Forestry information resources on the Internet
- Jarmo Saarikko
- Finnish Forest Research Institute METLA,
- Unioninkatu 40 A, FIN-00170 HELSINKI, Finland
[This file is http://www.metla.fi/~saarikko/doc/Toronto94-09.htm]
[most recent version is at http://www.metla.fi/guides/forestry-resources.html]
- The Uniform Resource Locator URL
Books on Internet
- What is there?
- Discussion groups
- Mailing lists
Mailing lists using gateways to Usenet
Newsgroups on Usenet
- Bulletin boards
- Electronic publications
- Mail based services
- Archives and databases
- Bibliographies and OPACS
- Network access tools
- References and bibliography
Internet and some specific software tools have provided researchers increasingly easy
access to information which has earlier been searched by trained information
specialists alone. More and more research institutions are joining Internet, often
creating access to new databases and information. American governmental
institutions have become a good example of this information sharing. The World
Wide Web (WWW) is a virtual network of hypermedia servers which are spread out
all over Internet. A document may contain text and figures or it may be a sound or a
movie file. WWW provides access to all the earlier Internet tools, such as FTP,
gopher, WAIS, Usenet news. Ath the same time new services using the hypermedia
capabilities are being created. These include on-line biological collections, free access electronic publications, live simulations of ecological models etc. Scientists are able
to post their manuscripts or published works for sharing and commenting. A review
of currently available forestry-related information resources is presented.
Internet is currently a decentralised network of national and regional computer
networks for research and development. There are over 2 million computers hooked
to the Internet, with some 20 million users. In 1993, an estimate of 10000 biologist
are reading Usenet newsgroups. There are some 250 newsgroups and 100 mailing
lists with interest to biologists (Smith 1993). Internet provides fast and inexpensive
means and tools for interaction with colleaques and for finding information from
various sources. The most common way to communicate is electronic mail, but online
searching and browsing of electronic information sources are becoming more and
more daily bread for the common user, too. The exchange of electronic messages
between local networks or the geographic location of information are no longer
Information services over Internet are those produced by the information providers. It
is up to the providers in which way they want to offer their information. Until
recently, many sources have been rather unorganized, lacking the professional touch
of library and information specialists. The exponential increase of Internet usage and
information sources over the last two years has forced users to create informative files
and directory services to help finding information. Lots of printed and electronic
guides are available to help the novice or even an experienced user to navigate in the
net. For example, there are files for Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), which are
usually subject oriented. FYI (For Your Information) files, are user oriented guides to
the Internet (manuals, glossaries, etc). An up to date collection of FAQ and FYI files
is available on the SWITCH InfoReader by anonymous FTP to "nic.switch.ch", in the
directory "/docs" ("ftp://nic.switch.ch/docs"). Another useful collection is the
"Clearinghouse of Internet Subject-Oriented Resource Guides" at University of
Michigan ("gopher://una.hh.lib.umich.edu:70/11/inetdirs"). A subject oriented guide
for forestry-related resources is available at "http://www.metla.fi/info/Forestry.html"
as part of the WWW Virtual Library "http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview2.html".
The Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
The mysterious cryptic codes above are
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) addresses which give the type of resource being
accessed and the physical location and path of the file. File servers in the World Wide
Web use this common format for locating and requesting files. The syntax is
"scheme://host.subdomain.domain[:port]/path/filename". The scheme may be a local
file (file:), a file on a FTP-server (ftp:), a file on a hypertext server (http:), a file on a
gopher server (gopher:), a telnet-based address (telnet:) for a remote login session, a
file on a WAIS-server (wais:) or an Usenet newsgroup from your local newsserver
(news:). The port is often optional.
Books on Internet
Internet has grown to offer an extremely wide variety of information. Earlier on-line
connections mainly provided access to commercial databases for information
specialists. Now academic users may find job and conference announcements, calls for
papers, important notices on recent events, publication announcements, journal tables
of contents, online bibliographies and dictionaries, weather maps, library catalogs etc.
