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Caligo Hübner, [1819]
Owls
Caligo Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (4): 51, TS: Papilio eurilochus Cramer
Aerodes Billberg, 1820; Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb. : 79, TS: Papilio idomeneus Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 201]
Pavonia Godart, [1824]; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (2): 807 (preocc. Pavonia Lamarck, 1816, Pavonia Hübner, [1819]), TS: Papilio idomeneus Linnaeus
= Opsiphanes ; [NL4A, 203 [?? ]]
Caligo, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Caligo ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 130
Caligo (Brassolini) ; [Wahlberg]
Caligo (Brassolina) ; [NL4A, 201]


[sp-1u.jpg] 682x640 (~97Kb) upperside Peru, Photo © D. Smirnov [sp-1v.jpg] 681x640 (~129Kb) underside Peru, Photo © D. Smirnov

The exact identification of these species is still unknown, but tentatively assumed to belong into this group.


The eurilochus species-group

Caligo eurilochus (Cramer, [1775])
Mexico - Amazon Basin. See [About maps] Papilio eurilochus Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 53, pl. 33, f. A, TL: Surinam
Caligo eurilochus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Caligo eurylochus[sic] ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 131; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 665
Caligo eurilochus ; [EBW]; [NL4A, #430]
[eurilochus-1.jpg] 625x720 (~94Kb) Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, April 2001), Photo © Erich Mangl [eurilochus-1x.jpg] 661x533 (~104Kb) Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, April 2001), Photo © Erich Mangl

Larva on Calathea latifolia, Heychium sp., Heliconia latispatha, Musa sapientum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)


Surinam Caligo euriloche Hübner, [1819]; (emend.)
= ; [NL4A, #430a]
Papilio euriloche ; Hübner, [1819], Verz. bek. Schmett. (4): 51
Caligo eurilochus eurilochus ; [NL4A, #430a]
C. e. livius Staudinger, [1886]
Colombia, ... eurilochus livius Staudinger, [1886]; , TL: "Itaituba, Pebas, Shanusi, Chanchamayo, Chiriqui, Brasilien"
Caligo eurilochus andicolens Stichel, 1903; , TL: [Colombia]
= ; [NL4A, #430c]
Caligo eurilochus brasiliensis f. obliterata Dufrane, 1959; Bull. Soc. nat. Mons & Borinage 42 (3/4): (16-17), TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #430c]
Caligo eurilochus livius ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #430c]
C. e. delectans Joicey & Kaye, 1917
Venezuela eurilochus delectans Joicey & Kaye, 1917; , TL: Venezuela
Caligo eurilochus delectans ; [NL4A, #430b]
C. e. mattogrossensis Ribeiro, 1931
Brazil(Rondōnia) eurilochus mattogrossensis Ribeiro, 1931; , TL: Brazil, Rondōnia
Caligo eurilochus mattogrossensis ; [NL4A, #430d]
C. e. pallidus Fruhstorfer, 1912
Bolivia eurilochus pallidus Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Bolivia
Caligo eurilochus pallidus ; [NL4A, #430e]

Caligo suzanna (Deyrolle, 1872)
Colombia. See [About maps] Pavonia suzanna Deyrolle, 1872; , TL: Colombia
Caligo eurilochus suzanna ;
Caligo suzanna ; [NL4A, #440]

Caligo brasiliensis (C. Felder, 1862)
-. See [About maps] Pavonia brasiliensis C. Felder, 1862; , TL: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro
Caligo brasiliensis ; [NL4A, #428]
Brazil(Rio de Janeiro, Espķrito Santo) eurilochus brasiliensis f. privata Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Brazil(Espķrito Santo)
= ; [NL4A, #428a]
Caligo eurilochus brasiliensis ;
Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis ; [NL4A, #428a]

Larva on Euterpe edulis, Musa sapientum, Hedychium coronarium Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)

