[HOME] [INDEXES] < Life < Insecta < Lepidoptera < Ditrysia < Papilionoidea < Papilionidae < Parnassiinae
Parnassius Latreille, 1804
Parnassius Latreille, 1804; Nouv. Dict. Hist. nat. 24 (6): 185, 199, TS: Papilio apollo Linnaeus
Doritis Fabricius, 1807; Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 283, TS: Papilio apollo Linnaeus
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Parnassis Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 90 (or missp. or emend.?), TS: Papilio apollo Linnaeus
Therius Billberg, 1820; Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb. : 75, TS: Papilio apollo Linnaeus
Tadumia Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 116, TS: Papilio acco Gray
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Kailasius Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 118, TS: Parnassius charltonius Gray
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Koramius Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 120, TS: Parnassius delphius Eversmann
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Lingamius Bryk, 1935; Das Tierreich 65: 538-540, TS: Parnassius hardwickii Gray
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Eukoramius Bryk, 1935; Das Tierreich 65: 630, 673-674, TS: Parnassius imperator Oberthür
= ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Parnassius, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius (Parnassiini) ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 76
Parnassius (Parnassiinae) ; [NACL]

Subgenus Parnassius
Parnassius, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 138

fiParnassius apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, Tien-Shan, Siberia - Yakutia, N.Urals - Transcaucasia, Asia Minor, Middle East, Mongolia. See [About maps] Apollo Apollo Apollofjäril Apollo l'Apollon Apolo Niepylak apollo
Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 465, TL: Sweden
Parnassius apollo f. jocundula Stauder, 1924; Dt. ent. Z. 1924: 17
Parnassius apollo f. minuscula Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 312, pl. 62, f. 7, TL: Dourbes
Parnassius apollo ab. novarae Oberthür, 1891; 7, TL: Silesia
Parnassius apollo ab. perfusa Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 312, pl. 62, f. 10
Parnassius apollo arvernensis f. planeixi Eisner, 1964; Zool. Meded. Leiden 40 (5) : 26, pl. 1, f. 3-4
Parnassius apollo f. sztrecnoensis posterior Pescke, 1921; 35
Parnassius apollo, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius apollo, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Parnassius apollo, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Parnassius apollo, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Parnassius apollo, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Parnassius apollo, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius apollo, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Parnassius apollo, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]

jocundula ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
minuscula ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
novarae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
Parnassius apollo f. perfusa ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
planeixi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
posterior ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
Parnassius apollo ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83, pl. 3, f. 23-24; [BRU, 144]; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 6]; [MRS, 198]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[apollo-1u.jpg] 500x320 (~63Kb) upperside Mt. Canigou, Pyrenees Orientales, France 27/7/96, Photo © Simon Coombes [apollo-2u.jpg] 500x345 (~20Kb) upperside Sweden, Gotland, Hejnum, 23.7.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [apollo-2v.jpg] 500x435 (~27Kb) underside Sweden, Gotland, Hejnum, 23.7.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen
[apollo-3l.jpg] 600x360 (~53Kb) larva Finland, Parainen 669:23, 25.06.1985, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [apollo-4l.jpg] 640x480 (~88Kb) larva Sweden, Småland, ex. ovo, Photo 2000 © Hans Degler [apollo-4p.jpg] 640x480 (~88Kb) pupa Sweden, Småland, ex. ovo, Photo 2000 © Hans Degler
[apollo-5l.jpg] 598x400 (~81Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [apollo-5u.jpg] 598x400 (~58Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch

Larva on Sedum telephium, S. album, S. rupestre, S. rosea [SPRK], Hylotelephium caucasicum, Sempervivum [BRU]


P. a. rhea (Poda, 1761)
P. a. sibiricus Nordmann, 1851
E.Siberia
[sibiricus-1l.jpg] 533x400 (~62Kb) larva A rocky south-exposed slope of the right board of the Berd' River valley 13 km SE of the village Novososedovo (on the elevation of Salairskii Kryazh), Iskitim District, Novosibirsk Province, West Siberia, Russia. 10th May 1996 (A mature instar larva), Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. a. hesebolus Nordmann, 1851
Transbaikalia, Yakutia Parnassius apollo hesebolus, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
P. a. pyrenaica Harcourt-Bath, 1896
Parnassius apollo pyrenaica Harcourt-Bath, 1896; Entomologist 29: 331
Parnassius apollo pyrenaicus ab. semi-novarae Rothschild, 1918; Novit. Zool. 25 : 235
semi-novarae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. a. provincialis Kheil, 1905
[provincialis-1l.jpg] 640x480 (~82Kb) larva France, Mont Lachens, ex. ovo, Photo 2000 © Hans Degler

apollo nedadensis Oberthür; , TL: Spain, Sierra Nevada
Parnassius apollo nevadensis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83
P. a. sicilae Oberthür
apollo sicilae Oberthür; , TL: Sicily
Parnassius apollo sicilae ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83
Switzerland apollo geminus Stichel; , TL: Grindelwald
Parnassius apollo geminus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83
apollo bartholomaeus Stichel; , TL: Königsee
Parnassius apollo bartholomaeus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83
P. a. graecus Ziegler, 1901
Bulgaria? Parnassius apollo graecus Ziegler, 1901; Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift 46 (1): (11)
Parnassius apollo omotimoius Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (8): 88, TL: Vitosch near Sofia, Bulgaria
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 14
Parnassius apollo yglanus Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (8): 88, TL: Rila Planina, 1400m, Bulgaria
= Parnassius apollo rhodopensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 14
Parnassius apollo hermiston Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (8): 89, TL: Balkan, Schipkapass, ca. 1300m, Bulgaria
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15
Parnassius apollo var. olympiacus Kolar & Rebel, 1934; Int. ent. Z. 28 (29): 368, TL: Kalyvia Vrissula, Olymp., 1300m [Greece]
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15
Parnassius apollo thessalicus Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 (16): 128, TL: Greece, Thessalia, Litochoran, Olymp., 2100-2400m
= Parnassius apollo olympiacus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15

Parnassius apollo omotimoius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
omotimoius ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 14
yglanus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 14
Parnassius apollo hermiston ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
hermiston ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15
Parnassius apollo olympiacus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
olympiacus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15
thessalicus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 15
P. a. rhaeticus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius apollo rhaeticus Fruhstorfer, 1906; 139
Parnassius apollo rhaeticus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
P. a. valesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius apollo valesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1906; 140
Parnassius apollo valesiacus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. a. democratus Kulikowsky, 1906
C.Europe
P. a. alpherakyi Krulikowsky, 1906
Altai Parnassius apollo alpherakyi, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
P. a. limicola Stichel, 1906
Urals
P. a. rubidus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius apollo rubidus Fruhstorfer, 1906; 137
Parnassius apollo rubidus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
P. a. merzbacheri Fruhstorfer, 1906
N.Tian Shan, Dzhungarsky Alatau
[merzbacheri-1mu.jpg] 533x400 (~66Kb) upperside male A meadowy southern slope of the Tyshkan River valley, altitude of 2400 m, 38 km NEN of Zharkent, 13 km NEN of Sarybel', massif Tyshkantau, the Southern Dzhungarian Alatau mountain chain (NE part of Tien Shan), Zharkent District, Taldy-Kurgan region, SE Kazakhstan. 24th of July 1994, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [merzbacheri-2mu.jpg] 755x483 (~51Kb) upperside male A meadowy southern slope of the Tyshkan River valley, altitude of 2400 m, 38 km NEN of Zharkent, 13 km NEN of Sarybel', massif Tyshkantau, the Southern Dzhungarian Alatau mountain chain (NE part of Tien Shan), Zharkent District, Taldy-Kurgan region, SE Kazakhstan. 24th of July 1994, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [merzbacheri-3m.jpg] 732x476 (~41Kb) male A meadowy southern slope of the Tyshkan River valley, altitude of 2400 m, 38 km NEN of Zharkent, 13 km NEN of Sarybel', massif Tyshkantau, the Southern Dzhungarian Alatau mountain chain (NE part of Tien Shan), Zharkent District, Taldy-Kurgan region, SE Kazakhstan. 24th of July 1994 (in spider web), Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. a. finmarchicus Rothschild, 1908
N.Europe (Karelia) Parnassius apollo finmarchicus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 : 390, TL: Helsingfors, Finland
Parnassius apollo finmarchicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. a. levantinus Rothschild, 1908
Parnassius apollo levantinus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 : 390, TL: Aintab, N.Syria
Parnassius apollo levantinus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. a. kashtsehenko Sheljuzhko, 1908
Caucasus Minor, Armenia
P. a. cetius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo cetius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Int. ent. Zs. 3 (30) : 161, TL: Wachau
Parnassius apollo cetius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 151, TL: Wachau
Parnassius apollo cetius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. a. maximilianus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo r. maximilianus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 150
Parnassius apollo maximilianus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. a. guadarramensis Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo guadarramensis Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 151, TL: Sierra de Guadarrama, N of Madrid
Parnassius apollo guadarramensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. a. thiemo Fruhstorfer, 1909
apollo thiemo Fruhstorfer, 1909; 151
Parnassius apollo thiemo ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. a. luitpoldus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo luitpoldus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Int. ent. Zs. 3 (30) : 161
P. a. ancile Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo ancile Fruhstorfer, 1909; Int. ent. Zs. 3 (30) : 161, TL: Fichtelgebirge, Berneck
P. a. escalerae Rothschild, 1909
Parnassius apollo escalerae Rothschild, 1909; 9, TL: San Ildefonso, Segovia, Spain
Parnassius apollo escalerae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. a. substitutus Rothschild, 1909
Parnassius apollo substitutus Rothschild, 1909; 10
Parnassius apollo substitutus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. a. suaneticus Arnold, 1909
Caucasus Major
P. a. leovigildus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo leovigildus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 151, TL: Digne, Basses Alpes
[leovigildus-1l.jpg] 640x480 (~93Kb) larva France, Montage de Lure, ex. ovo (2nd gen.), Photo 2000 © Hans Degler

