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Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]
Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (2): 29, TS: Papilio cocyta Cramer
Phyciodes, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phiciodes ; Hübner, [1826], Verz. bek. Schmett. (Anz.) (1-9): 7 (missp.)
Phyciodes ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 190
Phyciodes (Phyciodini) ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 85, 167
Phyciodes (Phyciodina) ; [Wahlberg]; [NL4A, 256]


[sp-1u.jpg] 600x843 (~64Kb) upperside USA: Dry Falls / Sun Lakes State Park, Grant Co., WA, 9.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [sp-1v.jpg] 520x675 (~42Kb) underside USA: Dry Falls / Sun Lakes State Park, Grant Co., WA, 9.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [sp-2.jpg] 500x613 (~47Kb) USA: nr Crystal Mountain (47°13'26N 120°40'11W), Kittitas Co., WA, 11.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[sp-4u.jpg] 570x677 (~53Kb) upperside USA: nr Crystal Mountain (47°13'26N 120°40'11W), Kittitas Co., WA, 11.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela

The exact identification of these species is still unknown, but tentatively assumed to belong into this group.



Phyciodes graphica (R. Felder, 1869)
Kansas - Mexico, Guatemala. See [About maps] Vesta Crescentspot
Eresia graphica R. Felder, 1869; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 19 : 470, TL: Mexico, Huahuapan
Phyciodes graphica, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes graphica, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes graphica, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes graphica, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes graphica ; [Opler, #642]; [NL4A, #2167]

Larva on Siphonoglossa pilosella [NAB]

S.Mexico, Guatemala Phyciodes vesta vestalis Hall, 1929; Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 52, TL: Guatemala
= ; [NL4A, #2167a]
Phyciodes graphica graphica ; [NL4A, #2167a]
Phyciodes vesta graphica ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 92, 168
Misidentified/misapplied:
Phyciodes vesta vesta; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 51 (part)
P. g. vesta (Edwards, 1869)
Texas, N.Mexico Melitaea vesta Edwards, 1869; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 : 371, TL: Texas, Neu Braunfields, Comal Co.
Phyciodes boucardi Godman & Salvin, 1878; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (1) : 268, TL: Mexico, Putla
= ; [NL4A, #2167b]
Phyciodes vesta f. hiemalis Edwards, 1878; , TL: Texas
= ; [NL4A, #2167b]
Phyciodes vesta f. aestiva Edwards, 1878; , TL: Texas
= ; [NL4A, #2167b]

Phyciodes vesta ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 195; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row c, f. 5; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 50
?Phyciodes vesta ; Forbes, 1944
Phyciodes vesta ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 92, 168, f. 11, 217-218; [NACL, #4485]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 19]; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 136, pl. 17, f. 17-19; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 142, pl. 45, f. 14
Phyciodes boucardi ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 194, 3: pl. 21, f. 16-17; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678 (gen. 2); Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row e, f. 8-9
Phyciodes vesta boucardi ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes vesta vesta ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 92, 168, f. 11, 217-218
Phyciodes graphica vesta ; [NL4A, #2167b]
Misidentified/misapplied:
?Phyciodes thebais; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 137, pl. 59, f. 22

Phyciodes picta (Edwards, 1865)
-. See [About maps] Painted Crescentspot
Melitaea picta Edwards, 1865; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 4 : 201, TL: Nebraska, North Platte, Lincoln Co.
Phyciodes pictus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes picta, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes pictus pictus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Phyciodes pictus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 90, f. 9, 213-214; [NACL, #4484]
Phyciodes picta ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 193, 3: pl. 21, f. 4-5; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 21; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 9]; [Opler, #643.]; [NL4A, #2171]

