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Pontia Fabricius, 1807
Pontia Fabricius, 1807; Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 283, TS: Papilio daplidice Linnaeus
Mancipium Hübner, [1807]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl. [141] (rej. name 214, ICZN Op. 137), TS: Papilio hellica Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 114]
Synchloe Hübner, [1818]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : 26, TS: Papilio callidice Hübner
= ; [NL4A, 114]
Mancipium Stephens, 1827; Ill. Br. Ent. (Haustellata) 1 (1): 22, TS: Papilio daplidice Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 114]
Parapieris de Nicéville, 1897; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66 Pt.II (3) : 563, TS: Papilio callidice Hübner
= ; [NL4A, 114]
Leucochloe Röber, 1907; in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 1 : 49, TS: Papilio daplidice Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 114]
Pontieuchloia Verity, 1929; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 98 (3) : 347, TS: Papilio chloridice Hübner
Pontia, Pieridae Holarcticae [Heiner Ziegler]
Pontia ; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 29
Pontia (Pierini) ; [NL4A, 114]
Pontia (Pierina) ; [AfrL]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 183

fiPontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758)
SEU, CEU, NAF, AM, AC, India, Japan. See [About maps] Sinappiperhonen Bath White Grönfläckig kålfjäril Senapsfjäril Resedaweißling Blanquiverdosa Bielinek rukiewnik
Papilio daplidice Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 468
Papilio bellidice Brahm, 1804; Ill. Mag. 4: 362
Papilio belemida Hübner, [1836-1838]; Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : f. 931-932
Pieris daplidice var. albicide Oberthür, 1881; Étud. d'Ent. 6: 47, TL: Constantine and Oran (Algeria)
?Leucochloe daplidice var. jachontovi Krulikowsky, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (1): 3, TL: Wiatka; Kasan
Pontia daplidice f. nitida Verity, 1908; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 132, TL: Spain, Algeria, Asia Minor
Leucochloe daplidice f. hiberna Chnéour, 1934; Ent. Z. Frankf. a. M. 48: 42, TL: Tunisia
Pontia daplidice albidice gen. vern. virescentior Rothschild, 1925; Novit. Zool. 32 : 198, TL: Algeria
Pontia daplidice, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Pontia daplidice, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Pontia daplidice, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Pontia daplidice, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Pontia daplidice, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Pontia daplidice, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Pontia daplidice, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Pontia daplidice ; [BRU, 162]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 5, f. 3, 9]; [MRS, 260]; [BMAT: 100, pl. 4, f. 16-27]; [AfrL]
Pieris daplidice ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[daplidice-1.jpg] 500x427 (~42Kb) Tenerife, Los Gigantes, 2/4/97, Photo © Simon Coombes [daplidice-2.jpg] 1000x697 (~77Kb) FINLAND: Ka: Virolahti, Virojoki 671:53, 29.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [daplidice-3v.jpg] 1300x976 (~165Kb) underside Russia, Tatarstan, Varkljed-Bodja (56°13'N 52°49'E), about 20km S of Agriz, 7.8.2004, Photo © Markku Savela
[daplidice-4mv.jpg] 900x1084 (~131Kb) underside male Russia, Tatarstan, Varkljed-Bodja (56°13'N 52°49'E), about 20km S of Agriz, 8.8.2004, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Cruciferae, Cakile maritima, Turritis glabra [SPRK], Reseda luetola, R. villosa, Ptilotrichum spinosum, Moricandia arvensis, (Europe and elswhere) Arabis sp., Thlaspi sp., Farsetia sp., Sisymbrium sp., Sinapis sp., Turritis sp., Erysimum sp. [BMAT]


nitida
[nitida-1v.jpg] 600x435 (~43Kb) underside Morocco, Djebel Lekst, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre [nitida-2.jpg] 600x435 (~22Kb) Morocco, Tizi-n-Bachkoum, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier


Pontia daplidice daplidice ; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 29, pl. 46, f. 17; [AfrL]
P. d. moorei (Röber, [1907])
India, Yunnan Leucochloe daplidice moorei Röber, [1907]; in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 1 : 48, TL: Tibet; Kashmir; Baluchistan
Pontia daplidice moorei, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Pontia daplidice moorei ; [MRS, 260]

