May 13, 2019 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/bebox.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between The NetBSD 8.0 and 8.1 Releases................3 Features to be removed in a later release......................3 The NetBSD Foundation..........................................3 Sources of NetBSD..............................................3 NetBSD 8.1_RC1 Release Contents................................3 NetBSD/bebox subdirectory structure.........................5 Binary distribution sets....................................5 NetBSD/bebox System Requirements and Supported Devices.........7 Supported machines..........................................7 Supported devices...........................................7 Unsupported devices.........................................7 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media...................7 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation..................9 Available Boot Media........................................9 Preparing the Bootable Media...............................10 Loading the kernel from hard disk or floppy disk...........10 Installing the NetBSD System..................................10 Running the sysinst installation program...................10 Introduction............................................10 Possible hardware problems..............................10 General.................................................10 Quick install...........................................11 Booting NetBSD..........................................12 Network configuration...................................12 Installation drive selection and parameters.............12 Selecting which sets to install.........................13 Partitioning the disk...................................13 Preparing your hard disk................................13 Getting the distribution sets...........................14 Installation from CD-ROM................................14 Installation using FTP..................................14 Installation using NFS..................................14 Installation from an unmounted file system..............15 Installation from a local directory.....................15 Extracting the distribution sets........................15 Configure additional items..............................15 Finalizing your installation............................15 Post installation steps.......................................16 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................18 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............19 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases.......19 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 6.x releases.......19 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 7.x releases.......19 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................20 Administrivia.................................................20 Thanks go to..................................................21 We are........................................................21 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................28 The End.......................................................35

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 8.1_RC1 on the bebox platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on many different different system architectures (ports) across a variety of distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release contains complete binary releases for most of these system architectures, with preliminary support for the others included in source form. Please see the NetBSD website at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, NetBSD would not exist.

Changes Between The NetBSD 8.0 and 8.1 Releases

The NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release is the first security/critical update of the NetBSD 8 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed important for security or stability reasons. The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-8.1: https://cdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.1_RC1/CHANGES-8.1 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release tree.

The release anouncements, status, updates and links to other resources can be found at https://www.netbsd.org/releases/formal-8/

Features to be removed in a later release

The following features are to be removed from NetBSD in the future:

The NetBSD Foundation

The NetBSD Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the NetBSD Project and owns the trademark of the word ``NetBSD''. It supports the design, development, and adoption of NetBSD worldwide. More information on the NetBSD Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/foundation/

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/

NetBSD 8.1_RC1 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-8.1_RC1/

CHANGES
Changes between the 7.0 and 8.0 releases.

CHANGES-8.0
Changes between the initial 8.0 branch and final release of 8.0.

CHANGES-8.1
Changes between the 8.0 release and the 8.1 release.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in previous NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes and notes about the release.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

images/
Images (ISO 9660 or USB) for installing NetBSD. Depending on your system, these may be bootable.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 8.1_RC1 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 8.1_RC1 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 kernel for all architectures as well as the config(1) utility.

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

MD5
MD5 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/bebox subdirectory structure
The bebox-specific portion of the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release is found in the bebox subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-8.1_RC1/bebox/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
sets/
bebox binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
floppy/
bebox boot and installation floppies; see below.
floppy/boot.fs
floppy/kernel1.fs
floppy/kernel2.fs
bebox boot and installation floppy images. The first is the bootloader on old BeFS. The other images contain the kernel and an embedded ramdisk.
Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD bebox binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 release for bebox. The binary distribution sets can be found in the bebox/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 8.1_RC1 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 8.1_RC1 bebox base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional.

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.

debug
This distribution set contains debug information for all base system utilities. It is usefull when reporting issues with binaries or during developement. This set is huge, if the target disk is small, do not install it.

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/bebox 8.1_RC1 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.

misc
This set includes the system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.

modules
This set includes kernel modules to add functionality to a running system.

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on X.Org. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.

xdebug
This distribution set contains debug information for all X11 binaries. It is usefull when reporting issues with these binaries or during developement. This set is huge, if the target disk is small, do not install it.