Scientific interest groups are able to maintain electronic discussion groups, directories,
deliver digests and newsletters for which Internet provides a fast method. Quite often
the news reach the receiver much sooner than a printed version. Electronic publication
of journals and books over Internet will increase dramatically in 1994.
Due to the distributed production of information the directory
services are not always up to date. Especially many printed books on Internet
resources may often be out of date even before printing. However, these books cover
the usage of the net tools and there are lots of information available on the net. Thus,
the tools will be covered very superficially here. A good strategy to gather information
on Internet resources is to learn to use the Internet tools yourself. One good example
of a printed guide is Hahn & Stout (1993). For a short introduction on Internet tools
and the biological resources on Internet, refer to Smith (1993). The most classical
reference on Internet is Krol (1992). Some printed books from 1993 have been
reviewed in Online magazine (Tuss 1994).
To handle the wealth of information new "web-wanderer", "spider" and "robot"-
programs are being created and tested (more information is currently available at
"http://web.nexor.co.uk/mak/doc/robots/robots.html" by Martijn Koster). By browsing
the Internet resources automatically, they check the hypertext links within files and
follow them to check if they are still in existence or if they are new to them. The
programs create databases some of which allow keyword searches on them. Subject
oriented directories (for example: "http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview2.html" and "gopher://gophe
r.switch.ch/11/subject") and powerful
search engines (Veronica, Jughead, Archie, WAIS) are also available to a regular user
for locating resources of interest to them.
This description for electronic resources on forestry in the Internet will never be
complete. It is an impossible task for one person alone to discover all changes and
additions to the resources on the net. I have omitted all information related to
molecular biology and I try to deal with fields closer to forestry. All comments and
contributions are gratefully accepted for any forthcoming versions of this guide.
Please, send them to Jarmo.Saarikko@metla.fi.
Netiquette (alias " net etiquette") means proper behaviour on network. See Chapter
2.1 Netiquette, from Smith (1993), Usenet netiquette is posted on a regular basis in
the newsgroup "news.announce.newusers". If you are not familiar with a newsreader
program and want to test postings, do not do it in a discussion group. Instead, use any
group, which has and ending ".test".
Scientific special interest groups (e.g. IUFRO working groups) are
able to maintain electronic discussion forums in several different ways. Anyone who
can send electronic mail to a mailing list is a potential user of these services.
Electronic mailing lists are usually run by specific server software which sends any
message sent to the list as multiple copies to all subscribers of the list as well as
maintains the subscription service. The most common servers are called "listserv",
"listprocessor" and "majordomo". Listservers may also provide archiving of earlier
messages. Usually these lists are subscribed by mailing commands to the server and
not to the list address!. Some Internet mailing lists are maintained by real persons.
The lists have a specific administrative e-mail address for receiving the subscribe and
unsubscribe messages. These addresses are usually of the form: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Messages which are to be
distributed via the list are then sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please, note that the
subscription messages and other administrative requests are NEVER sent to a list
You should always save the instructions which you receive after subscribing to a list
so that you will know how to unsubscribe from the list when your address changes or
when you are not going to check your mail for a while (e.g. during vacation). Also,
when sending messages to a mailing list, please remember to design your "Subject:"
-line well, because in the current flood of information, messages are selected to be
read only on the basis of this line. Thus, a single word saying "help" is not at all
helpful or informative and will probably not elicit much response. When responding
to a message, try to limit quotations of the previous message to an absolute minimum
necessary. Also, please consider directing your reply to the author of the message in
question, instead of replying to the whole list.
There are hundreds of mailing lists for almost any topic you can imagine, but only
few are concerned with forestry related topics, which are listed below. A more
complete collection of academic discussion fora has been collected by Diane K.
Kovacs and is available for example at
Table 1. A collection of forestry-related mailing lists.