Larva on Lepidium ruderale Sharma, 2005, J. Lep. Soc. 59 (3): 170-171

P. d. avidia (Fruhstorfer, 1908)
Leucochloe daplidice avidia Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 50, TL: Tsintau
Pontia daplidice avidia ; [MRS, 260]
P. d. amphimara (Fruhstorfer, 1908)
Szetchuan Leucochloe daplidice amphimara Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 50, TL: Szetchuan
Pontia daplidice amphimara ; [MRS, 260]
P. d. nubicola (Fruhstorfer, 1908)
Leucochloe daplidice nubicola Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 50, TL: Kashgar
P. d. laenas (Fruhstorfer, 1908)
Palestine Leucochloe daplidice laenas Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 51, TL: Palestine
P. d. praeclara (Fruhstorfer)
Pontia daplidice praeclara ; [MRS, 260]
P. d. aethiops (de Joannis & Verity, 1913)
Ethiopia (highlands) Pontia daplidice aethiops ; [BAFR, 89]; [AfrL]

Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)
Temperate Europe, Temperate Siberia Papilio edusa Fabricius, 1777; Genera Insectorum : 255, TL: "Chilonii (Kiel)"
Pontia edusa, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Pontia edusa, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Pontia edusa, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Pontia edusa ; [BRU, 162]
Pieris edusa ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[edusa-1v.jpg] 872x716 (~114Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 11.8.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov

Exactly like Pontia daplidice, cannot be identified by external appearance.


Pontia edusa edusa ; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 29, pl. 46, f. 18
P. e. davendra Hemming, 1934
edusa orientalis Kardakov, 1928; (praeocc.)

fiPontia callidice (Hübner, [1799-1800])
Pyrenees, Alps, Asia Minor, Lebnon, Tibet, Himalaya, Mongolia. See [About maps] Peak White Alpenweißling Blanquiverdosa alpina
Papilio callidice Hübner, [1799-1800]; Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : pl. 81, f. 408-409, TL: Swiss Alps
Pontia callidice, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Pontia callidice, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Pontia callidice, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Pontia callidice, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Pontia callidice, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Pontia callidice ; [BRU, 162]; [MRS, 260]; [BMAT: 106 (Tunisia 1929)]
Synchloe callidice ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 5, f. 7]
Pieris callidice ; [Otakar Kudrna]

Larva on Erysimum pumilum, Reseda glauca [H&R]

P. c. chrysidice (Herrich-Schäffer, [1844])
Armenian Highland, Talysh, Kopet-Dagh, S.Ghissar Pieris chrysidice Herrich-Schäffer, [1844]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (6): (ii) f. 200-203
P. c. kalora (Moore, 1865)
NW.Himalayas Pieris kalora Moore, 1865; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (2) : 489, pl. 31, f. 15
P. c. amaryllis Hemming, 1933
Tian-Shan, Ghissar, Darvaz, Alai callidice orientalis Alpheraky, 1881; (praeocc)
P. c. hinducucica Verity, [1811]
Pamirs
P. c. nelsoni Edwards, 1883
Polar Tundra of Siberia, Far East, Kamchatka, Chukot Peninsula
[nelsoni-1v.jpg] 586x546 (~94Kb) underside A montane tundra at about 1000 m above sea level, the mountains of the Koni Peninsula, Ola District, S Magadan Province, Russia. 23rd July, 1989, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. c. hazara (Wyatt, 1961)
Afghanistan Synchloe callidice hazara Wyatt, 1961; J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 8, TL: Band-i-Hazarajat, N of Koh-i-Baba Mts, 11400ft, Afghanistan
P. c. halasia Huang & Murayama, 1992
Xinjiang Pontia callidice halasia Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 3, f. 12, TL: Halasi, Altai, 1400-1700m

fiPontia chloridice (Hübner, [1808-1813])
Balkans, AM, Iraq, Mongolia. See [About maps] Arosinappiperhonen Small Bath White Stäppsenapsfjäril
Papilio chloridice Hübner, [1808-1813]; Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : pl. 141, f. 712-715
Pontia chloridice, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Pontia chloridice, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Pontia chloridice, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Pontia chloridice, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Pontia chloridice ; [BRU, 163]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 5, f. 6]; [MRS, 260]
Pieris chloridice ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[chloridice-1muv.jpg] 725x985 (~127Kb) upperside underside male Russia: C.Tuva, near Kyzyl tn., Biy-Khem riv., 10-19.05.2002, Vashchenko S. N. leg, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Sisymbrium, Sinapis, Descurainia Korshunov, 1981, [BRU, Bartel, 1914]