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.

xserver
The X server. This includes the modular Xorg server.

The bebox binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xzpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system.

Note:
Each directory in the bebox binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/bebox System Requirements and Supported Devices

The minimum configuration requires 16 MB of RAM and 160 MB of disk space. To install the entire system requires about 250 MB (not including swap). NetBSD works with about 32 MB or RAM, but at least 64 MB is advised, especially on the slower processors.

Supported machines

In general NetBSD/bebox should run on all BeBox models/revisions. More information can also be found at the NetBSD/bebox homepage: http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/bebox/

Supported devices

NetBSD supports most of the hardware that shipped on these systems through the machine-independent device drivers. There are a few notable exceptions, listed below:

Unsupported devices

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

CD-ROM / DVD / USB-stick
Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM, DVD or USB stick. Likely locations are binary/sets and bebox/binary/sets. (You only need to know this if you are mixing installer and installation media from different versions - the installer will know the proper default location for the sets it comes with).

Proceed to the instructions on installation.

FTP
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

NFS
Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Tape
To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_sets

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that represents the tape drive you're using. This might be /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. In the above example, dist_sets is a list of filenames corresponding to the distribution sets that you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the kern-GENERIC, base, and etc distributions on tape (the absolute minimum required for installation), you would do the following:


       # cd .../NetBSD-8.1_RC1
       # cd bebox/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device kern-GENERIC.tgz base.tgz etc.tgz

Note:
You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.


Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

Available Boot Media
The BeBox firmware (BootROM) allows for system booting using:

The NetBSD/bebox doesn't support creating/reading/writing either of the file systems.

However, nbpowerpc-mkbootimage can create an image using the Old Be file system for writing to a floppy.

Preparing the Bootable Media
This section describes how to create a NetBSD/bebox boot loader onto a floppy.

Go to one of the NetBSD mirror sites and download a floppy image from the bebox/installation/floppy/ directory named boot.fs or boot_vga.fs or boot_com.fs.

boot.fs can boot with a frame buffer. If you see the 'Be' logo on your screen then use this. If not, use boot_vga.fs.

# dd if=boot.fs of=/dev/rfd0a bs=18k

If you have an x86 PC which runs Windows and use it to write the floppy image(s) to floppy disk, you can use the Rawrite32 Windows32 program (installed by rawr32.exe) available in the i386/installation/misc/ directory of the NetBSD distribution.

Also you can create boot.fs in the following way:

# nbpowerpc-mkbootimage -I -m bebox -b mdec/boot/boot boot.fs
Loading the kernel from hard disk or floppy disk
boot supports loading a kernel from hard disk or floppy disk connected directly onboard.

Installing the NetBSD System

Running the sysinst installation program

  1. Introduction

    Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. Still, you should read this document and have it available during the installation process. This document tries to be a good guide to the installation, and as such, covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.

  2. Possible hardware problems

    Should you encounter hardware problems during installation, try rebooting after unplugging removable devices you don't need for installation. Non-removable devices can be disabled with userconf (use boot -c to enter it).

  3. General

    The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while installing NetBSD on your hard disk. sysinst is a menu driven program that guides you through the installation process. Sometimes questions will be asked, and in many cases the default answer will be displayed in brackets (``[ ]'') after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch by running the /sysinst program from the command prompt. It is not necessary to reboot.

  4. Quick install

    First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD / DVD as the install media.

  5. Booting NetBSD

    Boot your machine. The boot loader will start, which will print a countdown and begin booting.

    If the boot loader messages do not appear in a reasonable amount of time, you either have a bad boot floppy or a hardware problem. Try writing the install floppy image to a different disk, and using that.

    It will take a while to load the kernel from the floppy, probably around a minute or so, then, the kernel boot messages will be displayed. This may take a little while also, as NetBSD will be probing your system to discover which hardware devices are installed. The most important thing to know is that wd0 is NetBSD's name for your first SATA/PATA disk, wd1 the second, etc. sd0 is your first SCSI disk, sd1 the second, etc.

    Note that once the system has finished booting, you need not leave the floppy in the disk drive.

    Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.

  6. Network configuration

    If you do not intend to use networking during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response when asked to provide a server.

  7. Installation drive selection and parameters

    To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu.

    The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to install NetBSD. sysinst will report a list of disks it finds and ask you for your selection. You should see disk names like sd0 or sd1.

  8. Selecting which sets to install

    The next step is to choose which distribution sets you wish to install. Options are provided for full, minimal, and custom installations. If you choose sets on your own, base, etc, and a kernel must be selected.

  9. Partitioning the disk

  10. Editing the NetBSD disklabel

    The partition table of the NetBSD part of a disk is called a disklabel. If your disk already has a disklabel written to it, you can choose Use existing partition sizes. Otherwise, select Set sizes of NetBSD partitions.

    After you have chosen your partitions and their sizes (or if you opted to use the existing partitions), you will be presented with the layout of the NetBSD disklabel and given one more chance to change it. For each partition, you can set the type, offset and size, block and fragment size, and the mount point. The type that NetBSD uses for normal file storage is called 4.2BSD. A swap partition has a special type called swap. Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.

    a
    Root partition (/)

    b
    Swap partition.

    c
    The NetBSD portion of the disk.

    d
    The entire disk.

    e-h
    Available for other use. Traditionally, e is the partition mounted on /usr, but this is historical practice and not a fixed value.

    You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.

  11. Preparing your hard disk

    You are now at the point of no return. Nothing has been written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified. If you are sure you want to proceed, select yes.

    The install program will now label your disk and create the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.

  12. Getting the distribution sets

    The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets that come in the form of gzipped tar files. At this point, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first transfer the sets to your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.

    For all these methods, the first step is to make the sets available for extraction. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of the methods. After reading about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.

  13. Installation from CD-ROM

    When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify the device name for your CD-ROM drive (usually cd0) and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.

    sysinst will then check that the files are actually present in the specified location and proceed to the extraction of the sets.

  14. Installation using FTP

    To install using ftp, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will help you with this, asking if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.

    sysinst will then transfer the set files from the remote site to your hard disk.

  15. Installation using NFS

    To install using NFS, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e., correctly exported to your machine.

    If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.

  16. Installation from an unmounted file system

    In order to install from a local file system, you will need to specify the device that the file system resides on (for example wd1e), the type of the file system, and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located. sysinst will then check if it can indeed access the sets at that location.

  17. Installation from a local directory

    This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.

  18. Extracting the distribution sets

    A progress bar will be displayed while the distribution sets are being extracted.

    After all the files have been extracted, the device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files.

  19. Configure additional items

    The next menu will allow you to select a number of additional items to configure, including the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC, the root user's shell, and the initial root password.

    You can also enable installation of binary packages, which installs the pkgin(1) tool for managing binary packages for third-party software. This will feel familiar to users of package tools such as apt-get or yum. If you prefer to install third-party software from source, you can install the pkgsrc(7) tree.

    Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8), or mdnsd(8).

  20. Finalizing your installation

    Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD 8.1_RC1. You can now reboot the machine and boot NetBSD from hard disk.


Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.

  1. Before all else, read postinstall(8).

  2. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst normally will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    When you have finished editing /etc/rc.conf, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that may need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute. You may also need to add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of


           ifconfig_le0="inet 192.0.2.123 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_le0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information.

    Instead of manually configuring networking, DHCP can be used by setting dhcpcd=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

  3. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. If you didn't set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

  4. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  5. The X Window System

    If you installed the X Window System, you may want to read the chapter about X in the NetBSD Guide: http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html

  6. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages the software may depend upon.

  7. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The easiest way to upgrade to NetBSD 8.1_RC1 is with binaries, and that is the method documented here.

To do the upgrade, you must have one form of boot media available. You must also have at least the base and kern binary distribution sets available. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place, you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, boot blocks, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.

The upgrade procedure is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning.