C. b. galba (Deyrolle, 1874)
Colombia Pavonia galba Deyrolle, 1874; Rev. Mag. Zool. applic. (3) 2: pl. 6-7, TL: Colombia
Caligo brasiliensis galba ; [NL4A, #428c]
C. b. caesius Stichel, 1903
Venezuela brasiliensis caesius Stichel, 1903; , TL: Venezuela
Caligo brasiliensis caesius ; [NL4A, #428b]
C. b. morpheus Stichel, 1903
Ecuador, Colombia brasiliensis morpheus Stichel, 1903; , TL: Ecuador,Colombia
Caligo eurilochus morpheus ; [EcuL]
Caligo brasiliensis morpheus ; [NL4A, #428e]
C. b. minor Kaye, 1904
Trinidad brasiliensis minor Kaye, 1904; , TL: Trinidad
Caligo eurilochus phryasus Fruhstorfer, 1912; Ent. Rundschau 29 (2) : 15, TL: Trinidad, "Maracasfall"
= ; [NL4A, #428d]
Caligo brasiliensis minor ; [NL4A, #428d]
C. b. sulanus Fruhstorfer, 1904
Honduras, Guatemala, Panama brasiliensis sulanus Fruhstorfer, 1904; , TL: Honduras
Caligo eurilochus sulanus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145, TL: Honduras
Caligo brasiliensis sulanus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Caligo eurilochus sulanus ; [BCR: 256, pl. 45]
Caligo brasiliensis sulanus ; [NL4A, #428f]

Larva on Heliconia, Calathea, Musa [BCR]


Caligo idomeneus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Brazil, Surinam. See [About maps] Papilio idomeneus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 464, TL: "America merdionali" [South America, Guianas?]
Caligo idomeneus ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 28, f. 11]; [NL4A, #431]
[idomeneus.jpg] 500x595 (~63Kb) Plate No. 60 © MERIAN

Larva on Heliconia latispatha, Musa sp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)


Brazil(Parį, ...) idomeneus apollonidas Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Brazil, Parį
= ; [NL4A, #431a]
Caligo idomeneus idomeneus ; [NL4A, #431a]
C. i. rhoetus Staudinger, [1886]
Brazil(Parį, Amazonas) idomeneus rhoetus Staudinger, [1886]; , TL: Brazil, Parį; Amazonas
Caligo idomeneus rhoetus ; [NL4A, #431d]
C. i. idomenides Fruhstorfer, 1903
Peru, Colombia, Bolivia idomeneus idomenides Fruhstorfer, 1903; , TL: Peru
Caligo idomeneus superba f. praecana Stichel, 1908; Berl. ent. Z. 52 (3) : 176, TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #431c]
Caligo idomeneus stratonides Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #431c]
Caligo idomeneus hippolochus Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #431c]
Caligo idomeneus idomenides ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #431c]
C. i. ariphron Fruhstorfer, 1910
Brazil(Espķrito Santo, Minas Gerais) Caligo idomeneus ariphron Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (35) : 194, TL: Brazil, Espķrito Santo
Caligo idomeneus ibykus Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (35) : 194, TL: Brazil, Minas Gerais
= ; [NL4A, #431b]
Caligo idomeneus ariphron ; [NL4A, #431b]

Caligo illioneus (Cramer, [1775])
Costa Rica - Amazon Basisn. See [About maps] Papilio illioneus Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 81, pl. 51, f. A, TL: Surinam
Caligo ilioneus[sic, recte illioneus] ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 133; [EBW]
Caligo illioneus ; [NL4A, #432]

Larva on Heliconia, Musa [BCR], Heliconia latispatha, Calathea latifolia Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 143, Hedychium coronarium, Heliconia spp., Musa sapientum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)

Surinam, Venezuela, Trinidad Caligo illioneus polyxenus Stichel, 1903; , TL: Venezuela,"Ecuador"
= ; [NL4A, #432a]
Caligo saltus Kaye, 1904; , TL: Trinidad
= ; [NL4A, #432a]
Caligo illioneus illioneus ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (2): 93; [NL4A, #432a]
C. i. oberon Butler, 1870
Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia Caligo oberon Butler, 1870; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1870 (4) : 488, TL: Venezuela,Colombia,"Brazil, Pernambuco","St. Vincent"
Caligo illioneus oberon ; [BCR: 255, pl. 46]; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #432b]

