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Tirumala Moore, [1880]
Blue Tigers
Tirumala Moore, [1880]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 4, TS: Papilio limniace Cramer
Melinda Moore, 1883; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 (2): 229 (preocc. Melinda Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830), TS: Danais formosa Godman
Elsa Honrath, 1892; Berl. ent. Z. 36 (2) : 436, TS: Elsa morgeni Honrath
Tirumala, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Tirumala (Euploeinae) ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 4
Tirumala (Danaina) ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 218; [Wahlberg]; [AfrL]; Brower, Wahlberg, Ogawa, Boppre & Vane-Wright, 2010, Syst. Biodiv. 8 (1): 84

Tirumala formosa (Godman, 1880)
Cameroon, Adamawa - Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania. See [About maps] Forest Monarch Beautiful Tiger
Danais formosa Godman, 1880; in Godman & Distant, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880 : 183, pl. 19, f. 1, TL: Gnuru Hills, East Africa
yala (Stoneham, 1958) (Danaus); Bull. Stoneham Mus. (71): 2, TL: Kenya
Danaus formosa ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 1100, f. 15]
Tirumala formosa ; [MWB: 196, pl. 13, f. 77-78]; [BK: 258, f. 27, f. 387]; [AfrL]

Larva on Secamone micrandra, S. platystigma, S. punctulosa, S. zambesiaca, Cryptolepis sp., Periploca linearifolia [MWB]

E.Kenya (E of Rift Valley), NE.Tanzania Danais formosa formosa
Danais formosa formosa ; [BAFR, 153]
Tirumala formosa formosa ; [AfrL]
T. f. mercedonia (Karsch, 1894)
W.Kenya (W of Rift Valley), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, NW.Tanzania Melinda mercedonia Karsch, 1894; Ent. Nachr. 20 (14/15) : 225
Danaus mercedonia ; [BOW: pl. 110, f. 18]
Danaus formosa mercedonia ; [BAFR, 153]
Tirumala formosa mercedonia ; [AfrL]
T. f. morgeni (Honrath, 1892)
Cameroun Elsa morgeni Honrath, 1892; Berl. ent. Z. 36 (2) : 436, pl. 15, f. 5, TL: Kamerun
Danaus morgeni ; [BOW: pl. 110, f. 18 (text only)]
Danaus formosa morgeni ; [BAFR, 153]
Tirumala formosa morgeni ; [AfrL]
T. f. neumanni (Rothschild, 1902)
Ethiopia Danaus formosa neumanni Rothschild, 1902; Novit. Zool. 9 : 596, TL: Kaffa
Danaus formosa neumanni ; [BAFR, 153 (text)]
Tirumala formosa neumanni ; [AfrL]

Tirumala petiverana (Doubleday, [1847])
Tropical Africa. See [About maps] African Blue Tiger
Danais limniace var. petiverana Doubleday, [1847]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 93, pl. 12, f. 1, TL: [? West ] Africa
Danais leonora Butler, 1866; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1866 (1) : 51, TL: Angola
phrynichus (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 203
septentrionides (Stoneham, 1958) (Danaus); Bull. Stoneham Mus. (71): 1, TL: Kenya
Danaus petiverana ; [BAFR, 152]
Tirumala petiverana ; [MWB: 196, pl. 13, f. 79]; [BK: 257, pl. 27, f. 386]; [AfrL]

Larva on Pergularia extensa [PBSA], Daemia sp., Hoya sp., Marsdenia rubicunda, P. daemia [MWB]


Tirumala gautama (Moore, 1877)
Burma, Thailand, Laos, S.Vietnam, Hainan. See [About maps] Scarce Blue Tiger
Danais gautama Moore, 1877; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 20 (115) : 43, TL: Henzada, Rangoon, Burma
Tirumala gautama gautama, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Danaus gautama ; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 15]
Tirumala gautama ; Moore, [1890], Lepidoptera Indica 1 : 33, pl. 7, f. 1, 1a; [BOR, 206]; [MWB: 197, pl. 13, f. 80]; [MRS, 273]

Larva on Cynanchum spp. [MRS]