Larva on Aster [NAB]

from (Arizona?, Nebraska, Kansas - New Mexico) - N.Mexico (N.Sonora) picta picta
Phyciodes picta ab. jemezensis Brehme, 1913; Ent. News 24 (5) : 194, pl. 7, f. 7-8, TL: New Mexico, Jemez Springs
= ; [NL4A, #2171a]
Phyciodes picta ; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row e, f. 4-5; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 118; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 139, pl. 17, f. 20-21
Phyciodes pictus pictus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 90, 168, f. 9, 213
Phyciodes picta picta ; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 49; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154-155, 189; Brown, 1966, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 455; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 146, pl. 44, f. 11; [NL4A, #2171a]
P. p. canace Edwards, 1871
Arizona, ? Phyciodes canace Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (3/4) : 206, TL: Arizona, nr Tucson, Pima Co.
= Phyciodes pictus pictus Edwards, 1865; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 91
Phyciodes picta canace, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes picta canace, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes pictus canace ; [NACL, 60]
Phyciodes picta canace ; Brown, 1966, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 457; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 147, pl. 16, f. 11; [NL4A, #2171b]

Phyciodes pallescens (R. Felder, 1869)
Mexico. See [About maps] Eresia pallescens R. Felder, 1869; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 19 : 469, TL: Mexico, Puebla region of Cuernavaca
Phyciodes pallescens, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes pallescens, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes pallescens, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes pallescens, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes picta pallescens ; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 50; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154
Phyciodes pictus pallescens ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 91, 168, f. 214
Phyciodes pallescens ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 195, 3: pl. 21, f. 18-19; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row f, f. 10; [NL4A, #2169]

Phyciodes orseis Edwards, 1871
Washington - California. See [About maps] Orseis Crescentspot
Phyciodes orseis Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (3/4) : 206, TL: California, Napa Co., Mt. St. Helena
Phyciodes orseis tr.f. edwardsi Gunder, 1927; Ent. News. 38 (5) : 135, pl. 2, f. 5, TL: California
Phyciodes orseis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes orseis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciode pratensis orseis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes orseis ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 193; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row d, f. 5; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 117, pl. 39, f. 9-12; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 48; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 153, 155, 189; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 137, pl. 17, f. 31; Scott, 1974, J. Res. Lepid. 12: 236-242
Phyciodes orseis orseis ; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 147, pl. 43, f. 6
Phyciodes orseis ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 90, 168, f. 212; [NACL, #4486]; [Opler, #644]

Larva on Cirsium [NAB]

P. o. herlani Bauer, 1975
California, Nevada (Douglas Co.) Phyciodes (Phyciodes) orseis herlani Bauer, 1975; in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 148, pl. 45, f. 9-10, TL: Nevada, Glenbrook Creek, Douglas Co.
Phyciodes orseis herlani, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes herlani ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 90, 168
Phyciodes orseis herlani ; [NACL, #4486a]

Phyciodes pallida (Edwards, 1864)
SW.Canada, Washington - Colorado, Arizona. See [About maps] Pallid Crescentspot
Melitaea pallida Edwards, 1864; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (4): 505, TL: Colorado, Flagstaff Mt., Boulder Co.
Eresia mata Reakirt, 1866; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 142, TL: Rocky Mountains, Colorado Territory
= ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 89
Phyciodes pallida, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes pallida, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]

Phyciodes camilla pallida ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes camilla mata ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes pallidus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 89, 168, f. 8
Phyciodes mylitta pallida ; Brown, 1966, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 443
Phyciodes pallida pallida ; Tilden, [1970], J. Res. Lepid. 8 (1969): 96; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 148, pl. 44, f. 5
Phyciodes pallidus ; [NACL, #4487]
Phyciodes pallida ; [Opler, #645]

Larva on Cirsium [NAB]

P. p. barnesi Skinner, 1897
Colorado Phyciodes barnesi Skinner, 1897; Can. Ent. 29 (6) : 154, TL: Colorado, Glenwood Springs
Phyciodes barnesi ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 21; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row e [f. 2]; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 138, pl. 18, f. 5 (type)
Phyciodes mylitta barnesi ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 43
Phyciodes pallida barnesi ; Tilden, [1970], J. Res. Lepid. 8 (1969): 96; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 149, pl. 43, f. 7, pl. 78, f. 6
Phyciodes pallidus barnesi ; [NACL, #4487a]