Fetching the binary sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure; refer to the installation part of the document for help. File systems are checked before unpacking the sets.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD 8.1_RC1 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. You will probably want to update the set of device nodes you have in /dev. If you've changed the contents of /dev by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if not, you can just cd into /dev, and run the command:

       # sh MAKEDEV all

sysinst will attempt to merge the settings stored in your /etc directory with the new version of NetBSD using the postinstall(8) utility. However, postinstall(8) is only able to deal with changes that are easily automated. It is recommended that you use the etcupdate(8) tool to merge any remaining configuration changes.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 8.1_RC1.

Note that sysinst will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default will be handled.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 5.x releases

See the section below on upgrading from NetBSD 6.x and 7.x as well.

The following users need to be created:

The following groups need to be created:

The implementation of SHA2-HMAC in KAME_IPSEC as used in NetBSD 5.0 and before did not comply with current standards. FAST_IPSEC does, with the result that old and new systems cannot communicate over IPSEC if one of the affected authentication algorithms (hmac_sha256, hmac_sha384, hmac_sha512) is used.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 6.x releases

See the section on upgrading from NetBSD 7.x as well

The following user needs to be created:

The following groups need to be created:

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 7.x releases

The following user needs to be created:

The following groups need to be created:

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you installed the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for details.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details.

Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/

If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with NetBSD, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it. If you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud acorn32
Matt Thomasmatt alpha
Ignatios Souvatzisis amiga
Ignatios Souvatzisis amigappc
Noriyuki Sodasoda arc
Julian Colemanjdc atari
Matthias Drochnerdrochner cesfic
Erik Berlscyber cobalt
Antti Kanteepooka emips
Simon Burgesimonb evbmips
Steve Woodfordscw evbppc
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui hp300
Nick Hudsonskrll hppa
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe hpcsh
Matt Thomasmatt ibmnws
Gavan Fantomgavan iyonix
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe landisk
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui luna68k
Scott Reynoldsscottr mac68k
Michael Lorenzmacallan macppc
Steve Woodfordscw mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw mvmeppc
Matt Thomasmatt netwinder
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui news68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled ofppc
Simon Burgesimonb pmax
Tim Rightnourgarbled prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled rs6000
Tohru Nishimuranisimura sandpoint
Simon Burgesimonb sbmips
Søren Jørvangsoren sgimips
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh sh3
Martin Husemannmartin sparc64
Anders Magnussonragge vax
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks x68k
Manuel Bouyerbouyer xen