Mergui Archipelago, Langkawi, S.Burma Tirumala gautama gautama ; Morishita, 1970, Tyō to Ga 21 (3-4) : 65; [BOR, 206]
T. g. gautamoides (Doherty, 1886)
Nicobars Danais (Tirumala) gautamoides Doherty, 1886; J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (3) : 257, TL: Nicobars
Tirumala gautamoides ; Moore, [1890], Lepidoptera Indica 1 : 33, pl. 6, f. 2, 2a
Tirumala gautama gautamoides ; [BOR, 206]

Tirumala euploeomorpha (Howarth, Kawazoe & Sibatani, 1976)
Solomon Islands (Santa Ana, San Cristobal). See [About maps] Danaus (Tirumala) euploeomorpha Howarth, Kawazoe & Sibatani, 1976; Tyō to Ga 27 (4): 131, TL: Solomon Islands, Santa Ana Is., Eastern Distr.
Tirumala euploeomorpha ; [MWB: 197, pl. 14, f. 81-82, pl. VII, f. 60]

Tirumala choaspes (Butler, 1866)
Sula Islands. See [About maps] Sulawesi Blue Tiger
Danais choaspes Butler, 1866; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1866 (1) : 52, TL: S.Sulawesi, Makasar
choaspina (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Sula Is.
Danaus choaspes ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 12]
Tirumala choaspes ; [BOR, 206]; [MWB: 198, pl. 14, f. 83, pl. VII, f. 55, pl. X, f. 126]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 218
Sulawesi Tirumala choaspes choaspes ; [BOR, 206]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 218
T. c. kroeseni (Martin, 1910)
Buton Danais (Tirumala) choaspes kroeseni Martin, 1910; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (2): 20, TL: Buton I.
Tirumala choaspes kroeseni ; [BOR, 206]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. c. oxynthas (Fruhstorfer, 1911)
Sula Is. choaspes oxynthas (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Sula Is.
Tirumala choaspes oxynthas ; [BOR, 206]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. c. kalawara (Martin, 1913)
Sulawesi Danais (Tirumala) choaspes kalawara Martin, 1913; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 27 (2): 109, (3): 123, TL: Celebes
Tirumala choaspes kalawara ; [BOR, 206]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 218

Tirumala tumanana Semper, 1886
Philippines (Tumanao I, SE.Mindanao). See [About maps] Tirumala tumanana Semper, 1886; Reisen Philipp. (1): 15, pl. 3, f. 1
Tirumala limniace tumanana ; Morishita, 1981, in Tsukada, Butterflies of the south-east Asian islands 2: 462, pl. 94, f. 15-17
Tirumala choaspes tumanana ; [BOR, 206]
Tirumala tumanana ; Hashimoto, Schroeder, Treadaway & Vane-Wright, 2012, J. Res. Lepid. 45: 40

Tirumala limniace (Cramer, [1775])
Afghanistan - India, Ceylon, Kashmir - China, Burma, Hong Kong. See [About maps] Blue Tiger
Papilio limniace Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 92, pl. 59, f. D, E, TL: China
moaria (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Formosa
norinia (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Hainan
Danais limniace fruhstorferi van Eecke, 1915; Zool. Meded. 1 (13) : 209, TL: Wetter [?]
Danaida limniace kuchingana Moulton, 1915; Entomologist 48 : 97, TL: "Kuching (Sarawak)"
koshunensis (Sonan, 1931) (Danais); Zephyrus 3 (3/4) : 198, TL: Formosa
kurarensis (Sonan, 1931) (Danais); Zephyrus 3 (3/4) : 198, TL: Formosa
joannisi (Dufrane, 1948) (Danaus); Bull. Soc. linn. Lyon 17 (10) : 192, TL: Tonkin
disjuncta (Dufrane, 1948) (Danaus); Bull. Soc. linn. Lyon 17 (10) : 192, TL: Tonkin
Tirumala limniace limniace, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Danaus limniace ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 19]
Tirumala limniace ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 4, pl. 1, f. 3; Moore, [1890], Lepidoptera Indica 1 : 39, pl. 6, f. 1, 1a-b; [BOR, 204]; [MWB: 198, pl. 14, f. 84, pl. IX, f. 88, pl. X, f. 124]; [MRS, 272]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
[limniace-1u.jpg] 600x400 (~48Kb) upperside India: Pune, 2.11.2008 © Kedar Tokekar [limniace-1v.jpg] 600x400 (~60Kb) underside India: Pune, 2.11.2008 © Kedar Tokekar