Pontia glauconome (Klug, 1829)
NAF, Mauritania - Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Chad, Socotra I., SW.Arabia, Baluchistan, Karachi, Chitral, Punjab. See [About maps] Desert Bath White Desert White
Papilio glauconome Klug, 1829; in Ehrenberg, Symbolae physic., Ins. 1 (fol. h): 12, 7, f. 18-19, TL: Mt. Sinai, Egypt
Pontia glauconome, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
glauconome ; [BIR, 435]
Pontia glauconome ; [BRU, 163]; [EBW]; [BAFR, 89]; [BMAT, 11, pl. 4, f. 9-15]; [AfrL]

Larva on Caylusia, Zilla spinosa, Dipterygium [BK], Diploxis harra?, Zilla sp., Erigeron denticulatus, Cleome paradoxa, Schouwia purpurea, Zilla spinosa, Morettia sp. [BMAT]

Pontia glauconome glauconome ; [BK: 142, pl. 9]; [AfrL]
P. g. iranica Bienert, 1870
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan Pontia glauconome iranica ; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 30, pl. 46, f. 19

Pontia helice (Linnaeus, 1764)
-. See [About maps] Meadow White
Papilio helice Linnaeus, 1764; Mus. Lud. Ulr.: 243
Papilio hellica Linnaeus, 1767; Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): 760 (unn. emend.)
Papilio raphani Esper, 1783; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (8): 163, pl. 84, f. 3
Papilio raphani ; Esper, 1805, Die Schmett., Th I, Suppl. Th. 2 (12): pl. 123, f. 3-4
Pontia helice ; [EBW]; [AfrL]
[helice-1.jpg] 1600x1858 (~207Kb) South Africa, Johannesburg, Northcliff Ridge, April 2011, Photo © David Becking

Larva on Heliophila spp., H. linearis, Alyssum sp., Lepidum capense, Sisymbrium sp., Reseda odorata [PBSA], Sinapis, Caylusia [BK]


South Africa, E.Rhodesia Pontia helice helice ; [BAFR, 89]; [AfrL]
P. h. johnstonii (Crowley, 1887)
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, E.Zaire (Kivu) Pontia helice johnstonii ; [BAFR, 89]
Pontia helice johnstoni ; [BK: 142, pl. 9]; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 30, pl. 46, f. 21
Pontia helice johnstonii ; [AfrL]

Pontia distorta (Butler, [1886])
N.Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, NE.Tanzania. See [About maps] Small Meadow White
Synchloe distorta Butler, [1886]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1885 (4) : 774, pl. 47, f. 12, TL: Somalia
Pontia distorta ; [BAFR, 89]; [BK: 143, pl. 9]; Winhard, 2000, Butterflies of the world, 10: 30, pl. 46, f. 20; [AfrL]

The ? species-group

Pontia beckerii (Edwards, 1871)
W.USA. See [About maps] Becker's White Great Basin White Sagebrush White
Pieris beckerii Edwards, 1871; Butts. N. Amer. 1: 30, TL: Virginia City, Nevada
Pieris beckeri[sic] pseudochloridice McDunnough, 1928; Can. ent. 60 (11): 266, TL: Oliver, British Columbia
= ; [NL4A, #273]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
Ascia beckerii tr.f. gunderi Ingham, 1933; Pan-Pac. Ent. 9 (2): 75, TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #273]
Pontia beckerii, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Pontia beckerii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pontia beckerii, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Pontieuchloia beckeri ; [BOW: pl. 17, f. 38]
Pontia beckeri ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 5
Pontia beckerii ; [NACL, #4191]; [BOC, 132]; [Opler]
Pieris beckerii ; [EBW]
Pontia beckerii ; [NL4A, #273]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
[beckerii-1.jpg] 600x724 (~55Kb) USA: Robinson Canyon Rd, (47°01'01N 120°42'41W), Kittitas Co., WA, 26.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [beckerii-2p.jpg] 500x732 (~39Kb) pupa USA: Dry Falls / Sun Lakes State Park, Grant Co., WA, 8.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [beckerii-3m.jpg] 600x686 (~67Kb) male USA: near Coulee City (47°34'07N 119°18'02W), Grant Co., WA, 9.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[beckerii-4u.jpg] 700x771 (~63Kb) upperside USA: Dry Falls / Sun Lakes State Park, Grant Co., WA, 9.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [beckerii-4v.jpg] 600x862 (~73Kb) underside USA: Dry Falls / Sun Lakes State Park, Grant Co., WA, 9.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Isomeris arborea, Stanleya pinnata, Brassica nigra [NAB], Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium altissimum, Lepidium perfoliatum, Brassica nigra, Schoenocrambe linifolia, Thelypodium sagittatum, T. laciniatum [BOC]