P. a. nivatus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo nivatus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 151
Parnassius apollo nivatus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. a. piedemontanus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo r. piedemontanus Fruhstorfer, 1909; 158
pedemontanus[sic, recte piedemontanus] ; Turati, 1911, 4
Parnassius apollo piedemontanus ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. a. ottonius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo ottonius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Int. ent. Zs. 3 (30) : 161, TL: "österreichischen Küstenlande.. Krain"
= Parnassius apollo rhea ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
Parnassius apollo leimdoerfferi Bryk, 1935; Das Tierreich 65: 450, TL: "Fiume (Cirkvenica)" [Croatia, Rijeka, Crikvenica]
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 16
ottonius ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 13
Parnassius apollo leimdoerfferi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
leimdoerfferi ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 16
P. a. rhodopensis Markowitsch, 1910
apollo rhodopensis Markowitsch, 1910; 12, TL: Bulgaria, Rila Planina, Rhodopi Planina
Parnassius apollo rhodopensis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83
P. a. valdieriensis Verity, 1911
Parnassius apollo valdieriensis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 309, pl. 65, f. 15-16
Parnassius apollo valdieriensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. a. linnei Bryk, 1913
Parnassius apollo var. linnei Bryk, 1913; 34
Parnassius apollo linnei ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. a. claudius Belling, 1915
Parnassius apollo claudius Belling, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. 1915: 655
Parnassius apollo claudius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. a. phonolithi Bryk, 1915
Parnassius apollo var. phonolithi Bryk, 1915; Archiv Naturg. 80 A (7): 141
Parnassius apollo phonolithi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. a. generosus Fruhstorfer, 1920
Parnassius apollo generosus Fruhstorfer, 1920; 28, TL: Tessin, Mt. Generosa
Parnassius apollo generosus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. a. agyiens Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo agyiens Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (3): 29, TL: Ampezzo
Parnassius apollo agyiens ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. a. victorialis Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo victorialis Fruhstorfer, 1921; 29
Parnassius apollo victorialis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. a. caloriferus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo caloriferus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 41, TL: Iselle
Parnassius apollo caloriferus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. a. adulanus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo adulanus Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (4): 44, TL: Val Pontirone
Parnassius apollo adulanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. a. artemidor Fruhstorfer, 1921
Carpathians Parnassius apollo artemidor Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (7): 78, TL: Carpathians
Parnassius apollo artemidor ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. a. jelicus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo jelicus Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (8): 87, TL: Serbien, Jelicapass
Parnassius apollo jelicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
jelicus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 14
P. a. chrysophorus Fruhstorfer, 1921
S.Pyrenees Parnassius apollo chrysophorus Fruhstorfer, 1921; Ent. Anz. 1 (6): 66, TL: S.Pyrenees
Parnassius apollo chrysophorus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. a. debilis Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo debilis Fruhstorfer, 1921; 114
Parnassius apollo debilis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. a. venaissinus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo venaissinus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 114
Parnassius apollo venaissinus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. a. heliophilus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo heliophilus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 53
Parnassius apollo heliophilus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. a. phrynius Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo phrynius Fruhstorfer, 1921; 30, f. 3
Parnassius apollo phrynius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. a. posthumus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo posthumus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 13
Parnassius apollo posthumus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. a. sicinus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo sicinus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 14
Parnassius apollo sicinus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. a. juvanus Kolar, 1922
Parnassius apollo r. juvanus Kolar, 1922; Ent. Anz. 2: 42
Parnassius apollo juvanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. a. noricanus Kolar, 1922
Parnassius apollo r. noricanus Kolar, 1922; 42
Parnassius apollo noricanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. a. helias Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo helias Fruhstorfer, 1923; Ent. Anz. 3 (5): 55
Parnassius apollo helias ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. a. sotirion Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo sotirion Fruhstorfer, 1923; Ent. Anz. 3 (5): 56
Parnassius apollo sotirion ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. a. tenebrosus Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo tenebrosus Fruhstorfer, 1923; Ent. Anz. 3 (5): 56
Parnassius apollo tenebrosus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. a. xerophilus Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo xerophilus Fruhstorfer, 1923; 58
Parnassius apollo xerophilus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
P. a. rosenius Fruhstorfer, 1923
Carpathians
P. a. ladinus Belling, 1923
Parnassius apollo ladinus Belling, 1923; Dt. ent. Z. 1923: (287-290)
P. a. venustus Belling, 1923
Parnassius apollo venustus Belling, 1923; Dt. ent. Z. 1923: (287-290)
P. a. meinhardi Sheljuzhko, 1924
N.Kazakhstan, W.Siberia Parnassius apollo meinhardi Sheljuzhko, 1924; Z. öst. EntVer. 9: 57
Parnassius apollo meinhardi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. a. kricheldorffi Eisner, 1928
Parnassius apollo kricheldorffi Eisner, 1928; Int. ent. Z. 22: 309, f. 1-2
Parnassius apollo kricheldorffi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. a. vindobonensis Bollow, 1929
Parnassius apollo vindobonensis Bollow, 1929; in Seitz, Die Palaearktischen Tagfalter (Suppl.): 57
Parnassius apollo vindobonensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. a. tauricus Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius apollo tauricus Bryk & Eisner, 1930; Parnassiana 1 (4): 2, pl. 1, f. 1-4
Parnassius apollo tauricus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. a. liptauensis Peschke & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo liptauensis Peschke & Eisner, 1932; Int. ent. Z. 26: 249
Parnassius apollo liptauensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. a. buehleri Eisner, 1956
Parnassius apollo buehleri Eisner, 1956; Zool. Meded. Leiden 34 (10) : 157, pl. 1, f. 1-2
Parnassius apollo buehleri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. a. transitoria Eisner, 1958
Parnassius apollo transitoria Eisner, 1958; Zool. Meded. Leiden 36 (2) : 26
Parnassius apollo transitoria ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. a. oravensis Eisner & Zelny, 1969
Parnassius apollo oravensis Eisner & Zelny, 1969; Zool. Meded. Leiden 44 (7) : 112, pl. 3, f. 1-4
Parnassius apollo oravensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21