Phyciodes mylitta (Edwards, 1861)
-. See [About maps] Mylitta Crescenspot
Melitaea mylitta Edwards, 1861; Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 13: 160, TL: California, Stanya Hill, San Francisco
Phyciodes mylitta mylitta, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes mylitta mylitta, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes mylitta, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes mylitta, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes mylittus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 88, f. 6-7, 209-211
Phyciodes mylitta ; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 678; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; [NACL, #4488]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 17]; [Opler, #646]; [NL4A, #2168]
[mylitta.jpg] 1024x768 (~130Kb) Powells Butte, Portland, Oregon, USA, 9-91, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Cirsium, Silybum marianum, Carduus pycnocephalus [NAB]


from (British Columbia - California) - east to foot hills of Rocky Mountains (Montana, Colorado) Melitaea collina Behr, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 (1) : 86, TL: California, near San Francisco; hills of Contra Costa
= ; [NL4A, #2168a]
Melitaea epula Boisduval, 1869; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 54, TL: California, "interior"
= ; [NL4A, #2168a]
Phyciodes mylitta tr.f. collinsi Gunder, 1930; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 29: 63, TL: California, Collin's Ranch, Voltair
= ; [NL4A, #2168a]
Phyciodes mylitta ab. macyi Fender, 1930; Ent. News 41 : 182, TL: Orgon, McMinnville
= ; [NL4A, #2168a]
Melitaea callina[sic] ; Boisduval, 1869, Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 54 (missp.?)
Phyciodes mylitta ; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row e [f. 1]; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 117, pl. 39, f. 13-15; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 153, 189; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 138, pl. 17, f. 40-41; Tilden, [1970], J. Res. Lepid. 8 (1969): 97
Phyciodes mylitta mylitta ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 42; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 149, pl. 16, f. 9-10
Phyciodes mylittus mylittus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 88, 168, f. 6, 209-211
Phyciodes mylitta mylitta ; [NL4A, #2168a]
P. m. arizonensis Bauer, 1975
Arizona Phyciodes mylitta arizonensis Bauer, 1975; in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 149, pl. 43, f. 8, TL: central & south-eastern Arizona; New Mexico; Sonora; south-western Colorado
Phyciodes mylitta arizonensis, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes mylitta arizonensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes mylitta arizonensis ; [NACL, #4488a]; [NL4A, #2168c]
P. m. arida (Skinner, 1917)
Arizona Melitaea arida Skinner, 1917; Ent. News 28 (7) : 328, TL: Arizona, Cochise Co. [Error?]
= Phyciodes vesta vesta ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 92
Phyciodes mylitta arida ; [NL4A, #2168b]
P. m. mexicana Hall, 1928
E.Mexico Phyciodes mylitta mexicana Hall, 1928; Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 44, TL: Mexico, Jalapa
Phyciodes mylitta mexicana, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes mylitta mexicana, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes mylittus mexicanus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 89, 168
Phyciodes mylitta mexicana ; [NL4A, #2168d]
P. m. thebais Godman & Salvin, 1878
W.Mexico, Guatemala Phyciodes thebais Godman & Salvin, 1878; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (1) : 267, TL: Mexico, Mountains of Oaxaca
Phyciodes mylitta thebais, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes mylitta thebais, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes mylitta thebais, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Phyciodes thebais ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 194, 3: pl. 21, f. 13-15; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436
Phyciodes mylitta thebais ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 44; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 150; [NL4A, #2168e]
Phyciodes mylittus thebais ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 168 (name)

Phyciodes phaon (Edwards, 1864)
S.USA, Mexico, Cayman Islands, Guatemala, British Honduras, Cuba. See [About maps] Phaon Crescentspot
Melitaea phaon Edwards, 1864; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (4): 505, TL: USA, Georgia, St. Simon's Island, Glynn Co.
?gorgone (Hübner, 1810); (female)
Phyciodes phaon phaon, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes phaon phaon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes phaon, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes phaon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes phaon, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Phyciodes phaon ; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 677; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row c, f. 7-8; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 116, pl. 39, f. 1-3; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 137, pl. 17, f. 22-23; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 143, pl. 44, f. 7; Riley, 1975, Field Guide butts West Indies: 79, pl. 12, f. 18
Phyciodes phaon phaon ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 40
Phyciodes phaon f. phaon ; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154
Phyciodes phaon ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 91, 168, f. 10, 215-216; [NACL, #4480]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 10]; [Opler, #647]; [NL4A, #2170]
[phaon-1.jpg] 637x559 (~49Kb) USA: Alabama, 10.9.2000, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Lippia nodiflora, L. lanceolata [NAB]


