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Panacea Godman & Salvin, [1883]
Panacea Godman & Salvin, [1883]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 274 (repl. for Pandora Doubleday, [1848]), TS: Pandora prola Doubleday
Pandora Doubleday, [1848]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): pl. 43, f. 5 (preocc. Pandora Bruguière, 1797, Pandora Lamarck, 1799, Pandora Megerle, 1811, Pandora Eschscholtz, 1829, Pandora Haliday, 1833, Pandora Oken, 1835, Pandora Chevrolet, 1843), TS: Pandora prola Doubleday
= ; [NL4A, 239]
Pandora Westwood, [1850]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (2): 300
Panacea, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Panacea ; Godman & Salvin, [1883], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 274
Panacea (Biblidini) ;
Panacea (Ageroniini) ; [Wahlberg]
Panacea (Ageroniina) ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, 239]

Larva on Caryodendron


Panacea prola (Doubleday, [1848])
Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Guianas, Upper Amazon. See [About maps] Pandora prola Doubleday, [1848]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): pl. 43, f. 5, TL: Colombia (Mt Tolymna)
Pandora prola Westwood, [1850]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (2): 300
Panacea prola, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Panacea prola ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 39, f. 23]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 203, f. 3, 11, 13; [NL4A, #1835]
Colombia, Venezuela Panacea prola fem.f. dubia Kretzschmar, [1894]; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #1835a]
Panacea prola zaraja Fruhstorfer, 1912; , TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #1835a]
Panacea prola prola ; [NL4A, #1835a]
P. p. zaraja Fruhstorfer, 1912
Venezuela Panacea prola zaraja Fruhstorfer, 1912; Ent. Rundschau 29 (6) : 46
Panacea prola zaraja ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 204
P. p. amazonica Fruhstorfer, 1915
Upper Amazon, Peru, Ecuador Panacea prola amazonica Fruhstorfer, 1915; Soc. ent. 30 (12): 66, TL: Oberer Amazonestrom
Panacea prola amazonica f. bronzina Bryk, 1953; Arkiv. Zool. (2) 5 (1): (1-268), TL: Ecuador
= ; [NL4A, #1835b]
Panacea prola amazonica ; [EcuL]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 204; [NL4A, #1835b]
P. p. prolifica Fruhstorfer, 1915
Ecuador Panacea prola prolifica Fruhstorfer, 1915; Soc. ent. 30 (12): 66, TL: Ecuador
= Panacea prola amazonica ; [NL4A, #1835b]
Panacea prola prolifica ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 204

Panacea regina (Bates, 1864)
Upper Amazon, Ecuador, Peru. See [About maps] Pandora regina Bates, 1864; J. Entomol. 2 (10): 213, TL: St. Paulo [de Olivença]
Panacea regina, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Panacea regina ; [BOW: pl. 40, f. 1]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 204, f. 4-5, f. 11, 13; [NL4A, #1836]
Brazil(Amazonas) Panacea regina regina ; [NL4A, #1836a]
P. r. victrix Fruhstorfer, 1915
Ecuador Panacea regina victrix Fruhstorfer, 1915; Soc. ent. 30 (12): 66, TL: Ecuador
= Panacea regina ; [EcuL]
= Panacea regina chalcothea ; [NL4A, #1836b]
Panacea regina victrix ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 204

Panacea chalcothea (Bates, 1868)
Western Amazonas (Ecuador, Peru), Colombia?. See [About maps] Pandora chalcothea Bates, 1868; Ent. mon. Mag. 4 (44) : 170, TL: Colombia,Peru]
= Panacea regina (Bates, 1864); [EcuL]
Panacea regina chalcothea ; [NL4A, #1836b]
Panacea chalcothea ; [EBW, (name only)]; [BOW: pl. 39, f. 23 (text only)]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 205, f. 6