Parnassius nomion Fischer de Waldheim, 1823
Urals, Altai, S.Siberia - Ussuri, Amur, Mongolia, China, Korea. See [About maps] Parnassius nomion Fischer de Waldheim, 1823; Entom. Imp. ross., 2: 242, TL: "Dauria"
Parnassius nomion, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius nomion ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2 [for Alaska missid.?]; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83, pl. 3, f. 17-18; [BRU, 143]; [MRS, 196]
[nomion-1u.jpg] 510x390 (~45Kb) upperside The Koksu River left bank 2 km upstream of its junctin with the Argut River, Central Altai Mountains, West Siberia, Russia. July 1988 (sitting on Spiraea chamaedryfolia), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [nomion-2mu.jpg] 800x600 (~105Kb) upperside male Spiraea salicifolia L. bushes on the Onon River right bank floodland just below a high steppen terrace, 5 km upstream of the village Nizhnii Tsasuchei, Onon District, Chita Province, Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia, 16th July 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [nomion-2mv.jpg] 533x400 (~42Kb) underside male Spiraea salicifolia L. bushes on the Onon River right bank floodland just below a high steppen terrace, 5 km upstream of the village Nizhnii Tsasuchei, Onon District, Chita Province, Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia, 16th July 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[nomion-3l.jpg] 800x600 (~117Kb) larva A meadow steppe on a moderate elevation Adon-Chelon at the mountain Tsagan-Obo, 10 km NNW of the village Tasyrkhoi, SE Chita Province (Dahuria), Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia, 20th June 1995 (The last instar larva near its foodplant Sedum aizoon L.), Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Sedum, Orostachys [BRU]


Transbaikalia
P. n. dis Grum-Grshimailo, 1890
E.Sayan Mts Parnassius nomion var. dis Grum-Grshimailo, 1890; 174
Parnassius nomion dis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. n. nomius Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Parnassius nomion var. nomius Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 445
Parnassius nomion nomius ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. mandschuriae Oberthür, 1891
Ussuri Parnassius nomion mandschuriae ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. nominulus Staudinger, 1895
Tuva
P. n. titan Fruhstorfer, 1904
Parnassius nomion titan Fruhstorfer, 1904; 308, TL: Sutschan
Parnassius nomion titan ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. n. theagenes Fruhstorfer
Parnassius nomion theagenes ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. chosensis Matsumura, 1927
Korea Parnassius nomion chosensis Matsumura, 1927; Insecta Matsumurana 1 (4) : 162, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: Korea
P. n. tschiliensis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius nomion tschiliensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 15, pl. 2, f. 1-2
Parnassius nomion tschiliensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. n. richthofeni Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius nomion richthofeni Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 16, pl. 2, f. 7
Parnassius nomion richthofeni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23; [MRS, 196]
P. n. sinensis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius nomion sinensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 16, pl. 2, f. 5-6, TL: Kansu
Parnassius nomion sinensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. n. peilingschani Bang-Haas, 1932
Parnassius nomion peilingschani Bang-Haas, 1932; Ent. Z. 46: 200, TL: Kansu, Peiling shan
Parnassius nomion peilingschani ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
P. n. chingamensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius nomion chingamensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 26, TL: Buchatu, Gudschal-Tal, Chingan
Parnassius nomion chinganensis[sic, recte chingamensis] ; Eisner, 1955, Zool. Meded. Leiden 33 (21): 203
Parnassius nomion chingamensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. n. minchani Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius nomion minchani Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 26
Parnassius nomion minschani[sic, recte minchani] ; Bryk & Eisner, 1932, 42
Parnassius nomion minchani ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. n. tsinlingensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius nomion tsinlingensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 26
Parnassius nomion tsinlingensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27; [MRS, 196]
P. n. aurora Bang-Haas, 1933
Amur Parnassius nomion aurora Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 46 : 261
Parnassius nomion aurora ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. n. taschishani Bang-Haas, 1933
Parnassius nomion taschishani Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 46 : 262
Parnassius nomion taschishani ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. n. gabrieli Bryk, 1934
Parnassius nomion gabrieli Bryk, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 28, TL: Burchan-Budda, Chatu
Parnassius nomion gabrieli ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14; [MRS, 196]
P. n. liupinschani Bang-Haas, 1934
Shensi Parnassius nomion liupinschani Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 : 7, TL: Shensi
Parnassius nomion liupinschani ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. n. shekouensis Bang-Haas, 1934
Parnassius nomion shekouensis Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 : 7
Parnassius nomion shekouensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
Parnassius nomion oberthuerianus ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. alini Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius nomion alini Bryk & Eisner, 1937; Parnassiana 5 : 12, TL: Maoreschan, Mandschurei
Parnassius nomion alini ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. n. epaphoides Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Kansu Parnassius nomion epaphoides Bryk & Eisner, 1937; Parnassiana 5 : 23, TL: Kansu, Richthofen Mts.
Parnassius nomion epaphoides ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. n. minschani Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius nomion minschani ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. badius Bang-Haas, 1938
Kansu Parnassius nomion badius Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 21, TL: Kansu
Parnassius nomion badius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. n. koshoensis Eisner, 1939
Parnassius nomion koshoensis Eisner, 1939; Parnassiana 6: 39
Parnassius nomion koshoensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
Parnassius nomion shansiensis ; [MRS, 196]
P. n. korshunovi Kreuzberg & Pljushch, 1992
Altai, W.Sayan, Urals

Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793)
Alps, Urals, Siberia, Kazakhastan, Mongolia, China, Alaska?, Alberta?. See [About maps] Small Apollo Phoebus Parnassian Alpen-Apollo
Papilio phoebus Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 181, TL: Altai, Ongudai
Papilio delius Esper, [1803]; Die Schmett., Suppl. Th 1 (10): 114, pl. 115, f. 5
Parnassius delius ab. inornata Wheeler, 1903; 56, TL: Simplon
Parnassius delius ab. nigrescens Wheeler, 1903; 57
Parnassius delius var. intermedius ab. melanica Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 314, pl. 63, f. 18
Parnassius delius ab. pseudoernae Bryk, 1931; Zool. Jb. Syst. 62: 173, TL: Ponteresina
Parnassius phoebus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius phoebus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Parnassius phoebus, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Parnassius phoebus, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius phoebus, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
inornata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
nigrescens ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
melanica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
pseudoernae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
Parnassius phoebus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 81, pl. 2, f. 11-12; [BRU, 145]; [NACL, #4155]; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 8]; [MRS, 194]; [Opler]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[phoebus-1f.jpg] 717x456 (~33Kb) female An alpine meadow in the valley of a headwater of the Chikty Rivulet, 2500 m above sea level, the southern principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 15th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [phoebus-1l.jpg] 1084x396 (~68Kb) larva A SW slope of a mountain SE of the peak Ilyas and SW of the peak Zhaniktu, which divides sources of the Chikty Rivulet, 3000 m above sea level, the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 15th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Saxifraga aizioides, Sempervivum montanum [H&R]

Larva on Sedum lanceolatum, Sedum obtusatum, Sedum? [NAB]

Larva on Rhodiola rosea, Sedum spp., Saxifraga spp. [BRU]

Larva on Saxifraga spp., Saxifraga aizioides, S. calycina, S. nivalis, Sempervivum montanum, S. tectorum, Sedum stenopetalum, S. telephium, Sedum fabria, S. album, S. debile, S. obtusatum, S. wrightii, S. lanceolatum [MRS]