Larva on Sacharum spontaneum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 143, Heliconia sp., Musa sp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)

C. i. pampeiro Fruhstorfer, 1904
Paraguay Caligo illioneus pampeiro Fruhstorfer, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145, TL: Paraguay
Caligo illioneus pampeiro ; [NL4A, #432c]
C. i. pheidriades Fruhstorfer, 1912
Bolivia illioneus pheidriades Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Bolivia
Caligo illioneus pheidriades ; [NL4A, #432d]
C. i. praxsiodus Fruhstorfer, 1912
Peru Caligo illioneus praxsiodus Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Peru
Caligo praxsiodus ;
Caligo illioneus praxsiodus ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #432e]

Larva on Saccharum officinarum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)


Caligo telamonius (C. & R. Felder, 1862)
-. See [About maps] Pavonia telamonius C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (12) : 422, TL: Colombia
Caligo telamonius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Caligo telamonius ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 134, 3: pl. 14, f. 2-3; [NL4A, #441]
Colombia, Venezuela Pavonia meton Boisduval, 1870; (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #441a]
Caligo pavo Röber, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145, TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #441a]
Caligo memnon peleus Stichel, 1904; , TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #441a]
Caligo telamonius telamonius ; [NL4A, #441a]
C. t. memnon (C. & R. Felder, [1867])
Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras Pavonia memnon C. & R. Felder, [1867]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (3): 454, TL: Mexico,Guatemala
Pavonia dardanus Boisduval, 1870; , TL: Guatemala,Honduras,"Colombia"
= ; [NL4A, #441b]
Caligo memnon ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 133, 3: pl. 14, f. 1, 4; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 666; [BOW: pl. 28, f. 12, pl. 29, f. 1]
Caligo memnon memnon ; [BCR: 256, pl. 46]
Caligo telamonius memnon ; [NL4A, #441b]
[memnon-1.jpg] 557x598 (~51Kb) Belize, Central America, Photo © John Shuey

Larva on Heliconia, Musa [BCR], Canna indica, Calathea latifolia, Heliconia latispatha, Musa sapientum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)


C. t. modestus Niepelt, 1934
Surinam telamonius modestus Niepelt, 1934; , TL: Surinam
Caligo telamonius modestus ; [NL4A, #441d]

Caligo prometheus (Kollar, 1850)
-. See [About maps] Morpho prometheus Kollar, 1850; , TL: Colombia
Caligo prometheus ; [NL4A, #438]
Colombia Pavonia epimetheus C. & R. Felder, 1867; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #438a]
Caligo hänschi Röber, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 146, TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #438a]
Caligo prometheus anaximandrus Fruhstorfer, 1912; Ent. Rundschau 29 (2) : 16, TL: Colombia, Rio Negro
= ; [NL4A, #438a]
Caligo memnon pavonides Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #438a]
Caligo prometheus epimetheus ;
Caligo prometheus prometheus ; [NL4A, #438a]
C. p. atlas Röber, 1904
Ecuador Caligo atlas Röber, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 146, TL: Ecuador
Caligo prometheus atlas ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #438b]

Caligo bellerophon Stichel, 1903
Ecuador. See [About maps] Caligo bellerophon Stichel, 1903; , TL: Ecuador
Caligo prometheus bellerophon ; [EcuL]
Caligo bellerophon ; [NL4A, #426]

Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758)
-. See [About maps] Papilio teucer Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 464, TL: "America"
Caligo teucer ; [BOW: pl. 29, f. 3]; [NL4A, #442]
[teucer-1.jpg] 1134x1474 (~189Kb) Plate © MERIAN

Larva on Heliconia sp., Musa sp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)