NA.Georgia, Texas, California Phyciodes phaon f. 'hiemalis' Edwards, 1878; , TL: Georgia
= ; [NL4A, #2170a]
Phyciodes phaon f. 'aestiva' Edwards, 1878; , TL: Georgia
= ; [NL4A, #2170a]
Phyciodes gorgone tr.f. nox Gunder, 1928; , TL: Texas
= ; [NL4A, #2170a]
Phyciodes gorgone tr.f. thornei Gunder, 1928; , TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #2170a]
Phyciodes phaon f. 'hiemalis' ; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154; Brown, 1966, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 464
Phyciodes phaon phaon f. 'aestiva ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 40
Phyciodes phaon f. 'aestiva' ; Brown, 1966, Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 464
Phyciodes phaon phaon ; [NL4A, #2170a]
P. p. maya Hall, 1928
Guatemala Phyciodes phaon maya Hall, 1928; Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 41, TL: Guatemala, Lake Amatitlan, 3800ft
= Phyciodes phaon ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 91
Phyciodes phaon maya ; [NL4A, #2170c]
P. p. jalapeno Scott, 1998
Arizona Phyciodes phaon jalapeno Scott, 1998; , TL: Arizona
Phyciodes phaon jalapeno, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes phaon jalapeno, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes phaon jalapeno ; [NL4A, #2170b]

Phyciodes tharos (Drury, [1773])
Mexico. See [About maps] Pearly Crescentspot
Papilio tharos Drury, [1773]; Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects 1: index, : 43, pl. 21, f. 5, 6, TL: near New York City
Papilio morpheus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 530, TL: "in America boreali"
Papilio cocyta Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 7, pl. 101, f. A, B, TL: Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
?morphea Godart
Phyciodes tharos, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Phyciodes tharos tharos, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Phyciodes tharos tharos, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Phyciodes tharos, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes tharos, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes tharos tharos, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Melitaea tharos ; Boisduval & Leconte, 1833, Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (11-22): 170, pl. 47, f. 3-4
Melitaea pharos[sic] ; Harris, 1862, Treatise Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd edn): 289, f. 116-117 (missp.)
Phyciodes tharos morpheus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes tharos ; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 193; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row d, f. 1-2; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154, 189; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 135, pl. 18, f. 1-4, pl. 5, f. 20-22; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 85, 167, f. 178-182, 186-192; [NACL, #4481]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 18]; [Opler, #648]; [NL4A, #2173]
Phyciodes tharos tharos ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 35; Klots, 1951, A field guide butts N. America, E Great Plains: 101, pl. 6, f. 11, pl. 13, f. 14; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 144, pl. 44, f. 6-8
Misidentified/misapplied:
Phyciodes nycteis; Wright, 1906, Butts. West Coast (2nd edn.) : 164, pl. 21, f. 197
[tharos-1av.jpg] 1106x1184 (~168Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 22.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-1bv.jpg] 920x737 (~81Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 29.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-1u.jpg] 1406x1073 (~213Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 26.7.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[tharos-2au.jpg] 1370x971 (~169Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 10.6.2004, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-2bu.jpg] 1158x967 (~163Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 17.9.2004, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-2mf.jpg] 1183x893 (~124Kb) male female USA: Alabama, 21.4.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[tharos-3au.jpg] 1630x1094 (~285Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 5.5.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-3bu.jpg] 1194x1305 (~125Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 25.6.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-3v.jpg] 846x1030 (~82Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 24.7.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[tharos-4a.jpg] 750x1009 (~83Kb) USA: Alabama, 10.9.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny [tharos-4bu.jpg] 1671x1204 (~157Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 27.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Aster [NAB]