Pontia sisymbrii (Boisduval, 1852)
W.USA. See [About maps] Spring White California White Colorado White
Pieris sisymbrii Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 284, TL: N Fork Feather R. Canyon, Plumas Co., California
Pontia sisymbrii, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Pontia sisymbrii sisymbrii, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Pontia sisymbrii sisymbrii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pontia sisymbrii, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Pieris sisymbrii, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Pieris sisymbrii ; [EBW]
Pontia sisymbri ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 5
Pontia sisymbrii ; [NACL, #4192]; [BOC, 134]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #275]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185

Larva on Cruciferae, Caulanthus, Streptanthus, Arabis [NAB], Sisymbrium altissimum, Arabis glabra, A. furcata, Arabis holboelli, Streptanthus [BOC]

California, Arizona, ... Pieris sisymbri[sic] var. flava Edwards, 1883; Butts N. Amer. 2: [68], (Pieris) pl. 1, f. 5 (not Edwards, 1881), TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #275a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
f. transversa (Barnes & Benjamin, 1926) (Ascia); , TL: USA(Arizona)
= ; [NL4A, #275a]
Pontia sisymbrii sisymbrii ; [NL4A, #275a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. flavitincta (Comstock, 1924)
British Columbia Pieris sisymbrii flavitincta Comstock, 1924; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 23 (1): 19, pl. 17, f. 9, TL: Cranbrook, British Columbia
Pontia sisymbrii flavitincta ; [NACL, #4192a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. elivata (Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)
Colorado Ascia sisymbrii r. elivata Barnes & Benjamin, 1926; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 (3): 88, TL: Glenwood Springs, Colorado
Pontia sisymbrii elivata ; [NACL, #4192b]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. nordini (Johnson, 1977)
Nebraska Pieris sisymbrii nordini Johnson, 1977; J. Lep. Soc. 31 (13): 167, TL: Monroe Canyon, Sioux Co., Nebraska
Pontia sisymbrii nordini ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. transversa Holland, 1995
New Mexico, Texas, Mexico (Chihuaca, Sonora), Arizona Pontia sisymbrii transversa Holland, 1995; J. Lep. Soc. 49 (2): 125, f. 5
Ascia sisymbrii gen.vern. transversa Barnes & Benjamin, 1926; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 (3): 88, TL: Paradise, Cochise Co., Arizona
Pontia sisymbrii transversa, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Pontia sisymbrii transversa, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pontia sisymbrii transversa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. nigravenosa Austin & Emmel, 1998
Nevada Pontia sisymbrii nigravenosa Austin & Emmel, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (42): 505, TL: Nevada, Clark Co., Spring Mtns
Pontia sisymbrii nigravenosa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185
P. s. beringiensis Guppy & Kondla, 2001
British Columbia Pontia sisymbrii beringiensis Guppy & Kondla, 2001; Butts. B.C.: 145, TL: BC, Atlin, 9km N on Atlin Rd at Ruffner Mine Rd
Pontia sisymbrii beringiensis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185