Panacea divalis (Bates, 1868)
Upper Amazon, Colombia - Peru, W.Brazil. See [About maps] Pandora divalis Bates, 1868; Ent. mon. Mag. 4 (44) : 171, TL: Pebas, Amazonas
Panacea divalis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Panacea procilla divalis ; Seitz, 1916, Gross-Schmett. Erde 5 : 537; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #1834c]
Panacea divalis ; [BOW: pl. 39, f. 21]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 206, f. 7-8, 12-13

Panacea procilla (Hewitson, 1854)
Panama - Amazon Basin, Colombia. See [About maps] Pandora procilla Hewitson, 1854; Ill. exot. Butts [3] (Pandora & Prepona): [81], pl. [43], f. 1-2, 4, TL: Colombia
Panacea procilla ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 39, f. 22]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 207, f. 9, 12-13; [NL4A, #1834]
W.Venezuela Panacea procilla procilla ; [NL4A, #1834a]
P. p. lysimache Godman & Salvin, [1883]
Panama (Volcan Chiriqui), Costa Rica? Panacea lysimache Godman & Salvin, [1883]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 275, TL: Panama, Chiriqui
Panacea procilla lysimache ; [NL4A, #1834d]; Seitz, 1916, Gross-Schmett. Erde 5 : 537; [BCR: 141, pl. 22]; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 209
P. p. ocana Fruhstorfer, 1912
Colombia (lower Magdalena River) Panacea procilla ocana Fruhstorfer, 1912; Ent. Rundschau 29 (6) : 46, TL: Colombia
= Panacea procilla procilla ; [NL4A, #1834a]
Panacea procilla ocana ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 209
P. p. salacia Fruhstorfer, 1915
Colombia Panacea procilla salacia Fruhstorfer, 1915; Soc. ent. 30 (12): 66, TL: Colombia
= Panacea procilla procilla ; [NL4A, #1834a]
Panacea procilla salacia ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 209
P. p. mamorensis Hall, 1917
Brazil(Rondônia) Panacea procilla var. marmorensis Hall, 1917; Entomologist 50: (171-174) , TL: Brazil, Rondônia
Panacea procilla mamorensis ; [NL4A, #1834e]

Panacea bleuzeni Plantrou & Attal, 1986
Guianas. See [About maps] Panacea bleuzeni Plantrou & Attal, 1986; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 50: 23, TL: French Guiana
Panacea bella D'Abrera, 1987; Butterflies of the Neotropical Region, Part III: 487, TL: French Guiana
= ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 209; [NL4A, #1834b]
Panacea bleuzeni ; Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002, J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 209, f. 10, 12-13
Panacea procilla bleuzeni ; [NL4A, #1834b]


6.11.2011 (6)

References:
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BCR]
DeVries; The Butterflies of Costa Rica 1; Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[EcuL]
Tommaso & Racheli, 2001; Fragmenta entomologica 33 (2): 213-380; An annotated list of Ecuadorian Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae)
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group