- List address
- List topic and the address for the subsribe message:
- Various fields of agriculture, including tropical forestry
- agricultural information, also forestry (FAO)
- Discussion concerning US National Biodiversity Information Center
- Discussion on Int. Biodiversity Network (BIN21)
- ecosystem theory and modelling
- Dendrome forest tree genome mapping digest
Send all subscription requests and submissions to the editor:
- Ecological Economics List
- Ecological Society of America
- Fire in landscape ecology
- Forest Management Decision Support Systems
Administrator's address: email@example.com
- All fields in forestry
- Forest genetics and tree breeding
More information at
- Distribution list of all Extension Foresters with an
e-mail address. To subsribe to forest-net send the
following two-line message:
- set address your-e-mail-address
- Geographic information systems
- Int. Organization for Plant Information
- Dendrochronology Forum
- Natural Resources Librarians and
- Pacific North West Forests mailing list
The subscribe command (include the brackets):
subscribe nwfor Your Name
- Fungus and root interaction
- Plant Taxonomy
- photosynthesis research
- pollination and palynology
- Land and Resource Economics Conference
To subscribe, send a message to
and use the
Subject: "subscribe to res-econ". The main body of the message
should be: "firstname lastname"
- Quarterly newsletter
- Wood products
To subscribe to wood-net send the following two-line message:
- set address your-e-mail-address
Mailing lists using gateways from listserv to Usenet
Some mailing lists have all
their messages automatically copied to the Usenet newsgroup system. This copying
occurs in a specified computer which is called a "gateway". Often the gateway is bi-
directional so that all messages and their follow-ups posted to the mailing list or to
the newsgroup in question are automatically sent to the other system.
Newsgroups on Usenet
Usenet news, or netnews as it is also called, is a system where electronic
messages are sent in standard format around the world, in an interconnected
network of computers. It is a decentralized discussion system. The messages
are grouped into categories, which are called newsgroups. Each message
contains information about who sent the message and where and to which
newsgroup it was posted. This information is presented the in so called
"header"-lines. The newsgroups may be distributed locally, nationally or
world-wide. The international newsgroups are divided into a few major
categories, which are listed below. The main categories are further divided
into the newsgroups. Currently there are over 2000 newsgroups in worldwide
distribution. New newsgroups in the major international categories (except
alt) are started only after an official voting procedure.
Table 2: The Usenet news major categories.
alt Alternative topics from all aspects of life
comp Computer oriented newsgroups
misc Miscellaneous topics, not fitting to other groups
news News network and software
rec Arts, recreational activities and hobbies
sci Scientific discussion groups for research or applications
soc Social issues and socializing
talk Discussions and debates on various topics
The following groups have a smaller distribution:
bionet Biological topics
bit Gatewayed BITNET LISTSERV mailing lists
biz Business topics
sfnet Finnish discussion groups
fj Japanese discussion groups
There are now thousands of sites sharing the Usenet news. Protocols and
software for reading the news are available to many different platforms,
such as MS-Windows, Macintosh, VAX-VMS, VM/CMS, MVS, Unix etc. Check with
your network administrators if your site has Usenet access. If not, many of
the newsgroups are linked to mailing-lists. Many files, which appear
periodically in the newsgroups are available by e-mail from "firstname.lastname@example.org". For
instructions, send a message with the subject: "HELP". Most
client software offer the same possibilities: subscription to a selection of
newsgroups to make them immediately accessible without browsing through
thousands of groups; reading messages and responding to them; posting new
There are certain rules about what kind of messages should not be posted on
the newsgroups. See more about this "netiquette" from Smith (1993) and the newsgroups "news.announce.newusers" and
"news.newusers.questions", where netiquette information is posted on a
regular basis. For a new user it is wise to follow the discussions in a
newsgroup for a while before posting a message. There are only few
newsgroups dealing directly with forestry or plant related topics. Table 3.
lists some examples. More thorough explanations and more lists are described
in the following electronic articles: (Smith 1993, da Silva 1994)
Table 3. Examples of forest-related usenet newsgroups.
bionet.agroforestry Agroforestry research
rec.arts.bonsai The art of bonsai
sci.agriculture Agriculture and related topics
sci.bio.ecology Ecological Society of America
Linked to mailing list email@example.com)
sci.geo.satellite-nav Satellite navigation systems
sci.image.processing Scientific image processing and analysis
sci.research.postdoc Postdoctoral studies, including offers
sci.stat.consult Statistical consulting
Bulletin boards are computer services for which you have to
make a connection to a specific computer (usually by telnet, dialling-up with a
modem or by a packet-network connection [X.25]). The messages on bulletin board
discussion groups are not broadcast out of the bulletin board system. Many links for a
telnet-connection to bulletin boards are available on the Internet gopher and World
Wide Web services. Some bulletin boards are accessible with an account and
password only. Bulletin boards for agriculture may often contain forestry
information. Bulletin board systems usually provide a personal mailbox, access to
databases and bibliographies etc. Some bulletin boards are free and some require a fee
for their use.
- Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network
Conference information, full texts of treaties, Many documents are available via
gopher, too. TELNET to "sirius.poly.edu", login as "gp".
- Cornell Cooperative Extension Net including FORnews bulletin board.
TELNET to "empire.cce.cornell.edu" and login as "guest". Guests may not post
to bulletin boards but are able to send their messages by e-mail to "firstname.lastname@example.org" (do not include attached file to messages). More
information from "email@example.com".
- (Clemson University Forestry and Agricultural Network)
"eureka.clemson.edu", login as Public.
- TELNET to "igc.apc.org"; new users sign in as "new". This service is not
free. Internet access costs about USD 3.00 per hour. E-mail:
firstname.lastname@example.org. EcoNet is located in the USA and claims to have 10,000
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency bulletin board system for air
pollutants etc. TELNET to "ttnbbs.rtpnc.epa.gov".
- A free bulletin board service of the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), USA. TELNET to "fedworld.doc.gov" to access FedWorld
and several other U.S. governmental services (including ALF Agricultural
- A commercial bulletin board system in Canada, have announced to start
in August 1994. ForestNet will provide buying and selling forums for timber,
technical discussion forums etc. Currently only DIAL-IN service at
1-503-344-5321. More information by e-mail from
- TELNET to "apc.org". E-mail: "email@example.com". Greennet is
located in England and claims to have 15,000 users.
- Long Term Ecological Research network includes bibliographies,
databases, newsletters and mailboxes. TELNET to "LTERnet.edu".
(United Nations Environmental Program Network -
Environmental Information Exchange System for Latin America and
- International packet network address (X.25): "033409060009000".
Direct Internet access will be provided later. More information by e-mail:
Newsletters are usually electronically distributed versions of printed
newsletters. The distribution methods are variable: mailing lists, almanacs, anonymous
FTP, gopher etc. Terms are still overlapping. Here is a small collection of newsletters
and directions how to obtain them:
- American Society of Plant Taxonomists Newsletter
- The ASPT Newsletter is
published quarterly by the American Association of Plant Taxonomists (ASPT),
and hard copy is distributed with the Society's research journal, Systematic
Botany. Available at "gopher://nmnhgoph.si.edu/11/.botany/.aspt". Editor:
Laurence J. Dorr, firstname.lastname@example.org.
- CEDAR Newsletter
- CEDAR, the Central European Environmental Data Request
Facility is administered by the International Society for Environmental
Protection (ISEP). Available at "gopher://pan.cedar.univie.ac.at/1".
- Climate Change Bulletin
- Quarterly bulletin published by the interim secretariat for
the UN Climate Change Convention, the Secretariat of the UNEP/WMO
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the UNEP/WMO
Information Unit on Climate Change (IUCC). Available at
- Long Term Ecological Research network (LTERnet) Data Management
Bulletin. Available with gopher at "gopher://lternet.edu/1". If you do not have
gopher you can TELNET to "LTERnet.edu" or use anonymous FTP to
- Earth Negotiations Bulletin
- A daily report on the second session of the
Intergovernmental Committee on the Convention of Biological Diversity
(ICCBD) published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development
(IISD). Available at "gopher://igc.apc.org/11/environment/Earth Negotiations Bulletin/".
- ERINYES (ERIN Newsletter)
- Environmental Resources Information Network
(ERIN), Australia. Available with gopher at "gopher://kaos.erin.gov.au/11/newsletter".