Pontia protodice (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830])
Canada, USA, Guatemala, Mexico. See [About maps] Checkered White
Pieris protodice Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]; Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (5/6): 45, pl. 17, f. 1-3, TL: ?Georgia, New York; Connecticut
Pieris vernalis Edwards, 1864; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (4): 501, TL: New Jersey
= ; [NL4A, #274]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
Pieris nasturtii Edwards, 1864; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (4): 501, TL: San Francisco
= ; [NL4A, #274]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
Pontia protodice, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Pontia protodice, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Pontia protodice, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pontia protodice, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Pontia protodice, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Pieris protodice, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
protodin ; Edwards, 1872, (missp.)
Pontia protodice vernalis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 6
Pieris protodice ; Godman & Salvin, [1889], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 130; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 724; [EBW]
Pontieuchloia protodice ; [BOW: pl. 17, f. 39, 40]
Pontia protodice ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 6; [NACL, #4193]; [BOC, 135]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #274]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
[protodice-1mv.jpg] 1000x1176 (~150Kb) underside male USA: Antelope Island, Great Salt Lake (near ~ 41°02'24"N 112°15'31"W), Davis Co., Utah, 17.8.2005, Photo © Markku Savela [protodice-2m.jpg] 900x1126 (~105Kb) male USA: Antelope Island, Great Salt Lake (near ~ 41°02'24"N 112°15'31"W), Davis Co., Utah, 17.8.2005, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Brassicaceae, Cleome [NAB]



Pontia occidentalis (Reakirt, 1866)
Alaska - W.USA. See [About maps] Western White
Pieris occidentalis Reakirt, 1866; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 133, TL: Virginia City, Storey Co., Nevada
Pontia occidentalis, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Pontia occidentalis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Pontia occidentalis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 5; [NACL, #4194]; [BOC, 136]; [Opler]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
[occidentalis-1U.jpg] identification uncertain 1000x797 (~91Kb) USA: FR3330, Wenatchee National Forest, (47°08N 120°58W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [occidentalis-1xU.jpg] identification uncertain 600x673 (~49Kb) USA: FR3330, Wenatchee National Forest, (47°08N 120°58W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Brassicaceae, Cleome [NAB], Anselnia eurycarpa, Lepidium perfoliatum, L. campestre, L. densiflorum, L. virginicum [BOC]


Nevada Pieris calyce Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 189, TL: Nevada
Pontia occidentalis calyce ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 5
Pontia occidentalis occidentalis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 184
P. o. nelsoni (Edwards, 1883)
Alaska Pieris nelsoni Edwards, 1883; Butts N. Amer. 2: pl. 1, f. 6-7
Pontia nelsoni ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 5
Pontia occidentalis nelsoni ; [NACL, #4194a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 185


Unknown or unplaced taxa

Pieris vipasa Moore, 1872; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 565, TL: Derajat, Punjab, NW.India


21.11.2012 (11)

References:
[ALBERTA]
University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum; Browse Entomology Collection
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[AfrL]
Mark C. Williams; Checklist of Afrotropical Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea; Compiled by Mark C. Williams, 7th ed. (2008) (April 2007); Afrototropical Butterflies; e-mail: Mark C. Williams
[BAFR]
D'Abrera, 1980; Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BIR]
Wynter-Blyth, 1957; Butterflies of the Indian Region; (1982 Reprint)
[BK]
Larsen, 1996; The Butterflies of Kenya and their natural history
[BMAT]
Tennent, 1996; The butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia; ISBN 0 906802 05 9
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOC]
Robert Michael Pyle, 2002; The Butterflies of Cascadia
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[BRU]
Tuzov, Bogdanov, Devyatkin, Kaabak, Korolev, Murzin, Samodurov, Tarasov, 1997; Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories; Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Satyridae; Volume 1
[BnF]
Gallica / Bibliothèque nationale de France; Annales de la Société entomologique de France; Bulletin de la Sociéte entomologique de France
[Bruce Walsh]
Bruce Walsh; e-mail: Bruce Walsh; The Moths of Southeastern Arizona; Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[David Becking]
South Africa
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[ESP]
Heppner, 1981; The dates of E. J. C. Esper's Die Schmetterlinge in Abblidungen... 1776-[1830]; Archives of Natural History (1981) 10 (2): 251-254
[GALEPS]
Moths and Butterflies of Georgia and the Southeastern United States; James K. Adams; Dept. of Natural Science, Dalton State College, Dalton, GA ; http://www.daltonstate.edu/galeps/index.htm
[H&R]
Higgins, L.G, Riley, N.D, 1970; A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Heiner Ziegler]
Switzerland / Schweiz; www.pieris.ch
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[Ilya Osipov]
The insects from former USSR for collectors Web site; e-mail: Ilya Osipov; http://www.osipov.org/insects/
[Jean Delacre]
http://homepage.mac.com/jdelacre
[Kimmo Silvonen]
Espoo, Finland; Kimmo's Lep Site
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[Mario Maier]
Europäische Schmetterlinge; e-mail: Mario Maier
[Michel Tarrier]
Michel R. Tarrier; Malaga, Spain; http://www.tarrier.org
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[NORLEP]
Norges Sommerfugler
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.
[PBSA]
Dickson, C.G.C (ed.), Kroon, D.M.; Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa; AD. DONKER 1978
[SPRK]
Seppänen, E. J, 1970; Suomen suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit, Animalia Fennica 14
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)
[Simon Coombes]
1 Park Street, Plymouth, PL3 4BL, UK; 01752 607854; e-mail: Simon Coombes; http://www.butterfly-guide.co.uk
[Yutaka Inayoshi]
A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China; Chiefly from THAILAND, LAOS & VIETNAM


