedima muskata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80, TL: W.China
Melanitis phedima muskata f. patra Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80
Melanitis phedima muskata f. autumnalis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80, TL: W.China
Melanitis phedima, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Melanitis phedima ; [BOW: pl. 169, f. 2]; [BOR, 412]; [MRS, 320]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172
[phedima-1vm.jpg] 1238x874 (~225Kb) underside male An edge of a shady bamboo forest at Dragonfly Biotope Ponds, Hiraoka, Ikazaki-cho, Ehime-ken, Shikoku-Chiho, Japan. 7th August 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [phedima-2v.jpg] 720x516 (~65Kb) underside The Shibu River (Shibukawa) right bank at Hidaka village (Hidakamura), Kochi Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan, 5th August 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [phedima-3v.jpg] 814x914 (~189Kb) underside The Shibu River (Shibukawa) right bank at Hidaka village (Hidakamura), Kochi Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan, 5th August 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Microstegium ciliatum, Setaria palmifolia [MRS], Apluda, Bambusa, Brachiaria, Capillipedium, Coix, Cyrtococcum, Eleusine, Isachne, Ischaemum, Microstegium, Miscanthus, Oplismenus, Oryza, Panicum, Saccharum, Setaria, Sorghum, Thysanolaena, Zea Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 172


Java Melanitis phedima phedima ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. tambra Moore, [1880]
Ceylon Melanitis tambra Moore, [1880]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 15, pl. 9, f. 2, 2a-c, TL: Ceylon
Melanitis phedima tambra ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. bela Moore, 1857
Assam - Burma, Thailand, Indo China Melanitis bela Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 223, TL: "Bengal"
Cyllos aswa Moore, [1866]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (3) : 769, TL: N.E. Bengal
Melanitis phedima bela ; [BOR, 412]; [MRS, 320]
M. p. ganapati Fruhstorfer, 1908
Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, S.Yunnan Melanitis phedima ganapati Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80, TL: Tonkin; Annam; Tenasserim
Melanitis phedima ganapati f. aswina Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80
Melanitis phedima ganapati, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
[ganapati-1v.jpg] 1090x1003 (~168Kb) underside Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Pattaya, Ko Khram Island, Saikawe beach, under shrubbery canopy at the coast, 3rd February, 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [ganapati-2v.jpg] 1204x1022 (~223Kb) underside Thailand, Chanthaburi, Khao-Kitchakut National Park, a dry stony bad of an arm of the Krating River at its mouth shaded by a tropical forest. 4th January 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

M. p. varaha Moore, 1857
S.India (sea level) Melanitis varaha Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 224, TL: Canara, S. India
Melanitis phedima varaha ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. galkissa Fruhstorfer, 1911
NW.India Melanitis phedima galkissa ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. gokala Moore, 1857
S.India Melanitis gokala Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 224, TL: Canara, S. India
Melanitis ampa Swinhoe, 1890; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 5 (29) : 353, TL: North Kanara
?zitenius r. gokala ; [BIR, (S.India)]
Melanitis phedima gokala ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. abdullae Distant, 1883
Peninsular Malaya, Sumatra Melanitis phedima abdullae Distant, 1883; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 12 (70) : 241, TL: Malaysia
Melanitis phedima abdullae, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Melanitis phedima abdullae ; [BOR, 412]; [BMP: 120, pl. 15, f. 3-4]
M. p. sumati Fruhstorfer, 1908
Nias Melanitis phedima sumati Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Nias
Melanitis phedima sumati ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. enganica Fruhstorfer, 1911
Enggano Melanitis phedima enganica ; [BOR, 412]
M. p. linga Fruhstorfer, 1908
Sulawesi Melanitis phedima linga Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: N.Celebes
Melanitis phedima linga ; [BOR, 412]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. p. polishana Fruhstorfer, 1908
Taiwan Melanitis phedima polishana Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80, TL: Formosa
Melanitis phedima polishana ; [BOR, 412]; [MRS, 320]