New York, West Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, California, ... Papilio euclea Bergsträsser, 1780; Nomen. Ins., 4: 23, [pl. 79, f. 1-2], TL: near New York City
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Argynnis tharossa Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 289 (repl. name), TL: [New York]
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Melitaea marcia Edwards, [1869]; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 (2) : 207, TL: New York, Hunter, Greene Co. [?West Virginia]
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Melitaea packardii Saunders, 1869; in Packard, Guide to the study of insects (?9th edn.): 256, TL: Canada
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Phyciodes tharos f. reaghi Reiff, 1913; Ent. News 24 (7) : 305, pl. 10, f. 1-2, TL: Massachusetts, Franklin
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Phyciodes tharos tr.f. dyari Gunder, 1928; Can. Ent. 60 : 167, f. 18, TL: New Hampshire, Webster
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Phyciodes tharos distincta Bauer, 1975; in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 144, TL: California, Calexico, Imperial Co.
= ; [NL4A, #2173a]
Phyciodes tharos f.t. marcia ; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 37
Phyciodes tharos distinctus ; [NACL, #4481a]
Phyciodes tharos tharos ; [NL4A, #2173a]
P. t. pascoensis Wright, 1905
Washington, British Columbia Phyciodes pascoensis Wright, 1906; Butts. West Coast (2nd edn.) : 165, pl. 21, f. 198, TL: E.Washington, Pasco
Phyciodes tharos pascoensis f.vern. herse Hall, 1924; J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 32: 110, TL: British Colombia, Taft
Phyciodes tharos pascoensis f.ab. nigrescens Hall, 1924; J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 32: 110, TL: British Colombia, Taft
Phyciodes tharos pascoensis ; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 144, pl. 77, f. 9-10; [NACL, #4481b]
P. t. arcticus dos Passos, 1935
Newfoundland Phyciodes tharos arctica dos Passos, 1935; Can. Ent. 67: 87, TL: Table Mt., Port au Port, Newfoundland
Phyciodes tharos arctica ; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 155; Klots, 1951, A field guide butts N. America, E Great Plains: 101; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 144
Phyciodes tharos arcticus ; [NACL, #4481c]

Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer, [1777])
Papilio cocyta Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 7, pl. 101, f. A, B, TL: Cape Breton, Nova Scotia
Phyciodes cocyta, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Phyciodes cocyta, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes cocyta, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes cocyta ; [Opler, #649]
P. c. selenis (Kirby, 1837)
Melitaea selenis Kirby, 1837; in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 289, TL: Cumberland House, Saskatchewan
= Phyciodes tharos (Drury, [1773]); Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 86
= tharos (Drury, [1773]); [NACL, #4481]
P. c. diminutor Scott, 1998
P. c. arenacolor Austin, 1998

Phyciodes batesii (Reakirt, [1866])
from (Ontario, Quebec) - to (Virginia, Nebraska), New Jersey. See [About maps] Tawny Crescentspot
Eresia batesii Reakirt, [1866]; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 5 (2) : 226, TL: Virginia, Winchester; New Jersey, Gloucester
Phyciodes batesii tr.f. harperi Gunder, 1932; Can. Ent. 64 (2): 283, TL: Manitoba, McCreary
Phyciodes batesii, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Phyciodes batesii, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes batesii, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes batesii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row d [f. 5]; Hall, 1928, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 38; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154, 189; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 136, pl. 17, f. 35-36; Klots, 1951, A field guide butts N. America, E Great Plains: 100, pl. 13, f. 12; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 145, pl. 44, f. 9; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 86, 167, f. 2, 193; [NACL, #4482]; [Opler, #650]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Melitaea tharos; Boisduval & Leconte, 1833, Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (11-22): pl. 47, f. 5

Larva on Aster undulatus [NAB]

P. b. lakota Scott, 1994
P. b. anasazi Scott, 1994
P. b. apsaalooke Scott, 1994
P. b. maconensis Gatrelle, 1998
Phyciodes batesii maconensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]

Phyciodes pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)
-. See [About maps] Field Crescentspot
Melitaea pulchella Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 306, TL: [? New York] ("California")
= Phyciodes tharos ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 86; [NACL, #4481]
Phyciodes pulchella, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Phyciodes pulchella, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Phyciodes pulchellus ;
Phyciodes pulchella ; [Opler, #651]; [NL4A, #2172]