P. p. corybas Fischer von Waldheim, 1824
Kamchatka phoebus kamtchatica Ménétriés, 1859
P. p. sedakovi Ménétriés, [1850]
Baikal phoebus sedakovi Ménétriés, [1850]; in Siemaschko
Parnassius phoebus sedakovi, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
P. p. intermedius Ménétriés, 1851
S.Altai
P. p. uralensis Ménétriés, 1859
Polar Urals
Yakutia Parnassius delius interposita Herz, 1903; 62
Parnassius phoebus interposita ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. p. apricatus Stichel, 1906
C.Alaska - W.Yukon Parnassius phoebus apricatus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius phoebus apricatus ; [NACL, #4155i]
P. p. cervinicolus Fruhstorfer, 1907
Parnassius phoebus cervinicolus Fruhstorfer, 1907; 199, TL: Mt. Cervin; Matterhorn
Parnassius phoebus cervinicolus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. p. styriacus Fruhstorfer, 1907
Parnassius phoebus styriacus Fruhstorfer, 1907; 199
Parnassius phoebus styriacus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. p. alpestris Verity, 1911
Altai Parnassius delius var. intermedius f. alpestris Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 314, pl. 63, f. 19-20, TL: SE.Altai, Tehuja Mts, 6-8000ft
Parnasius phoebus alpestris ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. p. fortuna Bang-Haas, 1912
Transbaikalia Parnassius intermedius f. fortuna Bang-Haas, 1912; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 26 (2): 103, TL: Sajan
Parnassius phoebus fortuna ; [MRS, 194]
P. p. confederationis Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius delius confederationis Fruhstorfer, 1921; 20, TL: Maderanertal, Uri, Urschweiz
Parnassius phoebus confederationis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
[confederationis-1l.jpg] 640x480 (~132Kb) larva ?Schweiz, centralalps, ex. ovo 2001, Photo © Hans Degler

P. p. expectatus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius delius expectatus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 13
Parnassius phoebus expectatus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. p. tessinorum Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius delius tessinorum Fruhstorfer, 1921; 14
Parnassius phoebus tessinorum ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. p. serenus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius delius serenus Fruhstorfer, 1921; 17
Parnassius phoebus serenus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. p. blachieri Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius delius blachieri Fruhstorfer, 1921; 16
Parnassius phoebus blachieri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. p. hansi Bryk, 1923
phoebus hansi Bryk, 1923; REF#a: 212 (repl. Parnassius delius hermiston Fruhstorfer, 1922)
Parnassius delius hermiston Fruhstorfer, 1922; 11 (preocc.)
Parnassius phoebus hansi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. p. golovinus Holland, 1930
W.Alaska Parnassius phoebus golovinus ; [NACL, #4155j]
P. p. ochotskensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Russian far east (coastal mountains)
[ochotskensis-1fu.jpg] 533x400 (~73Kb) upperside female A flowery slope of the coastal terrace at the Burgauli River mouth on the south (Ochot Sea) coast of the Koni Peninsula, Ola District, S Magadan Province, Russia. 17th July, 1989, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [ochotskensis-1mv.jpg] 400x533 (~50Kb) underside male A flowery slope of the coastal terrace on the Cape Alevina - the south-west ending of the Koni Peninsula, Ola District, S Magadan Province, Russia. 15th July, 1989, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. p. elias Bryk, 1934
Parnassius phoebus elias ; [NACL, #4155l]

ssp. of smintheus?

P. p. alaskensis Eisner, 1956
alaskaensis Eisner, 1957; (emend.)
Parnassius phoebus alaskensis ; [NACL, #4155k]

ssp. of smintheus?

P. p. halasicus Huang & Murayama, 1992
Xinjiang Parnassius phoebus halasicus Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 3, f. 4, TL: Halasi, Altai, 1700-1900m
P. p. sauricus Lukhtanov, 1999
E.Kasakstan (Saur-Tarbagatai Mts.) Parnassius phoebus sauricus Lukhtanov, 1999; Atalanta 30 (1/4): 136, TL: Kasakstan, Ust-Kemenogorsk, Saur, Kysylkiya, 2900m

Parnassius smintheus Doubleday, [1847]
Alaska, British Columbia, W.USA. See [About maps] Mountain Parnassian
Parnassius smintheus Doubleday, [1847]; Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 27, pl. 4*, f. 4
Parnassius sedakovii Ménétriés, 1855; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 71
rocky Grum-Grshimailo, 1890
nanus Neumann, 1890; Ent. Amer. 6 : 61
minor Verity, 1907; (preocc. Staudinger, 1881)
minusculus Bryk, 1912
quincunx Bryk, 1914
verity Ehrmann, 1918; (repl. name)
ernestinae Bryk & Eisner, 1935
manitobaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Parnassius smintheus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Parnassius smintheus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius smintheus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Parnassius smintheus nanus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius smintheus sedakovii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius phoebus smintheus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25; [NACL, #4155e]
Parnassius smintheus ; [BOC, 112]; [Opler]
[smintheus-1.jpg] 900x746 (~117Kb) USA: FR3100, Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'55N 120°57'48W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [smintheus-2u.jpg] 900x708 (~60Kb) upperside USA: FR3100, Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'55N 120°57'48W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [smintheus-3v.jpg] 800x892 (~90Kb) underside USA: FR3100, Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'55N 120°57'48W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela
[smintheus-4u.jpg] 900x660 (~74Kb) upperside USA: FR3120(?), Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'51N 120°58'36W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [smintheus-4ux.jpg] 800x541 (~47Kb) upperside USA: FR3120(?), Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'51N 120°58'36W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [smintheus-4v.jpg] 1000x772 (~88Kb) underside USA: FR3120(?), Wenatchee National Forest, (47°03'51N 120°58'36W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela
[smintheus-5u.jpg] 1000x686 (~97Kb) upperside USA: FR3330(?), Wenatchee National Forest, (47°04'11N 120°56'09W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [smintheus-6mu.jpg] 1600x1200 (~354Kb) upperside male Canada, Alberta [not Manitoba], nr. Exshaw, 15.VII.1933 (Parnassius smintheus "manitobaensis"), Photo 2004 © Joseph Belicek NHMW Wien

Larva on Sedum lanceolatum, S. roseum, S. divergens, S. stenopetalum, S. oreganum [BOC]


[smintheus_smintheus-1fu.jpg] 1947x1497 (~437Kb) upperside female Canada, British Columbia, Mt. Spieker, Photo 2005 © Norbert Kondla leg. [smintheus_smintheus-1fv.jpg] 1910x1425 (~453Kb) underside female Canada, British Columbia, Mt. Spieker, Photo 2005 © Norbert Kondla leg. [smintheus_smintheus-1mu.jpg] 1831x1415 (~360Kb) upperside male Canada, British Columbia, Mt. Spieker, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.
[smintheus_smintheus-1mv.jpg] 1813x1375 (~329Kb) underside male Canada, British Columbia, Mt. Spieker, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.

P. s. sternitzkyi McDunnough, 1936
N.California Parnassius smintheus sternitzkyi McDunnough, 1936; Can. ent. 68: , TL: Castle Lake, Siskiyou Co., California
Parnassius smintheus sternitzkyi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius phoebus sternitzkyi ; [NACL, #4155b]
Parnassius smintheus sternitzkyi ; [BOC]
P. s. magnus Wright, 1905
Washington smintheus magnus Wright, 1905; , TL: Enderby, British Columbia
Parnassius phoebus magnus ; [NACL, #4155c]
Parnassius smintheus magnus ; [BOC, 112]
[magnus-1fu.jpg] 1816x1500 (~469Kb) upperside female Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla [magnus-1fv.jpg] 1800x1500 (~429Kb) underside female Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla [magnus-1mu.jpg] 1810x1466 (~349Kb) upperside male Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.
[magnus-1mv.jpg] 1752x1398 (~324Kb) underside male Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.

P. s. olympiannus Burdick, 1941
Olympic Mountains, Vancouver Is. Parnassius smintheus olympiannus Burdick, 1941; Can. Ent. 73 (7): (117-118), TL: Hurricane Hill, Olympic Peninsula, Clallam Co., Washington
Parnassius phoebus guppyi Wyatt, 1969; Z. wien. ent. Ges. 54: (132-133), TL: Mt. Arrowsmith, Vancouver I., British Columbia
Parnassius phoebus olympianus ; [NACL, #4155d (missp.)]
Parnassius smintheus olympiannus ; [BOC, 112]

Larva on Sedum divergens Guppy, 1998, J. Lep. Soc. 52 (1): 113 (for guppyi in Vancouver I.)