Larva on Miscanthus siensis, Setaria palmifolia, Isachneg lobosa, Brachiaria mutica [MRS]

M. p. nuwara Fruhstorfer, 1911
Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro) Melanitis phedima nuwara Fruhstorfer, 1911; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 365, TL: Mindoro
= ?Melanitis leda leda ;
Melanitis phedima nuwara ; [BOR, 412]

Melanitis pyrrha Röber, 1887
-. See [About maps] Melanitis pyrrha Röber, 1887; Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (4) : 192, pl. 8, f. 9-10
Melanitis röberi Röber, 1887; Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (4) : 192 (nom. nud.)
Melanitis pyrrha ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
Banggai Melanitis pyrrha pyrrha ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. p. hylecoetes Holland, 1890
Sulawesi pyrrha hylecoetes Holland, 1890; Proc. Boston Ent. Soc.: 55
Melanitis pyrrha hylecoetes ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. p. oinoe Fruhstorfer, 1908
Bachan Melanitis hylecoetus oinoe Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 86, TL: Batjan
Melanitis pyrrha oinoe ; [BAUR, 264]

Melanitis velutina (C. & R. Felder, [1867])
Celebes. See [About maps] Cyllo velutina C. & R. Felder, [1867]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (3): 463
Melanitis velutina ; [BOW: pl. 169, f. 7]; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
Sulawes Melanitis velutina velutina ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. v. ribbei Röber, 1887
Sulawesi, Banggai Melanitis ribbei Röber, 1887; Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (4) : 192, pl. 9, f. 1-2
Melanitis velutina ribbei ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. v. panvila Fruhstorfer, 1911
Sula Is. Melanitis velutina panvila ; [BOR, 410]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 173
M. v. gigantea Fruhstorfer, 1908
Buru, Serang Melanitis velutina gigantea Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 82, TL: Ceram
Melanitis velutina gigantea ; [BAUR, 264]

Melanitis zitenius (Herbst, 1796)
Sikkim, Malaya, Assam, Burma, Kumaon - Karen Hills. See [About maps] Great Evening Brown
Papilio zitenius Herbst, 1796; in Jablonsky, Naturs. Schmett. 8: p. [5], TL: India, East coast north of Coromandel
Melanitis vamana Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 223, TL: Darjeeling; N. India
Melanitis zitenius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Melanitis zitenius ; [BOR, 410]; [MRS, 321]
Sikkim, Assam - Burma Melanitis zitenius zitenius f. decolorata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Sikkim; Assam
Melanitis zitenius zitenius f. semifasciata Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Sikkim; Assam
Melanitis zitenius zitenius ; [BOR, 410]
zitenius r. zitenius ; [BIR, (Kumaon - Karens)]
Melanitis zitenius f. decolorata ; [BOR, 411, f.]
M. z. kalinga Moore, 1894
S.India Melanitis kalinga Moore, 1894; Lepidoptera Indica 2 (18): 137, pl. 131, f. 2, 2a, TL: Upper Godaveri District, S.India
Melanitis zitenius kalinga ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. auletes Fruhstorfer, 1908
S.Burma, Peninsular Malaya, Thailand - Indo China, S.Yunnan Melanitis zitenius auletes Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Tonkin, Chiem-Hoa
Melanitis zitenius anisakana Tytler, 1939; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 41 (2): 248, TL: Anisakan, Maymyo, Myanmar
Melanitis zitenius auletes, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Melanitis zitenius auletes ; [BOR, 410]; [BMP: 120, pl. 15, f. 5-6]
M. z. sumatranus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Sumatra Melanitis zitenius sumatranus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (21): 83, TL: Sumatra
Melanitis zitenius sumatranus ; [BOR, 410]
zitenius r. sumatranus ; [BIR]
M. z. rufinus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Borneo Melanitis zitenius rufinus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 85, TL: Borneo
Melanitis zitenius rufinus ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. niasicus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Nias Melanitis zitenius niasicus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 85:Nias
Melanitis zitenius niasicus ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. ambasara Moore, 1857
Java Melanitis ambasara Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 223, TL: Java
Melanitis zitenius ambasara ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. gnophodes Butler, 1868
Java, Bali, Lombok Melanitis gnophodes Butler, 1868; Cat. diurn. Lep. Satyridae Brit. Mus. : 5, pl. 2, f. 1
Melanitis zitenius gnophodes ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. zenon Fruhstorfer, 1908
Sumbawa Melanitis zitenius zenon Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (22): 85, TL: Sumbawa
Melanitis zitenius zenon ; [BOR, 410]
M. z. xantophthalmus Staudinger, 1889
Sumba Melanitis leda var. xantophthalmus Staudinger, 1889; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 2 (1) : 35, TL: Palawan
Melanitis zitenius xantophthalmus ; [BOR, 410]
Hainan? Melanitis zitenius hainanensis Gu, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2: 755, 321, f. 16, TL: Hainan?