Larva on Aster, Machaeranthera (for _Phyciodes campestris_), [NAB]

Melitaea pratensis Behr, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 (1) : 86, TL: California, near San Francisco
= ; [NL4A, #2172a]
Melitaea campestris Behr, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 (1) : 86, TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #2172a]
Phyciodes campestris tr.f. mcdunnoughi Gunder, 1928; , TL: [Canada]
= ; [NL4A, #2172a]
Phyciodes pratensis, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Eresia campestris ; Reakirt, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 142
?Phyciodes pratensis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes pratensis ; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 436, : pl. 89 row d [f. 3-4]
Phyciodes campestris ; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 116, pl. 39, f. 4-6; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 137, pl. 17, f. 37-38; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 87, f. 4-5, 194-202; [NACL, #4483]; [EBW]
Phyciodes campestris campestris ; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 46; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 154-155, 189 (part); Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 145, pl. 44, f. 10, 12; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 87, 167, f. 4, 194-199
Phyciodes pulchella pulchella ; [NL4A, #2172a]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Phyciodes orseis; Godman & Salvin, [1882], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 193
P. p. montana (Behr, 1863)
California (Sierra Nevada) Melitaea montana Behr, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 (1) : 85, TL: California, Los Angeles; headwaters of Tuolumme River; Yosemite Valley
Melitaea orsa Boisduval, 1869; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 55, TL: California, "Interior"
Phyciodes montana ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 21; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row e [f. 3]; Comstock, 1927, Butterflies of California: 116, pl. 39, f. 7-8; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 45; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 138, pl. 17, f. 26-27; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 15]
Phyciodes montanus ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 88, 168, f. 3, 203-208
Phyciodes campestris montanus ; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 155, 189; dos Passos, 1964, Lepid. Soc. Mem. 1:; [NACL, #4483a]
P. p. camillus Edwards, 1871
Colorado, California Phyciodes camillus Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 268, TL: Colorado, Denver, Denver Co.
Phyciodes emissa Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 269, TL: Colorado
Phyciodes camillus ab. rohweri Cockerell, 1913; Entomologist 46: 308, f. 1, TL: Colorado, North Boulder Creek, Boulder Co., Canadian Zone
Phyciodes camillus ab. tristis Cockerell, 1913; Entomologist 46: 308, f. 2, TL: Colorado, Jum Creek, Boulder Co.
Phyciodes campestris tr.f. mcdunnoughi Gunder, 1928; Can. Ent. 60 : 167, f. 19, 19a, TL: "T.N.W., Olds?" [?Canada]
macdunnoughi dos Passos, 1965; (emend.)
Phyciodes camillus emissa ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20
Phyciodes camillus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 20; Röber, 1913, in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 437, : pl. 89 row d [f. 7-8]; Holland, 1947, The Butterfly Book: 138, pl. 17, f. 32-34; Klots, 1951, A field guide butts N. America, E Great Plains: 99, pl. 12, f. 5; [BOW: pl. 14, f. 13]
Phyciodes campestris camillus ; Hall, 1929, Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 47; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 155; Bauer, 1975, in Howe, Butterflies of North America: 146, pl. 78, f. 5; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 87, 168, f. 5, 200-202; [NACL, #4483b]
P. p. tutchone Scott, 1994
P. p. shoshoni Scott, 1994
P. p. owimba Scott, 1998
P. p. deltarufa Scott, 1998
P. p. vallis Austin, 1998
P. p. inornatus Austin, 1998


Unknown or unplaced taxa

Phyciodes palia Lewis, 1973; (nom. nud.)
Phyciodes palia ; [BOW: pl. 41, f. 25 (text only)]
palia ; [NL4A, 257]

Phyciodes melini Bryk, 1953; Arkiv. Zool. (2) 5 (1): 88, TL: Peru, Roque
Phyciodes melini ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 160 (insertae cedis)

Eresia metharmeoides Fassl, 1922; Ent. Zs. 36 (10): 38, TL: Brazil, "Innern von Teffe"
Phyciodes metharmeoides ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 160 (insertae cedis)

Phyciodes rima Hall, 1929; Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 79, TL: Surinam ("interior")
Phyciodes (Tritanassa) rima ; Forbes, 1945, Entomologica am. 24: 190
Phyciodes rima ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 160 (insertae cedis, Telenassa?)

