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Euphrasia L.
Silmäruohot Eyebright
Euphrasia, Biota of North America Program (query database) [BONAP]
Euphrasia, Den Virtuella Floran [DVF]

Foodplants for Amblyptilia acanthodactyla, Gynnidomorpha permixtana, Perizoma bifaciatum, P. blandiatum, P. minoratum


fiEuphrasia rostkoviana Hayne
Ahosilmäruoho Stor ögontröst
Euphrasia hirtella auct.
Euphrasia rostkoviana, Bilder ur Nordens Flora (in Swedish) [RUNEBERG]
Euphrasia rostkoviana ; [RK, 387]
?Euphrasia officinalis hirtella ; [SK, 515]
?Euphrasia officinalis var. onegensis ; [SK, 515]
Isosilmäruoho Stor ögontröst
Euphrasia rostkoviana pratensis Asch. & Graebn.
Euphrasia rostkoviana rostkoviana ; [RK, 387]
fiE. r. fennica (Kihlm.) Karlsson
Ahosilmäruoho Finnögontröst
Euphrasia fennica Kihlm.
Euphrasia rostkoviana fennica ; [RK, 387]
Euphrais offininalis f. fennica ; [SK, 515]
[fennica-1.jpg] 708x839 (~96Kb) Finland, Ylöjärvi, Liivalamminkulma, 24.8.1999 © Harri Arkkio [fennica-1x.jpg] 296x444 (~15Kb) Finland, Ylöjärvi, Liivalamminkulma, 24.8.1999 © Harri Arkkio

The "stricta" species-group

fiEuphrasia stricta J. F. Lehm.
Ketosilmäruoho Vanligt ögontröst
?Euphrasia officinalis stricta ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia stricta ; [RK, 387]; [RKe, 70]
Euphrasia stricta var. stricta ; [RK, 388]
Euphrasia officinalis brevipila ; [SK, 515]
fiE. s. var. brevipila (Gremli) Hartl
Euphrasia brevipila Gremli
Euphrasia stricta var. brevipila ; [RKe, 70]
[brevipila-1a.jpg] 587x1003 (~65Kb) Finland: Vaala, Manamansalo, Unelanperä, 18.8.2006, Photo © Harri Arkkio [brevipila-1b.jpg] 613x1028 (~86Kb) Finland: Vaala, Manamansalo, Unelanperä, 18.8.2006, Photo © Harri Arkkio

fiE. s. var. tenuis (Brenner) Jalas
Euphrasia brevipila tenuis (Brenner); Wettst.
Euphrasia arctica tenuis (Brenner); Yeo
Euphrasia stricta var. tenuis ; [RK, 388]
Euphrasia officinalis var. tenuis ; [SK, 516]
[tenuis-1U.jpg] identification uncertain 708x943 (~85Kb) Finland, Muonio, 24.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio

fiEuphrasia nemorosa (Pers.) Wallr.
Tanakkasilmäruoho Common Eyebright Grå ögontröst
Euphrasia curta (Fr.); Wettst.
Euphrasia stricta var. curta (Fr.); Jalas
Euphrasia officinalis curta ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia nemorosa ; [RK, 388]; [RKe, 70]

fiEuphrasia nemorosa × stricta
Euphrasia × hausknechtii Wettst.
Euphrasia nemorosa × stricta ; [RKe, 70]

fiEuphrasia frigida Pugsley
Pohjansilmäruoho Fjällögontröst
Euphrasia latifolia auct.
Euphrasia minima auct.
Euphrasia frigida ; [RK, 388]
Euphrasia officinalis latifolia ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia frigida var. frigida ; [RK, 388]
[frigida_frigida-1a.jpg] 588x963 (~49Kb) Finland, Kilpisjärvi, 28.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio [frigida_frigida-1b.jpg] 474x633 (~35Kb) Finland, Kilpisjärvi, 28.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio [frigida_frigida-2.jpg] 579x774 (~43Kb) Finland, Hailuoto, Pöllä, 6.8.2005, Photo © Harri Arkkio
[frigida_frigida-3.jpg] 783x1044 (~151Kb) Finland: Pori, Reposaari, 22.6.2008, Photo © Harri Arkkio

fiE. f. var. palustris (Jörg.) Nordh.
Euphrasia frigida var. palustris ; [RK, 388]

fiEuphrasia frigida × stricta
Euphrasia frigida × stricta ; [RKe, 70]


fiEuphrasia micrantha Reichenb.
Nummisilmäruoho Ljungögontröst
Euphrasia gracilis (Fr.); Drejer
Euphrasia micrantha ; [RK, 388]
Euphrasia officinalis gracilis ; [SK, 516]