Caligo teucra Hübner, [1819]; (emend.)
= ; [NL4A, #442a]
Caligo musae Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name), TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #442a]
Caligo teucer teucer ; [NL4A, #442a]
C. t. japetus Stichel, 1903
Paraguay teucer japetus Stichel, 1903; , TL: Paraguay
Caligo teucer japetus ; [NL4A, #442d]
C. t. insulanus Stichel, 1904
Trinidad teucer insulanus Stichel, 1904; , TL: Trinidad
Caligo teucer insulanus ; [NL4A, #442c]
C. t. obidonus Fruhstorfer, 1904
Brazil(Parį, Amazonas) Caligo teucer obidonus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145, TL: Brazil, Parį
Caligo teucer phoroneus Fruhstorfer, 1907; Stettin ent. Ztg 68 (1): 129, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #442f]
Caligo teucer joasa Joicey & Kaye, 1917; , TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #442f]
Caligo teucer obidonus ; [NL4A, #442f]
C. t. nubilus Fruhstorfer, 1907
Guyana teucer nubilus Fruhstorfer, 1907; , TL: Guyana
Caligo teucer nubilus ; [NL4A, #442e]
C. t. phorkys Fruhstorfer, 1912
Bolivia teucer phorkys Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Bolivia
Caligo teucer phorkys ; [NL4A, #442g]
C. t. ecuadora Joicey & Kaye, 1917
Ecuador teucer ecuadora Joicey & Kaye, 1917; , TL: Ecuador
Caligo teucer ecuadora ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #442b]
C. t. semicaerulea Joicey & Kaye, 1917
Peru teucer semicaerulea Joicey & Kaye, 1917; , TL: Peru
Caligo teucer semicaerulea ; [NL4A, #442h]

The arisbe species-group

Caligo arisbe Hübner, [1822]
-. See [About maps] Caligo arisbe, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Caligo arisbe ; [EBW, (name only)]; [NL4A, #424]
taramela (Godart, [1824]) (Morpho); , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #424a]
erisbe ; J. & W. Zikįn, 1968, (missp.)
Caligo arisbe arisbe ; [NL4A, #424a]
C. a. fulgens Rothschild, 1916
Brazil(Rio de Janeiro, Sćo Paulo) Caligo arisbe fulgens Rothschild, 1916; Novit. Zool. 23 (3) : 314, TL: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro; Sćo Paulo
Caligo arisbe fulgens ; [NL4A, #424b]

Caligo oberthurii (Deyrolle, 1872)
-. See [About maps] Pavonia oberthurii Deyrolle, 1872; , TL: Colombia
Caligo oberthurii ; [EBW]; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #434]
Colombia Caligo oberthurii oberthurii ; [NL4A, #434a]
C. o. phokilides Fruhstorfer, 1912
Peru oberthurii phokilides Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Peru
Caligo oberthurii phokilides ; [NL4A, #434b]

Caligo martia (Godart, [1824])
Brazil. See [About maps] Morpho martia Godart, [1824]; , TL: Brazil
Caligo martia ; [BOW: pl. 28, f. 10]; [NL4A, #433]

Larva on Echinochloa crus-galli, Pennisetum purpureum Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 147 (from various sources)


The atreus species-group

Caligo atreus (Kollar, 1850)
Mexico - Peru, Venezuela, Colombia. See [About maps] Morpho atreus Kollar, 1850; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 1 : 356, pl. 44, f. 1-2, TL: Colombia
Caligo atreus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Caligo atreus ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 135; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 666; [BOW: pl. 28, f. 9]; [NL4A, #425]

Larva on Asterogyne martiana, Calathea sp., Heliconia spp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 146 (from various sources)

Colombia iris (Kirby, 1884) (Pavonia); (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #425a]
Caligo atreus atreus ; [NL4A, #425a]
C. a. ajax (Doubleday, [1849])
Venezuela Pavonia ajax Doubleday, [1849]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (2): 342, (1): pl. 56, f. 2, TL: Venezuela,"Ecuador"
Caligo atreus ajax ; [NL4A, #425c]
C. a. dentina Druce, 1874
Ecuador Caligo dentina Druce, 1874; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1874 (1) : 155, TL: "Peru" [error, W.Ecuador?]
Caligo atreus dentina ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #425d]
C. a. agesilaus Druce, 1902
Ecuador atreus agesilaus Druce, 1902; , TL: Ecuador
Caligo agesilaus Druce, 1902; , TL: Rio Durango & "Ecuador"
= Caligo atreus dentina ; [EcuL]
Caligo atreus agesilaus ; [NL4A, #425b]
C. a. dionysos Fruhstorfer, 1912
Costa Rica, Panama Caligo atreus dionysos Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Panama
Caligo atreus dionysos ; [BCR: 256, pl. 46]; [NL4A, #425e]