Unknown or unplaced taxa

Melanitis liukiuana Swinhoe, 1915; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 16 (93) : 172, TL: Liukiu Is.
Melanitis liukiuana ; [NHM]


2.3.2013 (12)

References:
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[AfrL]
Mark C. Williams; Checklist of Afrotropical Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea; Compiled by Mark C. Williams, 7th ed. (2008) (April 2007); Afrototropical Butterflies; e-mail: Mark C. Williams
[BAFR]
D'Abrera, 1980; Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region
[BAUR]
D'Abrera, 1977; Butterflies of the Australian Region (2nd edn)
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BIR]
Wynter-Blyth, 1957; Butterflies of the Indian Region; (1982 Reprint)
[BK]
Larsen, 1996; The Butterflies of Kenya and their natural history
[BMP]
Eliot (Ed.), Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992; The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula; 4th edition; ISBN 983-9681-05-2
[BOR]
D'Abrera, 1982, 1985, 1986; Butterflies of the Oriental Region, Part I-III
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[Don Herbison-Evans]
and Stella A. Crossley; Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Kedar Tokekar]
India
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[MadL]
Lees, D.C., Kremen, C. and Raharitsimba, H. 2003; in S.M. Goodman & J. P. Benstead (eds.), The Natural History of Madagascar; Classification, Diversity and Endemism of the Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea): A Revised Species Checklist: : pp. 762-793; University of Chicago Press. 1709 pp.
[NBC]
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis; NBC naturalis
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[PBSA]
Dickson, C.G.C (ed.), Kroon, D.M.; Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa; AD. DONKER 1978
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group
[Yutaka Inayoshi]
A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China; Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM
[²]
This may require parentheses or not. I don't have the necessary information for this taxon.