P. s. xanthus Ehrmann, 1918
Washington smintheus xanthus Ehrmann, 1918; , TL: Moscow, Idaho
= ?Parnassius smintheus magnus Wright, 1905;
mendicus Stichel, 1907; (ab.)
pseudocorybas Verity, 1907; (ab.)
Parnassius smintheus idahoensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (5) : 5, f. 4-5, TL: Wallace, Idaho
= ?Parnassius smintheus magnus Wright, 1905;
montanulus Bryk & Eisner, 1931; , TL: Missoula, Montana
= ?Parnassius smintheus magnus Wright, 1905;
maximus Bryk & Eisner, 1937; , TL: Judith Mtns, Montana
Parnassius phoebus idahoensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Parnassius phoebus xanthus ; [NACL, #4155f]
Parnassius smintheus xanthus ; [BOC, 112]
P. s. pseudorotgeri Eisner, 1966
Colorado (San Juan Mtns) Parnassius smintheus pseudorotgeri, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius phoebus pseudorotgeri ; [NACL, #4155h]
P. s. yukonensis Eisner, 1969
S.Yukon, British Columbia Parnassius phoebus yukonensis Eisner, 1969; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (14) : 175
Parnassius phoebus yukonensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29; [NACL, #4155m]
P. s. sayii Edwards, 1863
Parnassius sayii Edwards, 1863
= Parnassius smintheus Doubleday, [1847]; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius smintheus var. hermodur H. Edwards, 1881; Papilio 1 (1): 4, TL: S.Colorado
nigerrimus Verity, 1907
mariae Bryk, 1912
quincunx Bryk, 1915, not Bryk, 1914
polus Ehrmann, 1917
montanus Ehrmann, 1918
Parnassius phoebus utahensis Rothschild, 1918
fermatus Bryk, 1921
melanophorus Bryk, 1921
sordellus Fruhstorfer, 1923
aristion Fruhstorfer, 1923
catullius Fruhstorfer, 1923
dakotaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935
hollandi Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Parnassius phoebus rotgeri Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 20, pl. 1, f. 6, 9, TL: Colora, Mt. Evans
reducta Bang-Haas, 1938
discocircumcinctus Eisner, 1955
rubiana Wyatt, 1961
excelsior Eisner, 1969
Parnassius smintheus sayii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius phoebus utahensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
pholus ; Barner & Benjamin, 1926, (missp.)
Parnassius phoebus rotgeri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
hermador ; F. M. Brown, Eff & Rotger, 1956, (missp.)
Parnassius smintheus hermodur ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius phoebus sayii ; [NACL, #4155g]
[sayii-1fu.jpg] 1300x1656 (~271Kb) upperside female USA: Colorado, Clear Creek Co., Summit Lake, Mt. Evans, 23.7.2012 (39°35'52"N 105°38'23"W), Photo © Markku Savela [sayii-1um.jpg] 1800x1200 (~253Kb) upperside male USA: Colorado, Clear Creek Co., Summit Lake, Mt. Evans, 23.7.2012 (39°35'52"N 105°38'23"W), Photo © Markku Savela


Parnassius behrii Edwards, 1870
California. See [About maps] Parnassius behrii Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 10
niger W. G. Wright, 1905
astriotes Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius behrii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius behrii, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius smintheus behrii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius phoebus behrii ; [NACL, #4155a]
Parnassius behrii ; [Opler]

Parnassius actius (Eversmann, 1843)
Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Sinkiang, Kansu. See [About maps] actius (Eversmann, 1843); Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16 (3) : 540, pl. 9, f. 2a, b, TL: "Altai" [= error?, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Kazakhstan]
Parnassius actius ab. (var.?) actinobolus Staudinger, 1898; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 10 (2) : 347, TL: Korla
Parnassius actius var. rhodius Honrath, 1882; 178, pl. 2, f. 6
Parnassius actius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius actius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
rhodius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius actius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 81, pl. 2, f. 13-14; [BRU, 146]; [MRS, 194]
[actius-1fu.jpg] 471x350 (~64Kb) upperside female Alpine vegetation on the bank of the Kyzylagash River source, about 2800 m altitude, 17 km SE of the village Kopal, the northern slope of the Mynchukur mountain range, the Northern Dzhungarian Alatau mountain chain (NE part of Tien Shan), Kopal District, Taldy-Kurgan Province, SE Kazakhstan. 6th August 1994, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. a. actius Eversmann, 1843
Dzhungarsky Alatau Mts
P. a. caesar Grum-Grshimailo, 1885
Parnassius caesar Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 2 : 247 (nom. nud.)
Parnassius actius caesar ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. a. minutus Verity, 1911
N.Tian-Shan
P. a. ambrosius Stichel, 1907
Central Tian-Shan
P. a. dubitabilis Verity, 1911
N., W. and Innert Tian-Shan
P. a. melaniticus Bang-Haas, 1915
Parnassius actius var. melaniticus Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 173, pl. 5, f. 21
Parnassius actius melaniticus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. a. flora Bang-Haas, 1915
Alai, Ghissar
P. a. brutus Bang-Haas, 1915
E.Pamirs
?P. a. pseudobrutus Bryk & Eisner, 1914
P. a. frischi Bang-Haas, 1938
Parnassius actius frischi Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23, pl. 2, f. 7-8
Parnassius actius frischi f. dentata Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius actius frischi f. nigerrima Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius actius frischi f. pura Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius actius frischi f. totireducta Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius actius frischi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
dentata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
nigerrima ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
pura ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
totireducta ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. a. actinoboloides Bang-Haas, 1928
Parnassius jacquemonti actinoboloides Bang-Haas, 1928; Ent. Z. 42 : 59, TL: Kansu, Tumöngtsze, Richthof. Mt., 2700m
Parnassius actius actinoboloides ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. a. catilina Eisner & Peschke, 1934
Parnassius actius catilina Eisner & Peschke, 1934; Parnassiana 3: 41, TL: Dardistan, Dubunni Mtns
Parnassius actius catilina ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. a. cassius Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius actius ab. apolloformis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 313, pl. 58, f. 11, TL: Karagai tau
Parnassius actius cassius f. apolloformis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9

Parnassius jacquemonti Boisduval, 1836
Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, N.India, Chitral - Kumaon, Tibet, Sinkiang, Kansu, Szechwan. See [About maps] Keeled Apollo
Parnassius jacquemonti Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 400, TL: "...l'Himalaya"
Parnassius jacquemonti, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius jacquemonti ; [BRU, 145]
Parnassius jacquemontii ; [EBW]; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 6; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 81, pl. 2, f. 15-16; [MRS, 194]

Larva on Rhodiola spp. [BRU]

P. j. himalayensis Elwes, 1886
Parnassius actius var. himalayensis Elwes, 1886; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1886: 30, TL: India, Lahoul
Parnassius jacquimontii himalayensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 6, 16, pl. 1, f. 4
P. j. impunctata Austaut, 1899
Parnassius jacquemontii var. impunctata Austaut, 1899; Le Naturaliste 21: 154
Parnassius jacquemontii impunctata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. j. tibetanus Ruhl, 1892
Parnassius tibetanus Ruhl, 1892; 99
Parnassius jacquemontii tibetanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. j. chitralensis Moore, 1902
Chitral Parnassius chitralensis Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 107, pl. 406, f. 2-2a, TL: Chitral
Parnassius jacquemontii chitralensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. j. variabilis Stichel, 1906
Ghissar, Alai, Inner Tian-Shan jacquemonti diana Bryk, 1934
P. j. rubicundus Stichel, 1906
W.Pamirs
P. j. cyrnus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius mercurius cyrnus Fruhstorfer, 1906; 139, TL: Aksu
Parnassius jacquemontii cyrnus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. j. boroghila Tytler, 1926
NE.Chitral Parnassius discobolus boroghila Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 250, (3): pl. 4, f. 1, TL: Baroghil, Swhawan Shung, Yarkhun
Parnassius jacquemontii boroghila ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. j. hunzaica Tytler, 1926
Parnassius discobolus hunzaica Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 250, (3): pl. 4, f. 2
Parnassius jacquemontii hunzaica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. j. shandura Tytler, 1926
Parnassius jacquemontii shandura Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 250, (3): pl. 4, f. 3-4, TL: Shandur Pass
P. j. pamirus Bang-Haas, 1927
E.Pamirs
P. j. jupiterius Bang-Haas, 1933
Parnassius mercurius jupiterius Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 46 : 262
Parnassius jacquemontii jupiterius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17; [MRS, 194]
P. j. mercurius Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Parnassius mercurius Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 445
Parnassius jacquemontii mercurius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19; [MRS, 194]
Parnassius jacquemontii thibetanus ; [MRS, 194]
P. j. kangraensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius jacquemontii kangraensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 23, f. 7-8
Parnassius jacquemontii kangraensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. j. tatungi Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius jacquemontii tatungi ; [MRS, 194]
P. j. diana Bryk, 1934
Parnassius jacquemonti diana Bryk, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 27, TL: S.Alai
Parnassius jacquemonti diana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13