Larva on Heliconia, Musa, Cyclanthaceae [BCR]


Caligo uranus Herrich-Schäffer, 1850
Mexico, Guatemala. See [About maps] Caligo uranus Herrich-Schäffer, 1850; Samml. aussereurop. Schmett. (II) 1: 55, 1 (1-2): f. 1-2, TL: Mexico
Pavonia telemachus Hewitson, 1850; Zoologist 8 : 2976, TL: "Brazil, Rio de Janeiro"
= ; [NL4A, #443]
Caligo uranus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Caligo uranus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Caligo uranus ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 136; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 666; [EBW]; [NL4A, #443]
[uranus-1.jpg] 690x628 (~65Kb) Belize, Central America, Photo © John Shuey

The oileus species-group

Caligo oileus C. & R. Felder, 1861
Guatemala - Amazon Basin. See [About maps] Caligo oileus C. & R. Felder, 1861; Wien. ent. Monats. 5 (4): 111, TL: "Venezuela in provincia Caracas, Cordillerae bogotanae"
Caligo oileus ; Godman & Salvin, [1881], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 132; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 665; [NL4A, #436]

Larva on Heliconia [BCR], Musa Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)

Venezuela, Colombia Caligo oileus oileus ; [NL4A, #436a]
C. o. scamander (Boisduval, 1870)
Colombia, Ecuador Pavonia scamander Boisduval, 1870; Considérations Lépid. Guatemala: 57, TL: "Guatemala","Nicaragua",Venezuela
Caligo oileus var. philademus Staudinger, 1887; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #436b]
Caligo phorbas Röber, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 146, TL: Ecuador, Santa Inez
= ; [NL4A, #436b]
Caligo oileus phorbas ; [EcuL]
Caligo oileus scamander ; [BCR: 255]; [NL4A, #436b]

Larva on Heliconia sp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)

C. o. umbratilis Stichel, 1903
Peru oileus umbratilis Stichel, 1903; , TL: Peru
Caligo oileus philinos Fruhstorfer, 1903; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #436c]
Caligo oileus umbratilis ; [NL4A, #436c]

Caligo placidianus Staudinger, 1887
Peru, Ecuador, Brazil(Amazonas). See [About maps] Caligo placidianus Staudinger, 1887; , TL: Sarayacu [Peru] & Sao Paulo de Olivenēa
Caligo placidianus var. micans Röber, 1904; Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 146, TL: Ecuador
= ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #437]
Caligo placidianus ; [EBW]; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #437]

Larva on Musa sp. Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 148 (from various sources)


Caligo oedipus Stichel, 1903
-. See [About maps] Caligo oedipus Stichel, 1903; , TL: Colombia
Caligo oedipus ; [EBW, (name only)]; [NL4A, #435]
Colombia, Panama ab. nocturnus Stichel, 1903; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #435a]
Caligo oileus hyposchesis Dyar, 1914; Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 47 (2050) : 144, TL: Paraiso; Porto Bello, Panama
= ; [NL4A, #435a]
Caligo oedipus oedipus ; [NL4A, #435a]
C. o. fruhstorferi Stichel, 1904
Honduras oedipus fruhstorferi Stichel, 1904; , TL: Honduras,"Surinam"
Caligo oedipus fruhstorferi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Caligo oedipus fruhstorferi ; [NL4A, #435b]

Caligo zeuxippus Druce, 1902
Ecuador. See [About maps] Caligo zeuxippus Druce, 1902; , TL: [Ecuador, Imbabura] Paramba
Caligo zeuxippus ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #444]
Ecuador Caligo zeuxippus zeuxippus ; [NL4A, #444a]
C. z. obscurus Niepelt, 1934
Colombia zeuxippus obscurus Niepelt, 1934; , TL: Colombia
Caligo zeuxippus obscurus ; [NL4A, #444b]