- is a quarterly publication of the International Forestry Programs in the
College of Forest Resources at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North
Carolina. This list is the electronic version of the hard-copy newsletter begun in
1986. Sylvanet is available with gopher at "gopher://dewey.lib.ncsu.edu/11/library/stacks/sylvanet" or by e-mail subscription from "email@example.com
- Taiga News
- Quarterly newsletter of Taiga Rescue Network. Available with gopher
version may appear a week or two before the printed version (available from
Roger Olsson, "firstname.lastname@example.org".
Some refereed journals have already published material in the
World Wide Web.
- Complexity International (ISSN 1320-0682)
- A refereed electronic journal for
scientific papers dealing with any area of complex systems research. at
- Flora Online (ISSN 0892-9106
- ) A peer-reviewed electronic journal for systematic
botany. Available through Internet anonymous FTP and gopher at
huh.harvard.edu ("gopher://huh.harvard.edu/11/newsletters/flora.online"), and
through subscription on MS-DOS-formatted diskettes. Editor: Richard H.
- Tree Physiology (ISSN 0829-318X)
- An international journal. Provides tables of
contents in hypermedia at URL: "http://sol.uvic.ca/treephys". Editor: Dr.
Rozanne Poulson, email@example.com.
Mail based services
Ecological Data EXchange (EDEX) and Jointly Accessible Research
Samples (JARS) (Forest Ecology). More information by e-mail from
are designed for communication by e-mail. They are usually used for
distributing newsletters and text files, when a one-way service is called a
"Server", but they also run mailing lists, which are called "Forums". The U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) Extension Service is running an almanac
server at "firstname.lastname@example.org". Their forums are usually restricted to the
There are also some databases available. For example, the Research Results Database
(RRDB), contains brief summaries of recent research from the USDA's Agricultural
Research Service (ARS) and Economic Research Service (ERS). For details, send the
e-mail message "send rrdb catalog" to "email@example.com". To receive notices of
new RRDB titles, send the message "subscribe usda.rrdb". Send e-mail with a
message "send catalog" to any of these to get a listing of information content.
Table 3.U.S. extension service network almanac servers.
firstname.lastname@example.org Oregon State University
email@example.com Purdue University, Indiana
firstname.lastname@example.org Auburn University, Alabama
email@example.com Cornell University, New York
firstname.lastname@example.org North Carolina State Univ.
email@example.com Univ. of California at Davis
firstname.lastname@example.org Univ. of Missouri at Columbia
email@example.com Univ. of Wisconsin
Bibliographies and OPACS
There are many other services accessible with remote
login (TELNET) on the Internet. The difficulty is that if you are not aware of the
existence of a special collection or the coverage of a general university library, useful
resources are not taken into account. What follows below is a list of only a few
examples of Online Public Accessible Catalog Services (OPACS) with a certain
relevance to forest sciences. Many library catalogs are also accessible with gopher.
- British Bulletin Board for Libraries provides library oriented access with
gopher and hypermedia at "gopher://bubl.bath.ac.uk:7070/1", or
"http://bubl.bath.ac.uk/BUBLHOME.html". The BUBL gopher has a UDC
subject tree at "gopher://bubl.bath.ac.uk:7070/11/Link/Tree".
- FS INFO (MELVYL)
- The MELVYL Catalog, Univ. of California provides the only
access from Intenet to the U.S. Forest Service Information system and its FS
INFO bibliographic database. TELNET to "melvyl.ucop.edu". After giving
your terminal type and login to MELVYL system, type "USE FS INFO".
(Important note: when you want to quit, type "LOGOFF" at any FS INFO
search prompt, not at the FS Info Database Main Menu. MELVYL has also
many other services available.
- Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries, cover over 17,000 journals.
TELNET to "pac.carl.org". They also provide a free e-mail delivery service of
journal table of contents. It is called UnCover. The subscribers may also order
copies of articles which are then delivered by fax (for a fee). You may browse
the database without giving a password. Just follow the instructions when you
login. You may quit the connection with "//EXIT" command. If you have
difficulties e-mail to "firstname.lastname@example.org".
- EPA OLS
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Online Library System (OLS) may
be accessed by TELNET to "epaibm.rtpnc.epa.gov". Select "Public Access" and
"OLS" to see a list of available databases.