Some related literature:
Butler in Andrews, 1900
A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): Physical Features and Geology Mon. Christmas Isl. : 1-337, pl. 1-21,2bis
Bartel, 1905
Neue Aethiopische Rhopalocera des Kgl. Museums für Naturkunde in Berlin Novit. Zool. 12 : 129-152
Boisduval, 1832
Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826-1827-1828-1829, sous le commandément de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'Océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage. Lépidoptères in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 1-267, pl. 1-5
Butler, 1866
Descriptions of some new species of diurnal Lepidoptera in the collection of the British Museum Ent. mon. Mag. 3 (28) : 76-78
Butler, 1868
A catalogue of diurnal Lepidoptera of the family Satyridae in the collection of the British Museum Cat. diurn. Lep. Satyridae Brit. Mus. : 1-211, pl. 1-5
Butler, 1885
A few Observations touching Mr. De Nicéville's recent Suggestions on Seasonal Dimorphism in the Lepidoptera Proc. ent. Soc. 1885 : v-vii
Cramer, [1775]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 1-132, pl. 1-84 (1775), (8): 133-155, pl. 85-96 (1776)
Cramer, [1777]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 1-152, pl. 97-192 (1777)
Cramer, [1780]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 4 (25-26a): 1-28, pl. 289-304 (1780)
de Nicéville, 1887
Descriptions of some new or little-known Butterflies from India, with some Notes on the seasonal Dimorphism obtaining in the Genus Melanitis Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1887 (3) : 448-467, pl. 39-40
Distant, 1882
On some apparently undescribed Rhopalocera Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 10 (59) : 405-407
Distant, 1883
Contributions to a Knowledge of Malayan Entomology. 1 Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 12 (70) : 241-243
Westwood, [1851]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991
Review of Australian Butterflies: distribution, life history and taxonomy. Pushlished by authors, Melbourne Review Austr. Butts. (1-4):
van Eecke, 1933
Some new Malayan Lepidoptera Zool. Meded. 16 (6): 61-64
Fabricius, 1775
Systema Entomologiae, sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus. Syst. Ent.: 832pp
Fabricius, 1807
Systema Glossatorum. Die neueste Gattungs-Eintheilung der Schmetterlinge aus den Linnéischen Gattungen Papilio und Sphinx Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 277-295
Felder, 1862
Verzeichniss der von den Naturforschern der k. k. Fregatte Novara gesammelten Macropepidoteren Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 473-496
C. & R. Felder, 1863
Lepidoptera nova a Dr. Carolo Semper in Insulis Philippinis collecta diagnosibus. (3) Wien. ent. Monats. 7 (4) : 105-127
C. & R. Felder, [1867]
Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Behilfen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 1-136, pl. 1-21 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, [1865]), (2): 137-378, pl. 22-47 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1865), (3): 379-536, pl. 48-74 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1867), (4): 537-548, pl. 75-120, (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-9 (pl. 1-74), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874) , (5): pl. 121-140, (erklärung) 1-10 (pl. 75-107), (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-20 (pl. 108-140), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Fruhstorfer, 1897
Neue Lepidopteren aus Lombok. I-IV Soc. Ent. 11 (13): 107-108 (1 October, 1896), (14): 115-116 (15 October, 1896), (15): 123-124 (1 November, 1896), (17): 140 (1 December, 1896), (21): 172 (1 February, 1897)
Fruhstorfer, 1897
Neue und wenig bekannte Lepidopteren aus dem malayischen Archipel Berl. Ent. Zs. 41 (4) : 377-399, pl. 9 (end May)
Fruhstorfer, 1908
Monographische Revision der Gattung Melanitis Ent. Zs. 22 (20): 80, 2 fgs. (15 August), (21): 82-84, 1 fig. (22 August), (22): 85-87, 3 fgs. (29 August)
Fruhstorfer, 1911
4. Familie: Satyridae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 285-288 (14 February, 1911), : 289-296 (15 February, 1911), : 297-304 (22 February, 1911), : 305-312 (23 February, 1911), : 313-328 (before 25 April, 1911), : 329-336 (before 2 May, 1911), : 337-344 (before 9 May, 1911), : 345-352 (before 23 May, 1911), : 353-360 (before 30 May, 1911), : 361-368 (before 7 June, 1911), : 369-376 (before 13 June, 1911), : 377-384 (before 20 June, 1911), : 385-392 (before 27 June, 1911), : 393-400 (24 July), : 401 (15 August)