The beltrao species-group

Caligo beltrao (Illiger, 1801)
Brazil(Rio de Janeiro, ...?). See [About maps] Papilio beltrao Illiger, 1801; , TL: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro
Papilio demosthenes Perry, 1810; , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #427]
Morpho reinwardtianus Drapiez, 1820; , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #427]
Morpho inachis Godart, [1824]; , TL: Brazil,"Peru"
= ; [NL4A, #427]
Caligo beltrao ; [BOW: pl. 28, f. 7]; [NL4A, #427]

Larva on Canna indica, Calathea zebrina, Musa sapientum, Hedychium coronarium Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000, J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 146 (from various sources)


The ??? species-group

Caligo euphorbus (C. & R. Felder, 1862)
Peru. See [About maps] Pavonia euphorbus C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (4): 123, TL: "Rio Negro" [= Peru, San Martin]
Caligo euphorbus ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #429]
Brazil(Parį), Bolivia Caligo idomeneus rhoetus f. marsus Stichel, 1904; , TL: Brazil, Parį
= ; [NL4A, #429a]
Caligo menoetius aristophanes Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #429a]
Caligo euphorbus euphorbus ; [NL4A, #429a]
C. e. menoetius Staudinger, 1887
Brazil(Amazonas) euphorbus menoetius Staudinger, 1887; , TL: Brazil, Amazonas
Caligo euphorbus menoetius ; [NL4A, #429b]

Caligo superbus Staudinger, 1887
-. See [About maps] Caligo superbus Staudinger, 1887; , TL: Chanchamayo
Caligo superbus ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #439]
Peru Caligo superbus superbus ; [NL4A, #439a]
C. s. agamemnon Weymer, 1890
Ecuador Caligo agamemnon Weymer, 1890; in Weymer & Maassen, Reisen Süd-America : 111, pl. 1, f. 3, TL: "Huamboya 1200-2200m"
= Caligo superbus ; [EcuL]
Caligo superbus agamemnon ; [NL4A, #439b]


Unknown or unplaced taxa

Morpho mithridates Fabricius, 1938; (nom. nud.), TL: Peru
mithridates ; [NL4A, 202]


15.2.2013 (21)

References:
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BCR]
DeVries; The Butterflies of Costa Rica 1; Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[EcuL]
Tommaso & Racheli, 2001; Fragmenta entomologica 33 (2): 213-380; An annotated list of Ecuadorian Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae)
[Erich Mangl]
http://www.mangl.at
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[JLS]
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society; the original J. Lep. Soc. articles
[John Shuey]
e-mail: jshuey at tnc.org; Director of Conservation Science; Indiana Office of The Nature Conservancy; http://www.nature.org
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MERIAN]
Merian, M. S., 1705; Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium. Of te verandering der Surinaamsche insecten. Waar in de Surinaamsche rupsen en wormen met alle des zelfs veranderingen, na het leven afgebeeld en beschreeven worden, zynde elk geplaast op die gewassen, bloemen en vruchten, daar sy op gevonden zyn; waar in ook de generatie der kirkvorschen, wonderbaare padden, hagedissen, slangen, spinnen en mieren werden vertoond en beschreeven, alles in America na het leven en levensgroote geschildert en beschreeven; pp. 1-60, pl. 1-60; Image from Francisco Welter-Schultes
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group