Parnassius tianschanicus Oberthür, 1879
Tadzhikitan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan - Kasmir, Sinkiang. See [About maps] Parnassius tianschanicus Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 108, TL: "Kuldja"
Parnassius discobolus verityi Rothschild, 1918; Novit. Zool. 25 : 249
Parnassius corybas var. discobolus Alphéraky, 1881; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 16 (3-4): 349
Parnassius tianschanicus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius discobolus verityi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
Parnassius tianschanicus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83, pl. 3, f. 21-22; [BRU, 146]; [MRS, 195]

Larva on Rhodiola, Pseudosedum [BRU]

P. t. tianschanicus Oberthür, 1879
Mountains N. of Lake Issyk-Kul
P. t. minor Staudinger, 1881
Dzungarsky Alatau
P. t. alexander Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Kirghizsky Mts, Talassky Mts
P. t. chimganus Kreuzberg, 1989
W.Tian-Shan
P. t. astrictio Ohya, 1987
C.Tian-Shan tianschanicus kaindyensis Kreuzberg, 1989
P. t. thiseus Ehrmann, 1920
Inner Tian-Shan
P. t. insignis Staudinger, 1886
Alaisky Mts
P. t. haberhaueri Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Ghissar
P. t. maureri Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Parnassius tianschanicus maureri Bryk & Eisner, 1935; 82
Parnassius tianschanicus maureri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. t. olympius Staudinger, 1898
Parnassius olympius Staudinger, 1898; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 10 (2) : 344, TL: Kurla
P. t. superbus Austaut, 1889
W.Pamirs Parnassius superbus Austaut, 1889; 206
Parnassius tianschanicus superbus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
Parnassius tianschanicus erebus ; [MRS, 195]
Parnassius tianschanicus fujiokai ; [MRS, 195]
P. t. miror Staudinger
Parnassius tianschanicus miror ; [MRS, 195]
P. t. shiva Wyatt, 1961
Afghanistan Parnassius tianschanicus shiva Wyatt, 1961; J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 4, TL: Kars Pass, Shiva Mts, N. Badakshan, 11000ft

Parnassius epaphus Oberthür, 1879
Afghanistan - Kashmir, Nepal, Chitral - Sikkim, Tibet - Singkiang, Kansu, Tshingai, Szechwan. See [About maps] Common Red Apollo
Parnassius epaphus Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 23, TL: Tibet
?Parnassius epaphus huwei Fruhstorfer, 1903; Stettin ent. Ztg 64 (2) : 360, TL: Aksu, Chinese Turkestan
?beresowskyi Staudinger²
Parnassius poeta var. oberthuri Austaut, 1895; Naturaliste 17 : 247, TL: Thibet
Parnassius epaphus puella Bryk, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 28 (nom. nud.)
Parnassius epaphus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
oberthuri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
puella ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
Parnassius epaphus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 82, pl. 3, f. 19-20; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 5, 14, pl. 1, f. 10; [MRS, 195]
P. e. sikkimensis Elwes, 1882
Parnassius epaphus var. sikkimensis Elwes, 1882; 399, pl. 25, f. 4-5
Parnassius epaphus sikkimensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24; [MRS, 195]
P. e. poeta Oberthür, 1892
Parnassius epaphus poeta ; Huang, 2001
P. e. nanchaninca Austaut, 1899
Parnassius sikkimensis var. nanchanica Austaut, 1899; Le Naturaliste 21 : 285
Parnassius epaphus nanchanica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. e. nirius Moore, 1902
Parnassius nirius Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 108, pl. 407, f. 1-1a
Parnassius epaphus nirius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. e. hillensis Bang-Haas, 1915
Parnassius epaphus r. hillensis Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 175, pl. 5, f. 29
Parnassius epaphus hillensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. e. phariensis Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius epaphus phariensis Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 360, pl. 54, f. 8-9, TL: Phari-Zong, S. Thibet
Parnassius epaphus pernigrus Fruhstorfer, 1918; 2, TL: Phasi Thong, Tibet
= ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. e. everesti Riley, 1923
Parnassius epaphus everesti Riley, 1923; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1922 (3-4) : 463, pl. 36, f. 7-8, TL: Mt. Everest
Parnassius epaphus everesti ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. e. himalayanus Riley, 1923
Parnassius epaphus himalayanus Riley, 1923; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1922 (3-4) : 463, pl. 36, f. 6, TL: Mt. Everest
Parnassius epaphus himalayanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. e. dongalaica Tytler, 1926
epaphus dongalaica Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 249, (3): pl. 4, f. 5, TL: Donga-la, Tibet, 16000'
Parnassius epaphus dongalaiac ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. e. subtilis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius epaphus subtilis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 21, pl. 3, f. 6
Parnassius epaphus subtilis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. e. gyaella Eisner, 1932
Parnassius epaphus gyaella Eisner, 1932; Parnassiana 2: 68
Parnassius epaphus gyaella ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. e. pictor Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius epaphus pictor Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 104, TL: Kunkala-scan
Parnassius epaphus pictor ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. e. puer Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius epaphus puer Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 24, f. 6
Parnassius epaphus puer ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. e. hinducunica Bang-Haas, 1934
Kashmir Parnassius epaphus hinducunica Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 : 7
Parnassius epaphus hinducunica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. e. robertsi Epstein, 1979
epaphus robertsi Epstein, 1979; , TL: C.Nepal
P. e. capdevillei Epstein, 1979
epaphus capdevillei Epstein, 1979; , TL: C.Nepal
P. e. tsaiae Huang, 1998
NW.Tibet Parnassius epaphus tsaiae Huang, 1998; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 274, pl. 1, f. 4c, 4d, TL: Maojiali, Main Peak, 4900-5200

Parnassius bremeri Bremer, 1864
Lake Baikal - Ussuri, NE.China (Heilunkiang, Shansi, Hopei), Korea. See [About maps] Parnassius bremeri Bremer, 1864; Mém. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. (7) 8 (1) : 6, pl. 1, f. 3, 4, TL: [Delta of Oldoi River ...]
?Parnassius bremeri C. & R. Felder, [1864]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 133, pl. 21, f. 21e-g, TL: Amur
Parnassius bremeri ab. flavomaculata Moltrecht, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (44) : 184, TL: Sichota-Alin
Parnassius bremeri ab. dorriesi Warnecke, 1919; Int. Ent. Z. 13: 25, TL: Ussuri
Parnassius bremeri f. obscurata Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 303, pl. 58, f. 10
Parnassius bremeri, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius bremeri, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius bremeri ab. dorriesi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
obscurata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
Parnassius bremeri ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 81, pl. 2, f. 9-10; [BRU, 143]; [MRS, 193]
[bremeri-1l.jpg] 640x480 (~69Kb) larva Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [bremeri-2l.jpg] 640x480 (~58Kb) larva Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [bremeri-3l.jpg] 640x480 (~85Kb) larva Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler
[bremeri-3u.jpg] 640x480 (~76Kb) upperside Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [bremeri-3v.jpg] 640x480 (~76Kb) underside Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [bremeri-4.jpg] 640x480 (~58Kb) Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler
[bremeri-4v.jpg] 640x480 (~69Kb) underside Raddejewka (Amur), ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler

Larva on Sedum aizoon, Sedum ussuriensis, S. ischida, Orostachys malacophylla [BRU], Sedum spp., Sedum quadrifolium [MRS]


P. b. conjunctus Staudinger, 1901
Ussuri
P. b. graeseri Honrath, 1885
Transbaikalia
P. b. amgunensis Sheljuzhko, 1928
Lower Amur region
P. b. hakutozana Matsumura, 1927
Korea Parnassius bremeri hakutozana Matsumura, 1927; Insecta Matsumurana 1 (4) : 163, pl. 5, f. 5, TL: Corea, Mt. Hakuto
Parnassius bremeri hakutozana ab. inornata Matsumura, 1927; Insecta Matsumurana 1 (4) : 163, pl. 5, f. 4, TL: Corea, Mt. Hakuto
P. b. orotschonica Bang-Haas, 1927
Sikhote-Alin (coast) Parnassius bremeri orotschonica Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 10, pl. 1, f. 7-8, TL: Sichotin Alin mts
Parnassius bremeri orotschonica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
P. b. solonensis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius bremeri solonensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 11, pl. 1, f. 11-13
Parnassius bremeri solonensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. b. lumen Eisner, 1968
Parnassius bremeri lumen Eisner, 1968; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 12, pl. 2, f. 1-3, TL: Andong, Korea
Parnassius bremeri lumen ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. b. nipponus Kreuzberg, 1992
Kunashir Island

Parnassius honrathi Staudinger, 1882
Afghanistan, Tadzhikistan. See [About maps] Parnassius honrathi Staudinger, 1882; in Staudinger & Bang-Haas, Berl. ent. Z. 26 (1) : 161, pl. 1, f. 4-5, TL: Hazret-Sultan-Gebirge, südlich von Samarkand
Parnassius honrathi, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius honrathi, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius honrathi ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 80, pl. 1, f. 7-8; [BRU, 145]
W.Ghissar Parnassius honrathi tusovi J.J. & J.L. Shchetkin, 1989; Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 94: (53-55)
P. h. ernesti Bryk, 1932
E.Ghissar, Darvaz, Parnassius honrathi chaitcus J.L. & J.J. Shchetkin, 1989; Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 94: (53-55)
honrathi kondarensis J.J. Shchetkin, 1988
P. h. alburnus Stichel, 1907
W.Pamirs

Parnassius apollonius (Eversmann, 1847)
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, W.Sinkiang. See [About maps] apollonius (Eversmann, 1847); Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 20 (3) : 71, pl. 3, f. 1-2, TL: "Songaria"
Parnassius princeps Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 303, TL: Karamuk
= ; [NHM]
Parnassius apollonius ab. unica Avinoff, 1910; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 39 : 247
Parnassius apollonius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius apollonius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius apollonius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 80, pl. 1, f. 5-6; [BRU, 144]; [MRS, 193]

Larva on Pseudosedum, Rosularia spp. [BRU], Salsola spp., Scabiosa spp., Rhodiola semenovi [MRS]

S.Altai, Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzhungarsky Alatau
P. a. alpinus Staudinger, 1887
Alai
P. a. gloriosus Fruhstorfer, 1904
N.Tian-Shan Parnassius apollonius gloriosus Fruhstorfer, 1904; 309
Parnassius apollonius gloriosus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. a. narynus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Inner Tian-Shan Parnassius apollonius narynus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 51, TL: Naryn
Parnassius apollonius narynus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. a. daubi Fruhstorfer, 1903
Ghissar Parnassius apollonius daubi Fruhstorfer, 1903; Soc. Ent. 18 (7) : 49
Parnassius apollonius daubi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. a. poseidon Bryk & Eisner, 1934
W.Tian-Shan
P. a. glaucopsis Bryk & Eisner, 1934
S.Kazakhstan
P. a. aphrodite Bryk & Eisner, 1934
Ili River valley
P. a. kuldschaensis Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius apollonius kuldschaensis ; [MRS, 193]
P. a. horaki Kreuzberg, 1989

Subgenus Driopa
Driopa ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 138

fiParnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pyrenees, EU, Iran, Caucasus, C.Asia. See [About maps] Pikkuapollo Clouded Apollo Mnemosynefjäril Nunneapollo Schwarzer Apollo Le semi-apollon Blanca de Asso Niepylak mnemozyna
Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 465, TL: Finland
Paranassius mnemosyne var. ochracea Austaut, 1891; Naturaliste 13 : 180
?Parnassius mnemosyne ab. intacta Krulikowsky, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (1): 2, TL: Wiatka; Kasan
?Parnassius mnemosyne ab. lunulata Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 18
Parnassius mnemosyne vernetanus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17 (repl. Parnassius mnemosyne pyrenaica Verity, 1907), TL: Pyrenees
Parnassius mnemosyne pyrenaica Verity, [1907]; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 97, pl. 23, f. 5-6, TL: Pyrenees
Parnassius mnemosyne turatii Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17 (repl. _Parnassius mnemosyne ab. pyrenaica Turati, 1908), TL: Hautes Pyrenees
Parnassius mnemosyne ab. pyrenaica Turati, 1908; Natur. Sicil. 20 (1-3) : 16, pl. 2, f. 3-6, TL: Hautes Pyrenees
Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni f. umbratilis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17
Parnassius mnemosyne ab. subochracea Bryk, 1912; 87
Parnassius mnemosyne, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Parnassius mnemosyne, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
umbratilis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
subochracea ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius mnemosyne ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 83, pl. 4, f. 25-26, pl. 15, f. 99; [BRU, 136]; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 7]; [MRS, 198]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[mnemosyne-1u.jpg] 500x326 (~30Kb) upperside Finland, A: Lemland, Flaka, 6/1995, Photo © Tero Piirainen [mnemosyne-2u.jpg] 500x431 (~31Kb) upperside Finland, A: Lemland, Flaka, 6/1995, Photo © Tero Piirainen [mnemosyne-3mf.jpg] 600x732 (~49Kb) male female Somero 672:30, 22.06.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[mnemosyne-4.jpg] 750x488 (~36Kb) Somero 672:30, 22.06.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [mnemosyne-5mu.jpg] 948x707 (~130Kb) upperside male Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 15.6.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [mnemosyne-5mv.jpg] 992x654 (~131Kb) underside male Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 15.6.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Corydalis solida [SPRK]

Larva on Corydalis spp. [BRU]