Grose-Smith, 1895
Descriptions of new species of butterflies, captured by Mr. Doherty in the islands of the Eastern Archipelago, and now in the Museum of the Hon. Walter Rothschild at Tring Novit. Zool. 2 (2): 75-85, (4): 505-514
Hanafusa, 2008
A new subspecies of Melanitis belinda Grose-Smith from East Java, Indonesia (Lepidotera, Satyridae) Futao (54): 6
Herbst, 1796
Natursystem aller bekannten in- und auslandischen Insekten als eine Fortsetzun der von Büffonschen Naturgeschichte in Jablonsky, Naturs. Schmett. 8: 1-304, pl. 181-230
Holland, 1900
The Lepidoptera of Buru. (1) Rhopalocera, (2) Heterocera Novit. Zool. 7 (1): 54-86, (3): 555-591
Huang & Xue, 2004
A Contribution to the Butterfly Fauna of Southern Yunnan Neue Ent. Nachr. 57: 135-154, pl. 11
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Joicey & Noakes, 1915
New Butterflies and a Moth from Biak Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 (2) : 177-197, pl. 21-28
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Lucas, 1892
On 34 new species of Australian Lepidoptera with additional localities, &c Proc. R. Soc. Qd 8 (3) : 68-94
Mabille, 1876
Catalogue des Lépidoptères de la cote occidentale d'Afrique Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 1 : 194-203 (1876), : 274-281 (1877)
Moore, 1857
A Catalogue of the Lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of the Hon. East-India Company in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1: : 1-278, pl. 1-12,1a,2a,3a,4a,5a,6a
Moore, [1866]
On the Lepidopterous Insects of Bengal Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (3) : 755-823, pl. 41-43
Moore, [1880]
The Lepidoptera of Ceylon Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 1-40, pl. 1-18 (Dec 1880), (2): 41-80, pl. 19-36 (Jan 1881), (3): 81-136, pl. 37-54 (Jun 1881), (4): 137-190, pl. 55-71 (Dec 1881)
Moore, 1894
Lepidoptera Indica. Rhopalocera. Family Nymphalidae. Sub-families Satyrinae (continued), Elymniinae, Amathusiinae, Nymphalinae (Group Charaxina) Lepidoptera Indica 2 (13): 1-32, pl. 95-100 (1893), (14): 33-64, pl. 101-107 (1893), (15): 65-88, pl. 108-114 (1893), (16): 89-112, pl. 115-122 (1893), (17): 113-136, pl. 123-130 (1894), (18): 137-160, pl. 131-138 (1894), (19): 161-176, pl. 139-146 (1894), (20): 177-192, pl. 147-154 (1895), (21): 193-208, pl. 155-162 (1895), (22): 209-232, pl. 163-170 (1895), (23): 233-248, pl. 171-180 (1895), (24): 249-274, pl. 181-190 ([1896])
Rothschild, 1915
On the Lepidoptera in the Tring Museum sent by Mr. A. S. Meek from the Admiralty Islands, Dampier and Vulcan Islands Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 192-208, (3): 387-402
Rothschild, 1915
On Lepidoptera from the islands of Ceram (Seran), Buru, Bali, and Misol Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 105-144, (2): 209-227
Röber, 1887
Neue Schmetterlinge aus Indien Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (4) : 185-202, pl. 7-9
Samson, 1980
The Butterflies of Santa Ana Island, with Descriptions of New Taxa from San Cristobal Island, Solomon Islands Tyô to Ga 30 (3,4) : 211-236
Semper, 1886
Die Schmetterlinge der Philippinischen Inseln. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen Reisen Philipp. (1): 1-46, pl. 1-8, A (1886), (2): 47-86, pl. 9-16 (1887), (3): 87-134, pl. 17-24 (1888), (4): 135-174, pl. 25-32 (1889), (5): 175-238, pl. 33-38, B (1890), (6): 239-270, pl. 39-46 (1891), (7): 271-380, pl. 47-49 [iv] (1892)
Staudinger, 1889
Lepidoptera der Insel Palawan Dt. ent. Z. Iris 2 (1) : 3-180, pl. 1-2
Swinhoe, 1890
New Species of Indian Butterflies Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 5 (29) : 353-365
Swinhoe, 1893
New species of Oriental Lepidoptera Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 12 (70) : 254-265
Swinhoe, 1915
New Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 16 (93) : 170-186
Tytler, 1939
Notes on some new and interesting butterflies chiefly from Burma 1 & 2 J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 41 (2): 235-252, 42 (1): 109-123
Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003
The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island faunda Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 3-268, pl. 1-16


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.