- program provides connect information to a number of OPACs and
other collections. You may test an Unix client with TELNET to
"access.usask.ca", login as "hytelnet" (URL:
"telnet://email@example.com/"). HYTELNET information has also been
transferred to some gopher servers, e.g. "gopher://gopher.isnet.is/11/hytelnet".
- Library of Congress
- has its card catalog and other information available at
"gopher://marvel.loc.gov/11/" or with TELNET access to "marvel.loc.gov"
login as "gopher".
- Library On-Line Catalogs
- A very good list covering over 400 research libraries
with their access information and indexing software may be found from
University of Texas Dallas at "ftp://ftp.utdallas.edu/pub/gopher/Libraries" or at
- Minnesota Forestry Library Gopher
- at University of Minnesota, provides access to
bibliographies in Social Sciences in Forestry and other topics at
- In Europe, one can access the Plant Scienes Library of Oxford, via OLIS, the
Oxford University Library System.TELNET to "library.ox.ac.uk".
- University of Washington Library
- The Forest Resources Collection at the University
of Washington has been mentioned as a special forestry collection. TELNET to
"uwin.u.washington.edu/", select "LIB", "UWLIB" or "LCAT".
- University of Helsinki Forest Library
- To access the catalog of the libraries at the
University of Helsinki. TELNET to "hyk.helsinki.fi", Login as "HELLO your-addr,USER.CLAS02". This is a VTLS library. To exit, use the command
"/quit". The Forest Library collection number is 2500.
Several different directory services for finding people are
available over Internet. Phonebooks (WHOIS, CSO, X.500) or so called "White
Pages" are software which have their own clients but are also accessible through
gateways at gopher or World Wide Web hypermedia servers. The directory services
are all hierarchically linked to a world wide system. Usually the searcher has to know
the organization where the target is located before reaching the contact information.
Several types of text archives which include a multitude of topics
are currently found. The most common types accessible via Internet are FTP file
archives, gopher file archives and World Wide Web hypertext archives. The network
of Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), which index files in a standard format,
has over 500 databases available for searching. Many gopher servers also use WAIS
indexing to allow searching in their file-archives.
Table 5. A very small list of servers which provide access to texts of interest to
Australian Environment Portfolio
National Agricultural Library
Institute of Forest Genetics
USDA Extension Service
International law and conventions
CIESIN Global Change Archives
Ecological Data EXchange
U. Minnesota Forestry Library
Missouri Botanical Garden
FAQ-files of Usenet newsgroups
FAQ and FYI files
- Source URL:
A alphabetical list of all WAIS-databases which may be searched with a gopher
client is at "gopher://gopher-gw.micro.umn.edu/11/WAISes/Everything". A
hypertext list of WAIS databases by net domain is available at
Here are four examples of WAIS databases.
To search the CRIS database with gopher or WWW-client, use the following
CRIS/USDA contains information on ongoing research in USDA and state
university research programs. These include project summaries, progress
reports and recent publications. To experiment a WAIS client for searching
WAIS databases, in America you can TELNET to "sunsite.unc.edu" and in Europe to "info.funet.fi".
usdacris.src (USDA Current Research Info System CRIS)
Most numerical databases in forestry are not yet accessible via Internet, but require
packet network connections or have restricted access. FedWorld bulletin board
system provides access to many U.S. statistical databases. However, some statistics
are available via gopher, see e.g. USDA Economic Research Service information at
"gopher://oldal.mannlib.cornell.edu/1". There are more than 140 agricultural
datasets available in Lotus 1-2-3 format (.wk1).
There are no archives for software in forestry. Appropriate software may be found in
University and Research Institute archives. e.g. Petawawa, Canada by anonymous
FTP to "pi19.pnfi.forestry.ca", the directory is "/pub". More and more computer
software are available at the so called Internet anonymous FTP (File Transfer
Protocol) servers. These servers allow anonymous login and usually the users e-mail
address is given as the password when logging in.
Because there are millions of files available a network tool called "Archie" has been
created to automatically search the location of a program in the FTP archives. A list
of hypertext Archie servers is available at "http://web.nexor.co.uk/archie.html".