The NetBSD 8.1_RC1 Release Engineering team:
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Alistair G. Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Hikaru Abehikaru@NetBSD.org
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Zafer Aydoganzafer@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Marc Balmermbalmer@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Taylor R. Campbellriastradh@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Aleksey Cheusovcheusov@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Sean Colescole@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Thomas Corttcort@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Masatake Daimonpho@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Felix Deichmannflxd@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Steven Drakesbd@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Elad Efratelad@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Robert Elzkre@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Hisashi Todd Fujinakahtodd@NetBSD.org
Makoto Fujiwaramef@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Oliver V. Gouldver@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Yorick Hardyyhardy@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Kenichi Hashimotohkenken@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
Emile Heitorimil@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Lars Heidiekerpara@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
Wen Hepingwen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Daniel Horeckimorr@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Darran Huntdarran@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Åstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Sevan Janiyansevan@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
KIYOHARA Takashikiyohara@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
Mateusz Kocielskishm@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Joseph Koshyjkoshy@NetBSD.org
Radoslaw Kujawarkujawa@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Guillaume Lasmayousgls@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Sergio Lopezslp@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Palle Lyckegaardpalle@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
Anthony Mallettho@NetBSD.org
John Marinomarino@NetBSD.org
Roy Marplesroy@NetBSD.org
Pedro Martellettopedro@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Jean-Yves Migeonjym@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
Ryosuke Moroszptvlfn@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Youri Moutonyouri@NetBSD.org
Constantine A. Murenincnst@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Tuomo Mäkinentjam@NetBSD.org
Zoltán Arnold NAGYzoltan@NetBSD.org
Kengo NAKAHARAknakahara@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Alexander Nasonovalnsn@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
Lourival Pereira Vieira Netolneto@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Rin Okuyamarin@NetBSD.org
Ryo ONODERAryoon@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Ryota Ozakiozaki-r@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Fredrik Pettaipettai@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Pierre Proncherykhorben@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Maya Rashishmaya@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Nils Ratuszniknils@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Jens Rehsacksno@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Rumkorumko@NetBSD.org
Jukka Ruohonenjruoho@NetBSD.org
Kamil Rytarowskikamil@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Guilherme Salazarsalazar@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Ryo Shimizuryo@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Nathanial Slossnat@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Matthew Sporledermspo@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Adrian Steinmannast@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Hiroki Suenagahsuenaga@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Grégoire Sutregsutre@NetBSD.org
Sergey Svishchevshattered@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Leonardo Taccarileot@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Hasso Tepperhasso@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Hiroshi Tokudahiroshi@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Tamás Tóthttoth@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Maxime Villardmaxv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Mark Weinemweinem@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Sebastian Wiedenrothwiedi@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Abhinav Upadhyayabhinav@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Ysmalstacktic@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Tim Zingelmantez@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
This product includes software developed by The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project. See http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information about NetBSD.
This product includes software developed by Intel Corporation and its contributors.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software designed by William Allen Simpson.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea, Sweden and its contributors.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea.
This product includes software developed at the Information Technology Division, US Naval Research Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by David Jones and Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Hellmuth Michaelis and Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by Internet Research Institute, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman and Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Mika Kortelainen
This product includes software developed by Aaron Brown and Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Adam Ciarcinski for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass and Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda, and Colin Wood for the NetBSD Projet.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda.
This product includes software developed by Allen Briggs.
This product includes software developed by Amancio Hasty and Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
This product includes software developed by Bodo Moeller. (If available, substitute umlauted o for oe)
This product includes software developed by Boris Popov.
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This product includes software developed by Causality Limited.
This product includes software developed by Charles Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum, by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps, Ezra Story, Kari Mettinen, Markus Wild, Lutz Vieweg and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed by Chuck Silvers.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Colin Wood.
This product includes software developed by Daan Vreeken.
This product includes software developed by Daishi Kato
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk and Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed by Daniel Widenfalk for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by David Miller.
This product includes software developed by Dean Huxley.
This product includes software developed by Emmanuel Dreyfus
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Hvozda.
This product includes software developed by Eric S. Raymond
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes software developed by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story and by Kari Mettinen.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, Michael Teske and by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story, by Kari Mettinen, and Michael Teske.
This product includes software developed by Ezra Story.
This product includes software developed by Frank van der Linden for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Gardner Buchanan.
This product includes software developed by Garrett D'Amore.
This product includes software developed by Gary Thomas.
This product includes software developed by Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Harvard University.
This product includes software developed by Henrik Vestergaard Draboel.
This product includes software developed by Herb Peyerl.
This product includes software developed by Hidetoshi Shimokawa.
This product includes software developed by Hubert Feyrer for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Ian W. Dall.
This product includes software developed by Internet Initiative Japan Inc.
This product includes software developed by James R. Maynard III.
This product includes software developed by Jared D. McNeill.
This product includes software developed by Jason L. Wright
This product includes software developed by Jason R. Thorpe for And Communications, http://www.and.com/
This product includes software developed by Joachim Koenig-Baltes.
This product includes software developed by Jochen Pohl for The NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Joerg Wunsch
This product includes software developed by John Birrell.
This product includes software developed by John P. Wittkoski.
This product includes software developed by John Polstra.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan R. Stone for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone and Jason R. Thorpe for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Julian Highfield.
This product includes software developed by K. Kobayashi.
This product includes software developed by K. Kobayashi and H. Shimokawa.
This product includes software developed by Kazuhisa Shimizu.
This product includes software developed by Kazuki Sakamoto.
This product includes software developed by Kenneth Stailey.
This product includes software developed by Kiyoshi Ikehara.
This product includes software developed by Klaus Burkert,by Bernd Ernesti, by Michael van Elst, and by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Lloyd Parkes.
This product includes software developed by Lutz Vieweg.
This product includes software developed by MINOURA Makoto, Takuya Harakawa.
This product includes software developed by Marc Horowitz.
This product includes software developed by Marcus Comstedt.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe.
This product includes software developed by Mark Tinguely and Jim Lowe
This product includes software developed by Markus Wild.
This product includes software developed by Marshall M. Midden.
This product includes software developed by Masanobu Saitoh.
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This product includes software developed by Matthew Fredette.
This product includes software developed by Matt DeBergalis.
This product includes software developed by Michael Smith.
This product includes software developed by Microsoft.
This product includes software developed by Mike Pritchard.
This product includes software developed by Mike Pritchard and contributors.
This product includes software developed by Minoura Makoto.
This product includes software developed by Niels Provos.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist, Brandon Creighton and Job de Haas.
This product includes software developed by Niklas Hallqvist.
This product includes software developed by Paolo Abeni.
This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg.
This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras.
This product includes software developed by Per Fogelstrom
This product includes software developed by Peter Galbavy.
This product includes software developed by Phase One, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson.
This product includes software developed by QUALCOMM Incorporated.
This product includes software developed by RiscBSD.
This product includes software developed by Roar Thronæs.
This product includes software developed by Rodney W. Grimes.
This product includes software developed by Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Rolf Grossmann.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Ross Harvey.
This product includes software developed by Scott Bartram.
This product includes software developed by Scott Stevens.
This product includes software developed by Shingo WATANABE.
This product includes software developed by Softweyr LLC, the University of California, Berkeley, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Stephan Thesing.
This product includes software developed by Steven M. Bellovin.
This product includes software developed by Takashi Hamada.
This product includes software developed by Takumi Nakamura.
This product includes software developed by Tatoku Ogaito for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Texas A&M University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Thomas Gerner.
This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.
This product includes software developed by Trimble Navigation, Ltd.
This product includes software developed by WIDE Project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Winning Strategies, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Yasushi Yamasaki.
This product includes software developed by Yen Yen Lim and North Dakota State University.
This product includes software developed by Zembu Labs, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the Alice Group.
This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the David Muir Sharnoff.
This product includes software developed by the Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Network Research Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.OpenSSL.org/)
This product includes software developed by the PocketBSD project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD kernel team.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD team.
This product includes software developed by the SMCC Technology Development Group at Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors, as well as the Trustees of Columbia University.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana and their contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Urbana-Champaign Independent Media Center.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.
This product includes software developed by Kyma Systems.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Kyma Systems LLC.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Scott Bartram and Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Eiji Kawauchi.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material.