Larva on Asclepias, Calotropis, Hoya, Heterostemma, Marsdenia [BHR], Dregea volubilis, Heterostemma cuspidatum, Hoya viridiflora, Marsdenia tenacissima, Crotalaria sp.?, Epibaterium sp. [MWB]


S.China, Indo-China, Hainan, Taiwan ?mutina (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 204
Danaida limniace mutina Ormiston, 1918; Spolia Zeylanica: 4, TL: Ceylon
Tirumala limniace limniace ; Morishita, 1970, Tyō to Ga 21 (3-4) : 64; [BOR, 205]

Larva on Dregea formosana, Heterostemma brownii, Asclepias spp., Calotropis spp., Dregea volubilis, Heerostemma cuspidatum, Hoya spp., Hoya viridiflora, Marsdenia tenacissima, Crotalaria retusa [MRS]

T. l. leopardus (Butler, 1866)
Ceylon, India - S.Burma Danais leopardus Butler, 1866; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1866 (1) : 52, TL: N.India
Tirumala limniace leopardus ; [BOR, 205]
T. l. ino (Butler, 1871)
Sula Danais ino Butler, 1871; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1871 : 79, TL: Sula
Tirumala limniace ino ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. l. conjuncta Moore, 1883
Java, Bali, Kangean, Bawean, Lesser Sunda Is. Tirumala conjuncta Moore, 1883; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 (2): 231, (3): pl. 29, f. 2, TL: Java
?Tirumala limniace ab. donia Fruhstorfer, 1897; Berl. Ent. Zs. 42 (1/2) : 120
Tirumala limniace conjuncta ; [BOR, 205]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. l. bentenga (Martin, 1910)
Selajar Danais (Tirumala) limniace bentenga Martin, 1910; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (2): 22, TL: Benteng I.
Tirumala limniace bentenga ; [BOR, 205]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. l. makassara (Martin, 1910)
S.Sulawesi Danais (Tirumala) limniace makassara Martin, 1910; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (2): 21, TL: S.Celebes
Tirumala limniace makassara ; [BOR, 205]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. l. orestilla (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Philippines (Luzon) limniace orestilla (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 205
Tirumala limniace orestilla ; [BOR, 205]
Timor, Wetar limniace vaneeckeni Bryk, 1937²; in Strand, Lep. Cat. 28 (78): 113
Danaus limniace vaneeckeni ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. l. exotica (Gmelin, 1790)
Papilio exoticus Gmelin, [1790]; in Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (edn 13) 1 (5) : 2289, no. 886, TL: Ceylon
Tirumala limniace exotica ; [BMP: 105, pl. 11, f. 10]
Tirumala limniace exoticus ; Torben B. Larsen
Tanahjampea Tirumala limniace ssp. ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219

Tirumala septentrionis (Butler, 1874)
India, Ceylon, W.China. See [About maps] Dark Blue Tiger
Danais septentrionis Butler, 1874; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 163, TL: Nepal
microsticta (Kheil, 1884) (Danaus); Rhopalocera Ins. Nias : 16 (preocc. Danais microsticta Butler, 1874), TL: Nias
Tirumala septentrionis palawana Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 114, 120, TL: Palawan
Tirumala septentrionis rufiventris Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 114, TL: Nias
suanetes (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Balabak
emona (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Paragua
Tirumala mistella Swinhoe, 1915; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 16 (93) : 171, TL: Malang, Java
?septentrionalis Williams, 1930
julia Hulstaert, 1931²; Genera Insectorum 193: 46, TL: Palawan
jacouleti (Nakahara, 1941) (Danaus); Zephyrus 9: 1-3
pandora Corbet, 1942; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (11) 9: 268, TL: Siberut I.
addenda (Dufrane, 1948) (Danaus); Bull. Soc. linn. Lyon 17 (10) : 192
nocturalis Murayama, 1958; New Ent. 7 (1): 27, TL: Formosa
Tirumala septentrionalis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Danaus septentrionis ; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 7]
Tirumala septentrionis ; Moore, [1880], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 5, pl. 1, f. 2; Moore, [1890], Lepidoptera Indica 1 : 34, pl. 7, f. 2, 2a; [BOR, 205]; [MWB: 199, pl. 14, f. 85]; [MRS, 273]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Danaida melissa; Fruhstorfer, 1910, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 202, pl. 78 a (in part)
Danaus melissa; Forbes, 1939, Ent. Am. (N.S.) 19: 129 (in part)