Phyciodes mirabilis Hayward, 1967; Acta zool. lilloana 21: 13-15, fig., TL: Ecuador, Puyo
Phyciodes mirabilis ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 160 (insertae cedis)

Phyciodes eucrasia Zikán, 1937; Ent. Rdsch. 54: 385, TL: Brazil, São Gabriel, Rio Negro
Phyciodes eucrasia ; Higgins, 1981, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 160 (insertae cedis)


11.11.2012 (11)

References:
[ALBERTA]
University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum; Browse Entomology Collection
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[Bruce Walsh]
Bruce Walsh; e-mail: Bruce Walsh; The Moths of Southeastern Arizona; Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.
[S. Shuichi Haupt]
e-mail: S. Shuichi Haupt; http://www.tu-berlin.de/fb7/ioeb/biologie/stefan.htm
[Vitaly Charny]
Birmingham, Alabama, USA
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group


Some related literature:
Behr, 1863
On Californian Lepidoptera - No. III Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 3 (1) : 84-93
Bergsträsser, 1780
Nomenclatur und Beschreibung der Insecten in der Graftschaft Hanau-Münzenburg Nomen. Ins., 4: 47pp, pl. 73-96
Boisduval, 1852
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 275-324
Boisduval, 1869
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 5-28,37-94
Boisduval & Leconte, 1833
Histoire générale et iconographie des lépidoptères et des chenilles de l'Amérique septentrionale Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (1): 1-16. pl. 1-3 (1829), (2): 17-24, pl. 4-6 (1829), (3/4): 25-40, pl. 7-12 ([1830]), (5/6): 41-56, pl. 13-18 ([1830]), (7/8): 57-80, pl. 19-24 ([1830]), (9/10): 81-100, pl. 25-30 (1833), (11-22): 101-196, pl. 31-65 ([1835]), (23-26): 197-228, pl. 66-78 ([1837])
Brehme, 1913
A new Aberration in Phyciodes (Lepid.) Ent. News 24 (5) : 194, pl. 7
Brown, 1966
The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards -- part 2, Melitaeinae Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 92: 357-468
Bryk, 1953
Lepidoptera aus dem Amazonasgebiete und aus Peru gesammelt von Dr. Douglas Melin und Dr. Abraham Roman Arkiv. Zool. (2) 5 (1): 1-268
Cockerell, 1913
Two new varietes of Phyciodes camillus, Edwards Entomologist 46: 308-309
Cramer, [1777]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 1-152, pl. 97-192 (1777)
dos Passos, 1935
Some butterflies of southern Newfoundland with descriptions of new subspecies Can. Ent. 67: 82-88
dos Passos, 1964
A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera Lepid. Soc. Mem. 1: 145pp
Drury, [1773]
Illustrations of natural history; wherein are exhibited ... Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects 1 : 1-130, pl. 1-50 (1770), (1773)
Dyar, 1903
A List of North American Lepidoptera and Key to the Literature of this Order of Insects Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1-723
Edwards, 1861
Descriptions of certain Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera found within the limits of the United States and of British America. - No. [1]-3 Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 13: 160-164 (1861), 14: 54-58, 221-226 (1862)
Edwards, 1864
Descriptions of certain species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, found within the limits of the United States and British America. (No. 1-3) Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (1): 14-22, pl. 1, 11 (1863), (2): 78-82 (1863), (4): 501-507 (1864)
Edwards, 1865
Descriptions of certain species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, found within the limits of the United States and British America. No. 4 Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 4 : 201-204
Edwards, [1869]
Notes on a remarkable variety of Papilio turnus, and descriptions of two species of diurnal Lepidoptera Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 (2) : 207-210
Edwards, 1869
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 2 : 369-376
Edwards, 1871
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (3/4) : 205-216
Edwards, 1871
Descriptions of new species of North American butterflies Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 266-277
Fabricius, 1775