In the following statement, "This software" refers to the parallel port driver:

This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.

Some files have the following copyright:

Mach Operating System
Copyright (c) 1991,1990,1989 Carnegie Mellon University
All Rights Reserved.

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and its documentation is hereby granted, provided that both the copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software, derivative works or modified versions, and any portions thereof, and that both notices appear in supporting documentation.

CARNEGIE MELLON ALLOWS FREE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE IN ITS CONDITION. CARNEGIE MELLON DISCLAIMS ANY LIABILITY OF ANY KIND FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Carnegie Mellon requests users of this software to return to
Software Distribution Coordinator or Software.Distribution@CS.CMU.EDU
School of Computer Science
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

any improvements or extensions that they make and grant Carnegie the rights to redistribute these changes.

Some files have the following copyright:

Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Carnegie-Mellon University.
All rights reserved.

Author: Chris G. Demetriou

Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this software and its documentation is hereby granted, provided that both the copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software, derivative works or modified versions, and any portions thereof, and that both notices appear in supporting documentation.
CARNEGIE MELLON ALLOWS FREE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE IN ITS "AS IS" CONDITION. CARNEGIE MELLON DISCLAIMS ANY LIABILITY OF ANY KIND FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Carnegie Mellon requests users of this software to return to
Software Distribution Coordinator or Software.Distribution@CS.CMU.EDU
School of Computer Science
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

any improvements or extensions that they make and grant Carnegie the rights to redistribute these changes.

Some files have the following copyright:

Copyright 1996 The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University. All Rights Reserved.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies. Stanford University makes no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.

The End