fiEuphrasia bottnica Kihlman
Perämerensilmäruoho Strandögontröst
Euphrasia bottnica ; [RK, 388]
Euphrasia officinalis bottnica ; [SK, 516]
[bottnica-1.jpg] 427x605 (~53Kb) Finland, Kalajoki hiekat, 22.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio [bottnica-2.jpg] 900x1174 (~141Kb) Finland, Hailuoto, Pöllä, 6.8.2005, Photo © Harri Arkkio [bottnica-2x.jpg] 660x818 (~47Kb) Finland, Hailuoto, Pöllä, 6.8.2005, Photo © Harri Arkkio

fiEuphrasia salisburgensis Funck
Otasilmäruoho Lappögontröst
Euphrasia lapponica Th. C. E. Fr.
Euphrasia salisburgensis ; [RK, 389]
[salisburgensis-1a.jpg] 583x764 (~40Kb) Finland, Kilpisjärvi, 28.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio [salisburgensis-1b.jpg] 398x480 (~33Kb) Finland, Kilpisjärvi, 28.7.2004, Photo © Harri Arkkio


?Euphrasia officinalis L.
Yleinen silmäruoho
Euphrasia officinalis ; [RK, 386 (in introduction of Euphrasia)]; [SK, 514]

E. officinalis L. has been split and probably could be added as a partial synonym for any of the above. Also, the placement of [SK]-references is somewhat uncertain (to me). Thus for the time being the entire E. offinialis from [SK] is replicated here just for the record.

Suomen silmäruoho
Euphrasia officinalis hirtella ; [SK, 515]
Euphrasia Rostokowiana; Act. soc. fn. et fl. XIII
Euphrasia officinalis f. fennica ; [SK, 515]
E. o. f. brevidens Lindb. fil.
Euphrasia officinalis f. brevidens ; [SK, 515]
Euphrasia officinalis var. onegensis ; [SK, 515]
E. o. brevipila (Burnat & Gremli)
Lyhytkarvainen silmäruoho
Euphrasia officinalis brevipila ; [SK, 515]
Euphrasia officinalis f. subeglandulosa ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia officinalis f. englandulosa ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia officinalis var. tenuis ; [SK, 516]
Hento silmäruoho
Euphrasia micrantha Rchb.
Euphrasia officinalis gracilis ; [SK, 516]
Pohjanmaan silmäruoho
Euphrasia micrantha Brenn.
Euphrasia hebecalyx Brenn.
Euphrasia officinalis bottnica ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia officinalis stricta ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia officinalis f. cuneata ; [SK, 516]
Euphrasia Reuteri Wettst. p.p.
Euphrasia officinalis var. pilifera ; [SK, 517]
Tanakka silmäruoho
Euphrasia officinalis curta ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia officinalis f. imbricata ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia officinalis var. glabrescens ; [SK, 517]
Leveälehtinen silmäruoho
Euphrasia officinalis latifolia ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia officinalis f. glandulifera ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia officinalis f. remotella ; [SK, 517]
Euphrasia officinalis f. conferta ; [SK, 517]


Euphrasia oakesii Wettst.
Euphrasia Oakesii ; [GMBOT, 733]

Euphrasia williamsii Robinson
Euphrasia Williamsii ; [GMBOT, 733]

Euphrasia randii Robinson
Euphrasia Randii ; [GMBOT, 733]
Euphrasia Randii var. Farlowii ; [GMBOT, 733]

Euphrasia arctica Lange ex Rostr.
Euphrasia hirtella Robinson, not Jord
Euphrasia arctica ; [GMBOT, 733]

Euphrasia americana Wettst.
Euphrasia americana ; [GMBOT, 733]

Euphrasia canadensis Townsend
Euphrasia americana var. canadensis (Townsend); Robinson
Euphrasia canadensis ; [GMBOT, 733]

10.12.2006 (14)

A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; A data base interface; BONAP U.S. Checklist - 1998; Provided by TAMU-BWG; Texas A & M Bioinformatics Working Group; Based on; Biota of North America Program
Den Virtuella floran; http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/welcome.html; Ett projekt vid Naturhistoriska riksmuseet (Stockholm, Sweden).; Even for non-Swedish speaker, the distribution maps on species are nice (map buttons "Norden" and "Norra halvklotet")
Robinson, Benjamin, Fernald, Lyndon, 1908; Gray's New Manual of Botany (7th edition); A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; American Book Company
[Harri Arkkio]
Finland; For the time being these pictures are only for this site. Other usage not allowed.
Hämet-Ahti, L., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T. & Uotila, P. (eds), 1998; Retkeilykasvio (Field Flora of Finland); Ed. 4. 656 pp.; Finnish Museum of Natural History, Botanical Museum. Helsinki
Hämet-Ahti, L., Kurtto, A., Lampinen, R., Piirainen, M., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T., Uotila, P., Väre, H., 2005; Lisäyksiä ja korjauksia Retkeilykasvion neljänteen painokseen; Lutukka 21: 41-85
Project Runeberg: Nordic literature online; Project Runeberg; Bilder ur Nordens Fauna (Carl Axel Magnus Lindman)
Mela & Cajander, 1906; Suomen Kasvio; Viides painos

If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.