TELNET to "info.funet.fi" also allows access to Archie.
Here are very short explanations to some of the Internet tools mentioned
earlier and links where to obtain the software (see EARN
1994, Hahn and Stout 1994) or see a gentle primer
to WWW by Nathan Torkington at "http://www.vuw.ac.nz/who/Nathan.Torkington/ideas/www-primer.html".
Several of the network tools are available for interactive testing. In
Europe, TELNET to "info.funet.fi"
and in America TELNET to "sunsite.unc.edu".
A FTP server may be set up to provide free access to a restricted group of
files on a host computer. When logging in the visitor's answer to the User:
prompt is "anonymous", "guest" or
"visitor". For a password request the visitor should give her
e-mail address. Links to anonmous FTP sites are available at "http://hoohoo.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ftp-interface.html".
Some anonymous FTP servers for FAQ files are listed here:
is an information system which allows the user to locate information in the
international TCP/IP network (Internet). Archie databases in Europe are maintained at
(if you use TELNET, login as "archie"):
archie.doc.ic.ac.uk Great Britain
A local client may be obtained at the archie sites with anonymous FTP in the
directories "/pub/archie/clients" or "/archie/clients".
Browsers for hypertext and hypermedia in WWW
More and more information over Internet is posted in hypertext or hypermedia format
and it is delivered with HTTP (HyperText Tranfer Protocol), instead of gopher, FTP
or TELNET. Here are links to sources to some of the most common hypertext
browsers, which have versions for several operating systems.
NCSA Mosaic ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Web
X Mosaic for VMS ftp://info.cern.ch/pub/www/bin/vms
Emacs hypertext browser ftp://moose.cs.indiana.edu/pub/elisp/w3
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP software has been used for years to allow a direct connection between two
computers for moving text and binary files between them. FTP server software is
available at "ftp://ftp.uu.net//networking/ftp/wuarchive-ftpd/".
Gopher is a distributed file delivery service. It allows the users to browse files in
different locations as if they were all local. The information is provided as a series of
nested menus. The following types of items are possible to identify: a subdirectory, a
text file, a binary file, a sound file, an image file, a phone book (directory
information), an index search, a telnet session. Gopher clients may be found with
Internet anonymous FTP at "ftp://boombox.micro.umn.edu/pub/gopher/". The gopher
protocol is documented in RFC 1436.
HTML HyperText Markup Language
To find out more about hypertext documents over Internet see the following sources:
- HTML Quick Reference
- A Beginner's Guide to HTML
- Internet Draft version 1.2 for HTML
- Glossary of Hypertext Terms
A hypertext tool which provides access information to over 1400 services on the
Internet, including libraries (OPACS). The software is available with anonymous FTP
from "ftp.usask.ca" in the "/pub/hytelnet" directory, or from "ftp.eff.org" in
the "pub/Net_info/Guidebooks/Hytelnet directory" (Scott 1992).
Usenet news client software are freely available for most computer systems:
rn (Unix) ftp://lib.tmc.edu/
trn (Unix) ftp://coe.montana.edu/
nn (Unix) ftp://dkuug.dk/
tin (Unix) ftp://ftp.germany.eu.net/
ANU-NEWS (VMS) ftp://kuhub.cc.ukans.edu/
News (Mac) ftp://ftp.apple.com/
Trumpet (MS-DOS) ftp://ftp.utas.edu.au/
provides a live online connection to another host (remote login). The name of the
software providing this service may also be something else (e.g. such as "sethost").
is a search tool with which you are able to make a keyword search over all gopher
titles at one time. It is also possible to limit a search to the directory type of menu
titles only. You can access a veronica server with your gopher client. In Europe, a
good Veronica server is at University of Bergen, Norway:
"gopher://veronica.uiub.no:2347/7" and another at University of Koeln,
"gopher://veronica.uni-koeln.de:2347/7". The original information and instructions
written by Steven Foster may be found at University of Reno:
program which does similar searches as Veronica is called "Jughead".