Larva on Asclepiadaceae [EOB], Vallaris dichotoma, Parsonsia spp., Dregea volubilis, Heterostemma brownii, Cocculus spp., Tylophora spp. [MRS]

N.India - Peninsular Malaya, Langkawi, Singapore, Thailand, Indo-China, S.China, Taiwan Tirumala hamata septentrionis ab. seminocturnalis Murayama, 1961; Tyō to Ga 11 (4): 56, f. 2, TL: Poli?, Formosa
Tirumala hamata septentrionis ; Morishita, 1970, Tyō to Ga 21 (3-4) : 65
Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis ; [BOR, 205]; [BMP: 105, pl. 11, f. 8]
[septentrionis_septentrionis-1mu.jpg] 1078x914 (~133Kb) upperside male Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Pattaya, a small wood at a grassy swamp at the Jomtien beach, between B.O. Guesthouse and Jomtien Metro Condotel, 2nd January, 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [septentrionis_septentrionis-2mav.jpg] 1014x849 (~101Kb) underside male hailand, Chon Buri Province, Pattaya, Ko Khram Island, Saikaew beach, a side of a road through shrubbery along the coast, 3rd January, 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [septentrionis_septentrionis-2mbv.jpg] 1001x809 (~100Kb) underside male hailand, Chon Buri Province, Pattaya, Ko Khram Island, Saikaew beach, a side of a road through shrubbery along the coast, 3rd January, 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[septentrionis_septentrionis-3v.jpg] 769x514 (~119Kb) underside Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko
Tirumala septentrionis septentrionis det. Dick Vane-Wright

T. s. dravidarum Fruhstorfer, 1899
S.India Tirumala melissa dravidarum Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 113, 119
Tirumala septentrionis dravidarum ; [BOR, 205]
T. s. musikanos (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Ceylon septentrionis musikanos (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 202, TL: Ceylon
neomelissa musikanos ; Talbot, 1949
Tirumala septentrionis musikanos ; [BOR, 205]
T. s. myrsilos (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Java, Bali, Bawean, Lesser Sunda Is. septentrionis myrsilos (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 202, TL: Java
Tirumala septentrionis myrsilos ; [BOR, 205]
T. s. microsticta (Butler, 1874)
N.Borneo Danais microsticta Butler, 1874; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 163, TL: Borneo
Tirumala septentrionis microsticta ; [BOR, 205]
T. s. valentia (Fruhstorfer, 1911)
Mindanao septentrionis valentia (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Mindanao
Tirumala septentrionis valentia ; [MWB, 199 (note)]

Tirumala hamata (MacLeay, [1826])
S.Asia, E.Asia, Australia. See [About maps] Blue Tiger Dark Blue Tiger Blue Wanderer
Euploea hamata MacLeay, [1826]; in King, Narr. Surv. Austr. 2: 461, TL: Australia
Danais australis Blanchard, 1853; Voy. Pol. Sud. Astrolabe 4 : 388, pl. 2, f. 5-6
Papilio melissa Stoll, [1781]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (32-32): 172, pl. 377, f. C-D (preocc. Papilio melissa Fabricius, 1775), TL: Java
Danais moderata Butler, [1876]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1875 (4) : 611, TL: Vaté or Sandwich Is., New Hebrides
Danais hamata var. orientalis Semper, [1879]; J. Mus. Godeffroy 5 (14) : 139, no. 1 (Philippines,Hong Kong)
Tirumala angustata Moore, 1883; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 (2): 232, TL: Tongatabu, Friendly Is.
nephthys (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 273, TL: Sulu I.
pelagia (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 273, TL: Cuyo
sassina (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 273
tibula (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 273, TL: Camotes
Danaida melissa melissa f. melissina Rothschild, 1915; Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 117, TL: Bali
tutuilae (Hopkins, 1927) (Danaida); Insects of Samoa 3 (fasc. 1): 8, pl. 2, f. 1-2, TL: Tutuila
neomelissa Bryk, 1937²; in Strand, Lep. Cat. 28 (78): 115
mendica (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 137, TL: Fiji
Tirumala hamata, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Tirumala hamata, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Tirumala hamata ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
Danaida melissa ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 202 (in part)
Danaus melissa ; Forbes, 1939, Ent. Am. (N.S.) 19: 129 (in part)
Danaus hamata ; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 16]
Tirumala hamata ; [BOR, 206]; [MWB: 200, pl. 14, f. 86, pl. 15, f. 87, pl. IX, f. 85, pl. X, f. 123]