Some related literature:
Bates, 1864
Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley, Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae J. Entomol. 2 (10): 175-213, pl. 9-10 (1864), (12): 311-346, pl. 13-14 (1865)
Bates, 1868
Note on the genus Pandora (Diurnal Lepidoptera) Ent. mon. Mag. 4 (44) : 169-171
Bryk, 1953
Lepidoptera aus dem Amazonasgebiete und aus Peru gesammelt von Dr. Douglas Melin und Dr. Abraham Roman Arkiv. Zool. (2) 5 (1): 1-268
Doubleday, [1848]; Westwood, [1850]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Fruhstorfer, 1912
Neue netropische [sic] Nymphaliden Ent. Rundschau 29 (6) : 45-46 (23 March)
Fruhstorfer, 1915
Neue neotropische Nymphaliden Soc. ent. 30 (12): 66 (12 November)
Godman & Salvin, [1883]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. Vol. 1. (1879-1886) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 1: 1-487, 3: pl. 1-24,24a,25-112
Hall, 1917
New butterflies of the family Nymphalidae Entomologist 50 : 161-163, : 171-174
Hewitson, 1854
Illustrations of new species of exotic Butterflies selected chiefly from the collections of W. Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson Ill. exot. Butts [3] : (Systematic Index) III, (Callithea): [1-2], pl. [1] (1857), (Callithea Agrias II): [3-4], pl. [2] (1870), (Epicalia & Myscelia I): [5-6], pl. [3] (1851), (Epicalia II): [7-8], pl. [4] (1852), (Timetes): [9-10], pl. [5] (1852), (Neptis): [11-12], pl. [6] (1868), (Limenitis I-II): [13-16], pl. [7-8] (1859), (Heterochroa): [17-18], pl. [9] (1867), (Diadema): [19-20], pl. [10] (1863), (Diadema II): [21-22], pl. [11] (1865), (Diadema III): [23-24], pl. [12] (1868), (Amechania): [25-26], pl. [13] (1861), (Romaleosoma): [27-28], pl. [14] (1864), (Romaleosoma II-III): [29-32], pl. [15-16] (1865), (Romaleosoma IV): [33-34], pl. [17] (1866), (Euryphene): [35-36], pl. [18] (1864), (Euryphene II): [37-38], pl. [19] (1865), (Euryphene III Aterica): [39-40], pl. [20] (1865), (Euryphene IV): [41-42], pl. [21] (1865), (Aterica & Euryphene V-VI): [43-46], pl. [22-23] (1866), (Euryphene VII): [47-48], pl. [24] (1871), (Euryphene VIII & Aterica): [49-50], pl. [25] (1871), (Euryphene IX): [51-52], pl. [26] (1874), (Aterica & Harma): [53-54], pl. [27] (1866), (Harma): [55-56], pl. [28] (1864), (Harma II): [57-58], pl. [29] (1866), (Harma III-IV): [59-60], pl. [30-31] (1869), (Harma V-VI & Euryphene X): [61-62], pl. [32-33] (1874), (Adolias): [63-64], pl. [34] (1861), (Adolias II): [65-66], pl. [35] (1862), (Adolias III): [67-68], pl. [36] (1863), (Adolias IV): [69-70], pl. [37] (1875), (Agrias): [71-72], pl. [38] (1860), (Agrias & Nymphalis): [73-74], pl. [39] (1855), (Agrias & Siderone): [75-76], pl. [40] (1854), (Prepona): [77-78], pl. [41] (1859), (Prepona II & Agrias): [79-80], pl. [42] (1876), (Pandora & Prepona): [81-82], pl. [43] (1854), (Apatura): [83-84], pl. [44] (1869), (Nymphalis): [85-86], pl. [45] (1854), (Nymphalis II): [87-88], pl. [46] (1859), (Charaxes III): [89-90], pl. [47] (1863), (Charaxes IV): [91-92], pl. [48] (1874), (Charaxes V): [93-94], pl. [49] (1876), (Paphia II): [95-96], pl. [50] (1869), (Paphia & Siderone): [97-98], pl. [51] (1856), (Siderone): [99-100], pl. [52] (1860), (Zeuxidia & Aemona): [101-102], pl. [53] (1868), : iv
Hill, Penz & DeVries, 2002
Phylogenetic analysis and review of Panacea and Batesia butterflies J. Lep. Soc. 56 (4): 199-215
Plantrou & Attal, 1986
Description D'une Nouvelle Espece Du Genre Panacea Decouverte En Guyane Française: Panacea bleuzeni nov. sp. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 50: 23-24
Seitz, 1916
Die amerikanischen Tagfalter Gross-Schmett. Erde 5 : 1-48 (1907), : 49-72 (1908), : 73-160 (1909), : 161-200 (1910), : 201-240 (1911), : 241-344 (1912), : 345-456 (1913), : 457-480 (1914), : 481-536 (1915), : 537-664 (1916), : 665-720 (1917), : 745-768 (1919), : 721-744,769-816 (1920), : 817-856 (1921), : 857-912,937-944 (1922), : 913-936,945-1000 (1923), : 1001-1141 (1924)


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.