Some related literature:
Billberg, 1820
Enumeratio Insectorum Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb. : 1-138
Boisduval, 1870
Considerations sur des Lépidoptčres envoyés du Guatemala ą M. de l'Orza Considérations Lépid. Guatemala: 100pp
Brown & Mielke, 1967
Lepidoptera of the Central Brazil Plateau. I. Preliminary list of Rhopalocera J. Lep. Soc. 21 (2): 77-106
Butler, 1870
Descriptions of some new diurnal Lepidoptera, chiefly Hesperiidae Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1870 (4) : 485-520
Cramer, [1775]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 1-132, pl. 1-84 (1775), (8): 133-155, pl. 85-96 (1776)
Deyrolle, 1874
[Description de lépidoptčres nouveaux du genre Pavonia] Rev. Mag. Zool. applic. (3) 2: pl. 6-7
Doubleday, [1849]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Druce, 1874
Descriptions of Fifteen new species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, chiefly from South America Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1874 (1) : 155-160
Dufrane, 1959
Brassolidées Bull. Soc. nat. Mons & Borinage 42 (3/4): 16-17
Dyar, 1914
Report on the lepidoptera of the Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Canal Zone Proc. U.S. nat. Mus. 47 (2050) : 139-350
C. & R. Felder, 1861
Lepidoptera nova Columbiae Wien. ent. Monats. 5 (3): 72-87, (4): 97-111
C. & R. Felder, 1862
Specimen faunae lepidopterologicae riparum fluminis Negro superioris in Brasilia septentrionali Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (3): 65-80, (4): 109-126, (6): 175-192, (7): 229-235
C. & R. Felder, 1862
Lepidoptera nova Columbiae Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (12) : 409-427
C. & R. Felder, [1867]
Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Behilfen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 1-136, pl. 1-21 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, [1865]), (2): 137-378, pl. 22-47 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1865), (3): 379-536, pl. 48-74 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1867), (4): 537-548, pl. 75-120, (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-9 (pl. 1-74), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874) , (5): pl. 121-140, (erklärung) 1-10 (pl. 75-107), (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-20 (pl. 108-140), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Fruhstorfer, 1904
Neue Caligo-Formen Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145 (1 January)
Fruhstorfer, 1907
Verzeichniss der von Herrn Dr. Theodor Koch-Grünberg am oberen Waupes 1903-1905 gesammelten Rhopaloceren mit Besprechung verwandter Arten Stettin ent. Ztg 68 (1): 117-164 (May), (2): 207-309, pl. 1 (July)
Fruhstorfer, 1910
Neue Rhopaloceren aus der Provinz Matto Grosso und angrenzenden Gebieten Ent. Zs. 24 (35) : 192-194 (3 December)
Fruhstorfer, 1912
Neue Brassoliden Ent. Rundschau 29 (2) : 15-16 (27 January)
Godart, [1824]
in Latreille & Godart, Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire naturelle Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacés, des arachnides et des insectes Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 3-328 (1819), (2): 329-828 ([1824])
Godman & Salvin, [1881]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. Vol. 1. (1879-1886) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 1-487, 3: pl. 1-24,24a,25-112
Godman & Salvin, [1901]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. (1887-1901) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 1-782, 3: pl. 1-112
Herrich-Schäffer, 1850
Sammlung neuer oder wenig bekannter aussereuropäischer Schmetterlinge, 1850-[1869]: Rhopalocera (Tagfalter) Samml. aussereurop. Schmett. (II) 1 (1-2): pl. [1-10], f. 1-22 (1850), 1 (3): pl. 11-14, f. 23-60 (1853), 1 (4): pl. 15-18, f. 61-78 (1855), 1 (5): pl. [19-22], f. 79-94 (1856), 1 (?6): pl. [23-24], f. 95-102 (1858), 1: 1-52 (1856), 1: 53-84 (1858), 2: pl. [25-28], f. 103-123 (1869)
Hewitson, 1850
[A note] Zoologist 8 : 2976
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Kollar, 1850
Beiträge zur Insecten-Fauna von Neu-Granada und Venezuela Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 1 : 351-364, pl. 42-45
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Penz, Aiello & Srygley, 2000
Early stages of Caligo illioneus and C. idomeneus from Panama, with remarks on larval food plants for the subfamily J. Lep. Soc. 53 (4): 142-152
Rothschild, 1916
Notes on Amathusiidae, Brassolidae, Morphidae, etc., with descriptions of new forms Novit. Zool. 23 (3) : 299-318, pl. 3-6
Röber, 1904
Neue Caligo-Arten Soc. Ent. 18 (19) : 145-147
Stichel, 1908
Brassoliden-Studien Berl. ent. Z. 52 (3) : 160-179
Weymer in Weymer & Maassen, 1890
Lepidoptera gesammelt auf einer Reise durch Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brasilien, Argentinien und Bolivien in den Jahren 1868-1877 von Alphons Stübel Reisen Süd-America : 1-182, pl. 1-9


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.