Larva on Parsonsia, P. straminea, P. velutina, Heterostemma papuana, Hoya australis, Leichardtia, Marsdenia sp., Secanome carnosum, S. elliptica, Tylophora sp., Cryptostegia grandiflora [MWB]

Larva on Cynanchum carnosum, C. leptolepis, Heterostemma acuminatum, H. papuana, Hoya australis, Marsdenia velutina, Secamone elliptica K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)

Cape York - Sydney Danaus hamata hamata ; [BAUR, 172]
T. h. paryadres (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Timor - Tanimbar, Aru, Kai Is. hamata paryadres (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 203
singaria (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 203, TL: Dammer I.
Danaus hamata paryadres ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. arikata (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Sula Is. hamata arikata (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 203, TL: Sula Is.
Tirumala hamata arikata ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. h. nigra (Martin, 1910)
Buru, Ambon, Serang, Saparua Danais (Tirumala) melissa nigra Martin, 1910; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (2): 24, TL: Ceram
Danaus hamata nigra ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. goana (Martin, 1910)
S.Sulawesi Danais (Tirumala) hamata goana Martin, 1910; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (2): 23, TL: Goa; Bangala
Tirumala hamata goana ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. h. leucoptera (Butler, 1874)
Waigeu, Gebe, Neomfoor, West Irian Danais leucoptera Butler, 1874; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 163, TL: Dorey
Danaida melissa leucoptera ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 196
Danaus hamata leucoptera ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. talautensis (Talbot, 1943)
Talaud hamata talautensis (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 135, TL: Talaut I.
Tirumala hamata talautensis ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
T. h. pallidula (Talbot, 1943)
West Irian hamata pallidula (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 136, TL: New Guinea
Danaus hamata pallidula ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. subnubila (Talbot, 1943)
Papua, Yule I. hamata subnubila (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 136, TL: New Guinea
Danaus hamata subnubila ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. coarctata (Joicey & Talbot, 1922)
Biak Danaida (Tirumala) melissa coarctata Joicey & Talbot, 1922; Bull. Hill Mus. 1 (2) : 350, TL: Biak, Schouten Is.
Danaus hamata coarctica[sic?] ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. obscurata (Butler, 1874)
New Britain, New Ireland, Duke of York Group, Bougainville - Guadalcanal Danais obscurata Butler, 1874; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 : 275, TL: Upolu
gariata (Fruhstorfer, 1910) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 203
Danaus hamata obscurata ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. insignis (Talbot, 1943)
Solomons hamata insignis (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 136, TL: Maleita I.
Danaus hamata insignis ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
T. h. neptunia (C. & R. Felder, [1865])
Fiji Is. Danais neptunia C. & R. Felder, [1865]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (2): 349, TL: Fiji Is.
Danais claribella Butler, 1882; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 10 (55): 36, TL: Viti
hamata neptunia f. protoneptunia (Poulton, 1924) (Danaida); Trans. Ent. Soc. 1923: ?
Danaus hamata neptunia ; [BAUR, 172 (text)]
?T. h. melittula (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)
Samoa ?Danais melittula Herrich-Schäffer, 1869; Stettin ent. Ztg 30 (1-3) : 70, TL: Upolu, Samoa
?Danaus melittula ; [BOW: pl. 153, f. 16 (text only)]