Some related literature:
Austin & Emmel, 1998
New subspecies of butterflies (Lepidoptera) from Nevada and California Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (42): 501-522
Barnes & Benjamin, 1926
Notes on diurnal Lepidoptera, with addition and corrections to the recent "List of Diurnal Lepidoptera" Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 (3): 88-98
Boisduval, 1852
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 275-324
Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]
Histoire générale et iconographie des lépidoptères et des chenilles de l'Amérique septentrionale Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (1): 1-16. pl. 1-3 (1829), (2): 17-24, pl. 4-6 (1829), (3/4): 25-40, pl. 7-12 ([1830]), (5/6): 41-56, pl. 13-18 ([1830]), (7/8): 57-80, pl. 19-24 ([1830]), (9/10): 81-100, pl. 25-30 (1833), (11-22): 101-196, pl. 31-65 ([1835]), (23-26): 197-228, pl. 66-78 ([1837])
Butler, [1886]
An account of two collections of Lepidoptera recently received from Somali-land Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1885 (4) : 756-776, pl. 47
de Nicéville, 1897
On new or little-known Butterflies from the Indo- and Austro-Malayan Regions J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 66 Pt.II (3) : 543-577, pl. 1-4
Dyar, 1903
A List of North American Lepidoptera and Key to the Literature of this Order of Insects Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1-723
Edwards, 1864
Descriptions of certain species of Diurnal Lepidoptera, found within the limits of the United States and British America. (No. 1-3) Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 2 (1): 14-22, pl. 1, 11 (1863), (2): 78-82 (1863), (4): 501-507 (1864)
Edwards, 1871
The Butteflies of North America. Vol. I. Butts. N. Amer. 1: 218pp, 50pls
Edwards, 1883
The Butteflies of North America. Vol. II. Butts N. Amer. 2: 357pp, 51pls
Edwards, 1870
Descriptions of new North American diurnal Lepidoptera Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 189-196
Esper, 1783
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Fortsetzung. Band 2 Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (1): 1-36, pl. 51-56 (1780), (2): 37-68, pl. 57-62 (1781), (3): 69-100, pl. 63-68 (1781), (4): 101-124, pl. 69-74 (1781), (5): 125-140, pl. 75-80 (1782), (7): 141-156, pl. 81-82 (1783), (8): 157-172, pl. 83-88 (1783), (9): 173-184, pl. 89-92 (1784), (28): 185-190, pl. 93 (1786)
Esper, 1805
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Supplement Theil 2 Die Schmett., Th I, Suppl. Th. 2 (11): 1-24, pl. 117-122 (1805), (12): 25-48, pl. 123-126 [1830]
Fabricius, 1777
Genera Insectorum eorumque characters naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm et proportionem ... Genera Insectorum : 1-310
Fabricius, 1807
Systema Glossatorum. Die neueste Gattungs-Eintheilung der Schmetterlinge aus den Linnéischen Gattungen Papilio und Sphinx Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 277-295
Fruhstorfer, 1908
Neue paläarktische Pieriden Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 50-51 (20 June)
Godman & Salvin, [1889]; Godman & Salvin, [1901]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. (1887-1901) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 1-782, 3: pl. 1-112
Herrich-Schäffer, [1844]
Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa, zugleich als Text, Revision und Supplement zu J. Hübner's Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge, 1843 (-1855), Die Tagfalter Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (9): Title ("1843"), (1): [1-3], 4-16, (ii) pl. 1-5, f. 1-29 (1843), (2): 17-40, (ii) pl. 29-34, f. 131-156 (1843), (3): 41-56, (ii) pl. 6-12, f. 30-60, pl. 35-36, f. 157-164 (1844), (4): 57-80, (ii) pl. 13-22, f. 61-107 (1844), (5): 81-90, (ii) pl. 23-28, f. 108-130, pl. 37-41, f. 165-189 (1844), (6): 91-98, (ii) pl. 42-44, f. 190-203 (1844), (7): 99-114, (ii) pl. 45-52, f. 204-248 (1844), (9): 115-122 (1844), (10): 123-146, (ii) pl. 53-57, f. 249-274 (1845), (11): 147-162 (1845), (12): (iii) pl. 1-3, f. 1-17 (1845), (13): 163-164, (ii) pl. 58-65, f. 275-315 (1846), (14): (ii) pl. 66-70, f. 316-338, (iii) pl. 4-5, f. 18-30 (1846), (26): (ii) pl. 71-77, f. 339-376 (1847), (32): (ii) pl. 78-82, f. 377-400 (1848), (36): (ii) pl. 83-89, f. 401-426, (iii) pl. 6, f. 31-36 (1848), (37): (ii) pl. 90-91, f. 427-437 (1849), (43): (ii) pl. 92-94, f. 438-450, 452-453 (1850), (45): (ii) pl. 95-102, f. 453-489 (1850), (47): (ii) pl. 103, f. 490-495 (1851), (49): (ii) pl. 104-109, f. 496-528 (1851), (51): (ii) pl. 110-118, f. 529-570 (1851), (54): (ii) pl. 119-123, f. 571-596 (1852), (56): (ii) pl. 124-127, f. 597-618, pl. 130-132, f. 628-639, pl. 134, f. 646-651 (1852), (59): (ii) pl. 128-129, f. 619-627, pl. 133, f. 640-645 (1853), (65): (iii) pl. 7, f. 37-42, (index) [1], 2-20 (1854), (66): (index) 21-24 (1855)
Holland, 1995
Distribution of selected Anthocharis, Euchloe and Pontia in new Mexico, Texas, Chihuahua and Sonora J. Lep. Soc. 49 (2): 119-135
Huang & Murayama, 1992
Butterflies of Xinjiang province, China Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 1-22
Hübner, [1799-1800]; Hübner, [1808-1813]; Hübner, [1836-1838]
Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. I. Papiliones - Falter ("Erste Band") Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : 3-74, : pl. 1-88, f. 1-446 (1799-1800), : pl. 89-96, f. 447-490 (1800-1803), : pl. 97-114, f. 491-588 (1803-1804), : pl. 115-119, f. 589-612 (1805), : pl. 120-124, f. 613-636 (1805-1806), : pl. 125-128, f. 637-652 (1806-1808), : pl. 129-144, f. 653-727 (1808-1813), : pl. 145-147, f. 728-741 (1814-1816), : pl. 148-150, f. 742-756 (1816-1817), : pl. 151, f. 757-762 (1818-1819), : pl. 152-154, f. 757-774 (1819-1822), : pl. 155, f. 775-778 (1822-1823), : pl. 156-161, f. 779-806 (1823), : pl. 162-175, f. 807-874 (1823-1824), : pl. 176, f. 869-874 (1824-1825), : pl. 177-181, f. 875-895 (1825-1826), : pl. 182-187, f. 896-981 (1827-1828), : pl. 188-195, f. 922-968 (1828-1832), : pl. 196, f. 969-974 (1832-1833), : pl. 197-201, f. 975-997 (1834-1836), : pl. 202-203, f. 998-1009 (1836-1838), : pl. 204-207, f. 1010-1029 (1837-1838)
Hübner, [1807]; Hübner, [1818]
Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge, Vol. 1 (1806 - [1819]) Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : [1-4] (1807), : [5-12] (1807-1809), : [13-36] (1823-1824), : pl. [1-2], [5-8], [12], [15], [29], [47] (1806), : pl. [9], [11], [17], [21], [25-27], [32], [35], [43-44], [56], [60], [79], [102], [104], [116], [141], [148], [150-151], [155], [159], [200] (1807), : pl. [19], [39], [57], [73], [82], [114], [157], [167], [170], [173], [187] (1807), : pl. [3], [31], [37], [46], [54], [58], [62], [76], [84], [92], [95], [105], [112-113], [117], [137-138], [146], [154], [158], [180], [209] (1808), : pl. [16], [28], [65], [89], [142], [160], [162], [166], [182], [188], [193] (1809), : pl. [4], [22], [42], [53], [61], [88], [