Systema Entomologiae, sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus. Syst. Ent.: 832pp
Fassl, 1922
Neue Schmetterlingsformen aus Brasilien Ent. Zs. 36 (10): 38-39, (11): 42-43, (12/13): 45-46
R. Felder, 1869
Diagnosen neuer von dem K. K. Oberlieutenant H. v. Hedemann in Mexico in den Jahren 1865-1867 gesammelter Lepidopteren. Erste Folge Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 19 : 465-480
Fender, 1930
A new butterfly aberration (Lepid.: Nymphalidae) Ent. News 41 : 182
Forbes, 1945
The genus Phyciodes Entomologica am. 24: 139-207
Godart, 1819
in Latreille & Godart, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire naturelle Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacés, des arachnides et des insectes Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 3-328 (1819), (2): 329-828 ([1824])
Godman & Salvin, 1878
Descriptions of nineteen new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera from Central America Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (1) : 264-271
Godman & Salvin, [1882]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. Vol. 1. (1879-1886) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 1-487, 3: pl. 1-24,24a,25-112
Godman & Salvin, [1901]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. (1887-1901) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 1-782, 3: pl. 1-112
Gunder, 1927
New transition forms of "abs" and their classification Ent. News. 38 (5) : 129-138, pl. 2
Gunder, 1928
Additional transitional forms Can. Ent. 60 : 162-168, 2pls
Gunder, 1930
Butterflies of Los Angeles County, California Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 29: 39-95
Gunder, 1932
New Rhopalocera Can. Ent. 64 (2): 276-284
Hall, 1924
Notes on Polygonia j-album, Cercyonis alope, Phyciodes tharos, Heodes epixanthe and Euphydryas gillettii J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 32: 109-111, 1pl
Hall, 1928
A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 2 (suppl.): 1-44, 2pls
Hall, 1929
A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. Bull. Hill. Mus., Witley, 3 (suppl.): 45-170
Harris, 1862
A treatise on some of the insects injurious to vegetation Treatise Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd edn): 1-640, 8pls
Hayward, 1967
Una nueva Phyciodes del Ecuador Oriente (Lep. Rhop. Nymphalidae) Acta zool. lilloana 21: 13-15
Higgins, 1981
A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 43 (3) : 77-243, f. 1-490,124a,125a
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Hübner, [1826]
Anzeiger der im Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge angenommenen Benennungen ihrer Horden, Rotten, Stämme, Familien, Vereine und Gattungen Verz. bek. Schmett. (Anz.) (1-9): 1-72
Kirby, 1837
Fauna Boreali-Americana or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 325pp, 8pls
Klots, 1951
A filed guide to the butterflies of North America, east of the Great Plains: 349pp, 40pls A field guide butts N. America, E Great Plains
Reakirt, [1866]
Descriptions of some new species of Eresia Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 5 (2) : 224-227
Reakirt, 1866
Coloradian butteflies Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 122-151
Reiff, 1913
Some new forms of Lepidoptera from Massachusetts Ent. News 24 (7) : 305-310, pl. 10
Riley, 1975
Field guide to the butterflies of the West Indies Field Guide butts West Indies: 244pp
Röber, 1913
4. Genus Phyciodes Hbn. - 7. Gattung: Gnatotriche Fldr. in Seitz, Gross-Schmetterl. Erde 5 : 434-440 (10 Dec 1913), : 441-448 (15 Dec 1913), : 449-454 ([before 28 Feb] 1914), : pl. 88-92 (1914)
Scott, 1974
Early stages and biology of Phyciodes orseis (Nymphalidae) J. Res. Lepid. 12: 236-242
Skinner, 1897
Notes on Rhopalocera, with descriptions of new species and varieties Can. Ent. 29 (6) : 154-156
Skinner, 1917
New species of Lepidoptera Ent. News 28 (7) : 328-329
Tilden, [1970]
Concerning the names and status of certain North American members of the genus Phyciodes J. Res. Lepid. 8 (1969): 94-98
Wright, 1906
The Butterflies of the west coast of the United States Butts. West Coast (2nd edn.) : 1-257
Zikán, 1937
Neue Nymphaliden-Arten und -Formen aus Brasilien Ent. Rdsch. 54: 385-387


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.