Tirumala ishmoides Moore, 1883
-. See [About maps] Uncertain Blue Tiger
Tirumala ishmoides Moore, 1883; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 (2): 232, TL: Sulawesi
?australis Semper, 1886; Reisen Philipp. (1): 15
= ; [NHM]
vetusta (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 137, TL: Celebes
linea Morishita, 1981²
Danaus ishmoides ; Talbot, 1943, Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 137
?Tirumala melissa ishmoides ;
Tirumala ishmoides ; [BOR, 206]; [MWB: 200, pl. 15, f. 88, pl. 60, f. 318A, pl. IX, f. 86]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 219
Sulawesi, Bangka I. Tirumala ishmoides ishmoides ; [BOR, 206]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 220
T. i. vetus (Talbot, 1943)
Philippines (Jolo I.) ishmoides vetus (Talbot, 1943) (Danaus); Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 137, TL: Jolo I.
Tirumala ishmoides vetus ; [BOR, 206]
T. i. strymon (Fruhstorfer, 1911)
Philippines (Mindanao) ishmoides strymon (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Mindanao
Tirumala ishmoides strymon ; [BOR, 206]
T. i. trasinanus (Fruhstorfer, 1911)
Philippines (Cebu) ishmoides trasinanus (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 276, TL: Cebu
Tirumala ishmoides trasinanus ; [BOR, 206]
T. i. sontinus (Fruhstorfer, 1911)
Philippines (Mindoro) ishmoides sontinus (Fruhstorfer, 1911) (Danaida); in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 274, TL: Mindoro
Tirumala ishmoides sontinus ; [BOR, 206]

 

Tirumala alba Chou & Gu, 1994
Hainan. See [About maps] Tirumala alba Chou & Gu, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 755, 275, TL: Mt. Diaoluoshan (700m)


16.4.2013 (11)

References:
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[AfrL]
Mark C. Williams; Checklist of Afrotropical Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea; Compiled by Mark C. Williams, 7th ed. (2008) (April 2007); Afrototropical Butterflies; e-mail: Mark C. Williams
[BAFR]
D'Abrera, 1980; Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region
[BAUR]
D'Abrera, 1977; Butterflies of the Australian Region (2nd edn)
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BHR]
D'Abrera; Butterflies of the Holarctic Region, Part I-III
[BK]
Larsen, 1996; The Butterflies of Kenya and their natural history
[BMP]
Eliot (Ed.), Corbet & Pendlebury, 1992; The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula; 4th edition; ISBN 983-9681-05-2
[BOR]
D'Abrera, 1982, 1985, 1986; Butterflies of the Oriental Region, Part I-III
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[BnF]
Gallica / Bibliothčque nationale de France; Annales de la Société entomologique de France; Bulletin de la Sociéte entomologique de France
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[Dick Vane-Wright]
Vane-Wright
[Don Herbison-Evans]
and Stella A. Crossley; Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans; e-mail: Don Herbison-Evans
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[EOB]
Feltwell; The Encyclopedia of Butterflies; Prentice Hall, 1993; ISBN 0-671-86828-4
[Kedar Tokekar]
India
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[MWB]
Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984; Milkweed butterflies, their cladistics and biology; British Museum (Natural History)
[NBC]
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis; NBC naturalis
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Olli Vesikko]
http://koti.welho.com/ovesikko/
[PBSA]
Dickson, C.G.C (ed.), Kroon, D.M.; Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa; AD. DONKER 1978
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group
[Yutaka Inayoshi]
A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China; Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM
[²]
This may require parentheses or not. I don't have the necessary information for this taxon.