90], [97], [100], [107], [110], [118], [120], [140], [143], [149], [161], [171], [178], [184], [196], [202] (1809), : pl. [10], [18], [30], [41], [51], [80], [144], [172], [189] (1810), : pl. [36], [70], [87], [91], [101], [124], [129], [177], [183], [207], [210] (1811), : pl. [20], [38], [45], [55], [85], [98], [103], [108], [136], [139], [152-153], [156], [163], [179], [186], [190], [205-206] (1812), : pl. [13-14], [40], [48], [50], [67], [74], [86], [119], [121], [130], [135], [175-176], [197-199], [204], [212] (1813), : pl. [72], [75], [77-78], [83], [93], [109], [111], [115], [128], [131], [165], [174], [194] (1813), : pl. [24], [49], [52], [63-64], [66], [68-69], [71], [81], [123], [145], [181], [192] (1814), : pl. [126], [132-134], [168] (1815), : pl. [23], [96], [122], [125], [169], [195] (1816), : pl. [33], [99], [127], [187], [185], [213] (1817), : pl. [59], [106], [147], [164], [208], [211] (1818), : pl. [34], [94], [191], [201] (1819), : (Index Systematicus) [1-4] (1819 - April 1823)
Krulikowsky, 1908
Einige neue Varietäten und Aberrationen der Lepidopteren des östlichen Russlands Soc. Ent. 23 (1): 2-3, (2): 11-12, (3): 18
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Linnaeus, 1764
Museum S'ae R'ae M'tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque Mus. Lud. Ulr.: vi + 720 + [2]
Linnaeus, 1767
Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, .... Editio Duocecima Reformata. Tom. 1. Part II. Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): -,533-1327
McDunnough, 1928
Notes on Canadian diurnal Lepidoptera Can. ent. 60 (11): 266-275
Moore, 1865
List of diurnal Lepidoptera collected by Capt. A.M. Lang in the N. W. Himalayas Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (2) : 486-509, pl. 30-31
Moore, 1872
Descriptions of new Indian Lepidoptera Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 555-583, pl. 32-34
Pelham, 2008
A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada J. Res. Lepid. 40: 1-652
Reakirt, 1866
Coloradian butteflies Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 122-151
Rothschild, 1925
Critical List of the collection of Algerian Lepidoptera of the late Captain N. J. E. Holl. Novit. Zool. 32 : 195-229
Sharma, 2005
Life history of Pontia daplidice moorei (Röber) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from Himachal Pradesh, India J. Lep. Soc. 59 (3): 170-171
Stephens, 1827
Illustrations of British Entomology; or, a synopsis of indigenous insects: containing their generic and specific distinctions; with an account of their metamorphoses, times of appearance, localities, food, and economy, as far as practicable Ill. Br. Ent. (Haustellata) 1 (1): 1-56, pl. 1-9 (1827), (2): 57-150, pl. 10-12 (1828)
Verity, 1908
Rhopalocera Palaearctica Iconographie et Description des Papillons diurnes de la région paléarctique. Papilionidae et Pieridae Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 86+368pp, 2+12+72pls
Verity, 1929
Essai sur les origines des Rhopalocères Européens et Méditerranéens et particulièrement des Anthocharidi et des Lycaenidi du groupe d'Aagestis Schiff. Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 98 (3) : 323-360
Winhard, 2000
Pieridae I Butterflies of the world, 10: (1) 40pp, (2) 48pls
Wyatt, 1961
Additions to the Rhopalocera of Afghanistan with descriptions of new species and subspecies J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 1-18, 3pls


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.