is a distributed information retrieval system which helps searching databases over the
network. WAIS uses natural language queries to find relevant documents. Links to all
WAIS databases are available also at "gopher://dewey.lib.ncsu.edu/11/library/reference/indexes/WAIS". WAIS software for various operating systems is available
at "ftp://ftp.wais.com/pub/freeware/" and for MS-DOS at
"ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/wais/DOS". CNIDR freewais is available at
provides directory service to network users. This is a good way of finding electronic
mail addresses and telephone numbers. There is also a gateway between gopher and
whois directory services at "gopher://sipb.mit.edu/". Two other common directory
services are called CSO and X.500. See X.500 gopher gateway at
"gopher://umich.edu:7777/" or TELNET to "paradise.ulcc.ac.uk" login as "dua". A
list of CSO directories is available at "gopher://gopher.nd.edu/11/". See the menu
"Non-Notre Dame Information Sources/Phone Books--Other Institutions".
WWW - World Wide Web
WWW was started as an initiative of the European Particle Physics Laboratory
(CERN), and has now expanded into a worldwide universe of network accessible
information. The project description is at "http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html". The future of World Wide Web will be coordinated by the W3
Organization which is a consortium of collaborating institutes. More information at
Internet activity has been growing exponentially since 1993 and the growth has
continued during 1994. More and more different types of services are appearing. This
year will probably be also the year of commercialization of the Internet. The
international agencies and networks which collect and provide forestry information,
such as CGNET, FAO, UN/ECE, CABI and others, would gain remarkably by using
this information highway in an increasing manner in the future. There is a clear need
for a central directory service for providing the forestry community a clearinghouse
of the multitude of services accessible via the Internet. Some pilot projects are
already under development.
The help and knowledge of Alois Kempf, WSL Birmensdorf, has been indispensable
during the preparation of this paper. Thank you to John LeBlanc, Tom Moore and
Richard Porter for providing additional information and links to sources of
- Briggs-Ericson, C. & Murphy, T. 1993. A Guide to Environmental Resources on the Internet. URL: "gopher://una.hh.lib.umich.edu/00/inetdirsstack
- EARN Staff 1994. Guide to network resource tools, RFC 1580, FYI 23. EARN Association, Network Working Group, March 1994. 101 pp.
- ES Almanac Administration 1994. Primary topic catalog. Revision 08 Feb 1994. US Department of Agriculture Extension Service, Washington D.C.
- Goffe, B. 1993. Resources for economists on the Internet. Available at "ftp://ftp.Germany.EU.net/pub/newsarchive/news.anwers/econ-resources-faq
.Z" (26 Oct 1993)".
- Hahn, H. & Stout, R. 1994. The Internet complete reference. Berkeley CA, Osborne McGraw-Hill. 818 pp.
- Krol, E. 1992. The whole Internet user's guide & catalog. Sebastobol, California, USA. O'Reilly & Associates Inc. 376 pp.
- Lawrence, DC 1994. Mailing lists linked to Usenet news. URL: "ftp://ftp.Germany.EU.net/pub/newsarchive/news.answers/mail/news-gateways/".
- da Silva, S. 1994. FAQ of mailing lists over Internet. (19 March 1994), URL: "ftp://ftp.Germany.EU.net/pub/newsarchive/news.answers/mail/mail
ing-lists/". (Information used with permission from the author).
- Smith, U. 1993: The Biologist's guide to Internet resources, v1.7, 10 Nov 1993. URL="gopher://calypso-2.oit.unc.edu/11/../.pub/ac
- Scott, P. 1992. Using HYTELNET to Access Internet Resources . The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 3(4): 15-21. (To retrieve this article, send the following message to LISTSERV@UHUPVM1 or LISTSERV@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU: "GET SCOTT PRV3N4 F=MAIL" or use gopher at URL: "gopher://info.lib.uh.edu/00/articles/e-journals/uhlibrar
- Tuss, J. 1994. Roadmaps to the Internet: Finding the best guidebook for your needs. Online, January 1994: 14-26.
A plaintext version of this paper is to appear in the
Proceedings of the Decision Support - 2001 conference.
with the title "Forestry information resources
on the World Wide Web".