Some related literature:
Blanchard, 1853
Voyage au Pole sud et dans l'Océanie sur les corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zelée executé ......pendant......1837-40 sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville etc. Zool., Insectes. Vol. 4 Voy. Pol. Sud. Astrolabe 4 : 1-422, pl. 1-25
Brower, Wahlberg, Ogawa, Boppre & Vane-Wright, 2010
Phylogenetic relationships among genera of danaine butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) as implied by morphology and DNA sequences Syst. Biodiv. 8 (1): 75-89
Butler, 1866
A Monograph of the diurnal Lepidoptera belonging to the Genus Danais, being a Revision of the Insects of that Genus, with Descriptions of new Species in the National Collection Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1866 (1) : 43-59, pl. 4
Butler, 1871
Descriptions of some new species of exotic lepidoptera Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1871 : 79-83
Butler, 1874
Description of six new Species of diurnal Lepidoptera in the Collection of the British Museum Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 163-164
Butler, 1874
List of Diurnal Lepidoptera of the South-Sea Islands Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 : 274-291, pl. 44
Butler, [1876]
On a Collection of Butterflies from the New Hebrides and Loyalty Islands with Descriptions of new Species Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1875 (4) : 610-619, pl. 67
Butler, 1882
Descriptions of new species of Lepidoptera, chiefly from Duke of York Island and New Britain Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 10 (55): 36-43, (56): 149-160, (57): 226-238
Cramer, [1775]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 1-132, pl. 1-84 (1775), (8): 133-155, pl. 85-96 (1776)
Doherty, 1886
Additional Notes on new or rare Indian Butterflies J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (3) : 256-265
Doubleday, [1847]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Dufrane, 1948
Note sur les Danaidae Bull. Soc. linn. Lyon 17 (10) : 192-194
K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991
Review of Australian Butterflies: distribution, life history and taxonomy. Pushlished by authors, Melbourne Review Austr. Butts. (1-4):
van Eecke, 1915
Enkele opmerkingen omtrent Indo-Australische Danaiden Zool. Meded. 1 (13) : 205-227
C. & R. Felder, [1865]
Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Behilfen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 1-136, pl. 1-21 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, [1865]), (2): 137-378, pl. 22-47 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1865), (3): 379-536, pl. 48-74 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1867), (4): 537-548, pl. 75-120, (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-9 (pl. 1-74), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874) , (5): pl. 121-140, (erklärung) 1-10 (pl. 75-107), (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-20 (pl. 108-140), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
Forbes, 1939
Revisional notes on the Danainae Ent. Am. (N.S.) 19: 101-140
Fruhstorfer, 1897
Rhopalocera Lombokiana Berl. Ent. Zs. 42 (1/2) : 119-126 (mid November)
Fruhstorfer, 1899
Neue Tirumala und Uebersicht der bekannten asiatischen Spezies Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 113-121 (mid July)
Fruhstorfer, 1910; Fruhstorfer, 1911
3. Familie: Danaidae in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 191-216 (20 May, 1910), : 217-224 (20 June, 1910), : 225-240 (15 August, 1910), : 241-248 (29 November, 1910), : 249-264 (12 November, 1910), : 265-272 (17 December, 1910), : 273-280 (13 February, 1911), : 281-284 (14 February, 1911)
Gmelin, [1790]
Systema Naturae in Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (edn 13) 1 (5) : 2225-3020
Godman in Godman & Distant, 1880
Descriptions of five new species of Rhopalocera from E. Africa Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880 : 182-185, pl. 19
Hashimoto, Schroeder, Treadaway & Vane-Wright, 2012
On the taxonomic status of Tirumala tumanana Semper, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Danainae) J. Res. Lepid. 45: 39-47
Herrich-Schäffer, 1869
Neue Schmetterlinge aus dem "Museum Godeffroy" in Hamburg Stettin ent. Ztg 30 (1-3) : 65-80, pl. 1-4
Honrath, 1892
Neue Rhopalocera (10) Berl. ent. Z. 36 (2) : 429-440, pl. 15
Hopkins, 1927
Butterflies of Samoa and some neighbouring Island-groups Insects of Samoa 3 (fasc. 1): 1-64
Howarth, Kawazoe & Sibatani, 1976
A new mimetic species of Danaus (Tirumala) from the Solomon Islands (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) Tyō to Ga 27 (4): 131-137
Hulstaert, 1931
Lepidoptera Rhopalocera: Fam. Danaididae: Subfam. Danaidinae & Tellervinae Genera Insectorum 193: 215pp, 6pls
Joicey & Talbot, 1922
Four new butterflies from the Islands of Mefor and Biak (North Dutch New Guinea) Bull. Hill Mus. 1 (2) : 350-352
Karsch, 1894
Einige neue afrikanische Tagfalter aaus den Familien der Nymphaliden, Acraeļden, Danaļdiden und Satyriden Ent. Nachr. 20 (14/15) : 209-240
Kheil, 1884
Zur Fauna des Indo-Malayischen Archipels. Die Rhoplalocera der Insel Nias Rhopalocera Ins. Nias : [1-5], 6-38, 5pls
MacLeay, [1826]
in King, Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia. 2 vols. in King, Narr. Surv. Austr. 2: -
Martin, 1910
Die Tirumalaarten der Insel Celebes Dt. ent. Z. Iris 24 (1): 15-17, (2): 17-26
Martin, 1913
Neue Rhopaloceren aus Celebes Dt. ent. Z. Iris 27 (2): 109, (3): 121-129, pl. 6-8
Moore, 1877
Descriptions of Asiatic Diurnal Lepidoptera Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 20 (115) : 43-52
Moore, [1880]
The Lepidoptera of Ceylon Lepid. Ceylon 1 (1): 1-40, pl. 1-18 (Dec 1880), (2): 41-80, pl. 19-36 (Jan 1881), (3): 81-136, pl. 37-54 (Jun 1881), (4): 137-190, pl. 55-71 (Dec 1881)
Moore, 1883
A Monograph of Limnaina and Euploeina, two Groups of Diurnal Lepidoptera belonging to the Subfamily Euploeinae; with Descriptions of new Genera and Species. Part I & II Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 (2): 201-252, (3): 253-324, pl. 29-32
Morishita, 1970
The Danaid butterflies of South Viet-Nam Tyō to Ga 21 (3-4) : 62-71
Morishita, 1981
Danaidae in Tsukada, Butterflies of the south-east Asian islands 2: 439-628, pls. 85-163
Moulton, 1915
Some undescribed Bornean Nymphalidae Entomologist 48 : 97-100, pl. 6
Murayama, 1958
Über die einigen Aberrantförmigen und die unbekannte Schmetterlinge aus Formosa New Ent. 7 (1): 26-30, 1pl
Murayama, 1961
An unrecorded and some aberrant butterflies from Formosa [in Japanese] Tyō to Ga 11 (4): 54-61
Rothschild, 1902
New N.E. African Lepidoptera discovered by Oscar Neumann Novit. Zool. 9 : 595-598
Rothschild, 1915
On the Lepidoptera in the Tring Museum sent by Mr. A. S. Meek from the Admiralty Islands, Dampier and Vulcan Islands Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 192-208, (3): 387-402
Rothschild, 1915
On Lepidoptera from the islands of Ceram (Seran), Buru, Bali, and Misol Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 105-144, (2): 209-227
Semper, [1879]
Beitrag zur Rhopalocerenfauna von Australien J. Mus. Godeffroy 5 (14) : 138-194, pl. 8-9
Semper, 1886
Die Schmetterlinge der Philippinischen Inseln. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen Reisen Philipp. (1): 1-46, pl. 1-8, A (1886), (2): 47-86, pl. 9-16 (1887), (3): 87-134, pl. 17-24 (1888), (4): 135-174, pl. 25-32 (1889), (5): 175-238, pl. 33-38, B (1890), (6): 239-270, pl. 39-46 (1891), (7): 271-380, pl. 47-49 [iv] (1892)
Sonan, 1931
Notes on some butterflies from Formosa. (2) Zephyrus 3 (3/4) : 194-206, pl. 15-17
Stoll, [1781]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (26b-28): 29-90, pl. 305-336 (1780), (29-31): 91-164, pl. 337-372 (1781), (32-32): 165-252, 1-29, pl. 373-400 (1782)
Stoneham, 1958
New forms of African Danaidae Bull. Stoneham Mus. (71): 1-3
Swinhoe, 1915
New Species of Indo-Malayan Lepidoptera Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 16 (93) : 170-186
Talbot, 1943
Revisional notes on the genus Danaus Kluk (Lep. Rhop. Danaidae) Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 93 (1) : 115-148
Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003
The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island faunda Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 3-268, pl. 1-16


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.