P. m. nubilosus Christoph, 1873
Caucasus, Transcaucasis Parnassius mnemosyne var. nubilosus Christoph, 1873; 19, TL: Hyrcania
Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. m. giganteus Staudinger, 1886
Alai ?gigantea Staudinger, 1886
P. m. ochraceus Austaut, 1891
E.Ghissar
P. m. nivalis Grose-Smith, 1908
Inner Tian-Shan Parnassius nivalis Grose-Smith, 1908; 116, TL: Nary R, Tsian Shan
Parnassius mnemosyne gianteus f. nivalis ; Bryk, 1935
nivalis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. m. craspedontis Fruhstorfer, 1908
S.Europe Parnassius mnemosyne craspedontis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12
Parnassius mnemosyne craspedontis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. m. cuneifer Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne cuneifer Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12, TL: Ortlergebiet
Parnassius mnemosyne cuneifer ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. m. parmenides Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne parmenides Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12, TL: Alpes maritimes
P. m. demaculatus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne demaculatus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12, TL: Ungarn, Umgebung von Stuhlweissenburg
Parnassius mnemosyne demaculatus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. m. dinianus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne dinianus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17, TL: Digne
Parnassius mnemosyne dinianus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. m. silesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne silesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17, TL: Schlesia
Parnassius mnemosyne silesiacus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. m. mesoleucus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne mesoleucus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 18, TL: Tatra
Parnassius mnemosyne melaina Honrath, 1908; 12
Parnassius mnemosyne mesoleucus ; Fruhstorfer, 1908, Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. m. tubulus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Parnassius mnemosyne tubulus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12, TL: Schobertein in Oberöste reich.
Parnassius mnemosyne tubulus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. m. dinianus Fruhstorfer
Parnassius mnemosyne parvimacula Rothschild, 1909; 2
= ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
P. m. fruhstorferi Turati, 1909
Parnassius mnemosyne fruhstorferi Turati, 1909; 34, pl. 1, f. 1-2, TL: Italy, Mt. Autore
Parnassius mnemosyne fruhstorferi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. m. hungaricus Rothschild, 1909
Parnassius mnemosyne hungaricus Rothschild, 1909; 2
Parnassius mnemosyne hungaricus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. m. symphorus Fruhstorfer, 1910
Parnassius mnemosyne symphorus Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 155, TL: Macugnaga
Parnassius mnemosyne symphorus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. m. tergestus Fruhstorfer, 1910
Parnassius mnemosyne tergestus Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (35) : 192, TL: Kanton Uri
Parnassius mnemosyne tergestus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. m. caucasia Verity, [1911]
Bulgaria? Parnassius mnemosyne dejotarus Fruhstorfer, 1917; Archiv Naturg. (A) 82 (2) : 26, f. 16, 17, TL: [Bulgaria], "Tschamkorija" [Borovets]
= ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 10
Parnassius mnemosyne bulgarica Eisner, 1936; Parnassiana 4 (1-2): 9, TL: Pisanec am Lom, 300m, Bulgaria
dejotaurus[sic, recte dejotarus] ; Bryk, 1921, Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 113, 115
Parnassius mnemosyne dejotaurus[sic, recte dejotarus] ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
dejoratus ; Kudrna, 1985, Nachr. ent. Ver. Apollo, Suppl. 5: 22, 48 (missp.)
dejotarus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 9
Parnassius mnemosyne bulgarica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
bulgarica ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 13
P. m. orientalis Verity, 1911
N.Tian-Shan Parnassius mnemosyne var. gigantea r. orientalis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 321, pl. 65, f. 12-13
orientalis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
[orientalis-1u.jpg] 700x480 (~94Kb) upperside Uzbekistan, Kuraminsky Mts, h=2400, 6.1996 Vashchenko S.N. leg, Photo © D. Smirnov

P. m. falsus Pagenstecher, 1911
N.Tian-Shan (Ketmen Mt. range)
P. m. ariovistus Fruhstorfer, 1911
S.Germany Parnassius mnemosyne ariovistus Fruhstorfer, 1911; Soc. ent. 25 (24): 96, TL: Urach, Württenburg
Parnassius mnemosyne ariovistus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. m. karjala Bryk, 1911
Parnassius mnemosyne var. karjala Bryk, 1911; Soc. Ent. 26 (11): 37, f. 1-4, TL: Myllykylä, nr. Sortavala
Parnassius mnemosyne karjala ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
Kopet-Dagh
P. m. bucharanus Bryk, 1912
W.Ghissar
P. m. bohemien Bryk, 1914
Parnassius mnemosyne bohemien Bryk, 1914; Int. ent. Z. 8: 35, TL: Gross Wosek, Böhmen
Parnassius mnemosyne bohemien ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. m. ugrjumovi Bryk, 1914
Middle Volga, Middle Urals Parnassius mnemosyne ugrjumovi Bryk, 1914; Berl. ent. Z. 58: 201, pl. 2, f. 1-2
Parnassius mnemosyne ugrjumovi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. m. borussianus Fruhstorfer, 1916
Parnassius mnemosyne borussianus Fruhstorfer, 1916; 49
Parnassius mnemosyne borussianus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. m. carmenta Fruhstorfer, 1916
Parnassius mnemosyne carmenta Fruhstorfer, 1916; 26
Parnassius mnemosyne carmenta ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. m. thaleia Fruhstorfer, 1916
Parnassius mnemosyne thaleia Fruhstorfer, 1916; 27
Parnassius mnemosyne thaleia ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. m. leonhardiana Fruhstorfer, 1917
Parnassius mnemosyne leonhardiana Fruhstorfer, 1917; Archiv Naturg. (A) 82 (2) : 25, f. 20, 21, TL: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Parnassius mnemosyne bosniacus Rothschild, 1918; Novit. Zool. 25 : 223, TL: Mahnjaca Mts., Bosnia, 1200m
= ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
leonhardiana ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 9
bosniacus ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 10
P. m. batava Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius mnemosyne batava Fruhstorfer, 1921; 41, TL: Umgebung Passau
Parnassius mnemosyne batava ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. m. fasseliana Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius mnemosyne fasseliana Fruhstorfer, 1921; 41
Parnassius mnemosyne fasseliana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. m. romani Bryk, 1921
Parnassius mnemosyne f. romani Bryk, 1921; Soc. ent. 36 : 18, f. 3
P. m. uralka Bryk, 1921
S.Urals Parnassius mnemosyne var. uralka Bryk, 1921; Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 115, f. 5-7, TL: Uralka nr. Orenburg
Parnassius mnemosyne uralka ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. m. mixtus Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne mixtus Fruhstorfer, 1922; 23
Parnassius mnemosyne mixtus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
P. m. ultrabella Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne ultrabella Fruhstorfer, 1922; 16
Parnassius mnemosyne ultrabella ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. m. temora Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne temora Fruhstorfer, 1922; 18
Parnassius mnemosyne temora ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. m. thebaida Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne thebaida Fruhstorfer, 1922; 31
Parnassuis mnemosyne thebaida ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. m. esperi Bryk, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne esperi Bryk, 1922; Soc. ent. 37 : 15, f. 6-7
Parnassius mnemosyne esperi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. m. estonicus Bryk, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne f. estonicus Bryk, 1922; Soc. ent. 37: 5
Parnassius mnemosyne estonicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
P. m. matuta Bryk, 1922
Parnassius mnemosyne matuta Bryk, 1922; Soc. ent. 37 : 20
Parnassius mnemosyne matuta ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
Parnassius mnemosyne var. adamellicus Kunz, 1922; Z. öst. EntVer. 7: 13, TL: Val di Genova, Vanezia Trient
Parnassius mnemosyne adamellicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. m. grossei Bryk, 1925
Parnassius mnemosyne var. grossei Bryk, 1925; Soc. ent. 40: 30
Parnassius mnemosyne grossei ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. m. wagneri Bryk, 1925
Parnassius mnemosyne var. wagneri Bryk, 1925; Soc. ent. 40: 30
Parnassius mnemosyne wagneri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
P. m. balcanica Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius mnemosyne balcanica Bryk & Eisner, 1930; Parnassiana 1 (2): 3-4, TL: "Schar-Dagh, Kacanik, [Yugoslavia]
balcanica ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 11
P. m. amanusica Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Syria Parnassius mnemosyne amanusica Bryk & Eisner, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (7/8) : 3, TL: Amanaus Mts, Syria
Parnassius mnemosyne amanusica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. m. angorae Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Parnassius mnemosyne angorae Bryk & Eisner, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (7/8) : 3, TL: Asia Minor, nr. Yozgat, 5000ft
Parnassius mnemosyne angorae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. m. pfeifferi Bryk & Einner, 1931
Parnassius mnemosyne pfeifferi Bryk & Einner, 1931; 1
Parnassius mnemosyne pfeifferi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. m. republicanus Peebles & Bryk, 1931
Parnassius mnemosyne republicanus Peebles & Bryk, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (6): 4
Parnassius mnemosyne republicanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
P. m. compositus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius mnemosyne compositus Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 29
Parnassius mnemosyne compositus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. m. talboti Bryk, 1932
Parnassius mnemosyne talboti Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (3): 33, TL: Zara (Dalmatien) [Croatia, Zadar]
Parnassius mnemosyne talboti ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
talboti ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 12
Parnassius mnemosyne tadschikistana Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 46, TL: Tadschikistan, Prov. Kuliab, Sary-poul
Parnassius mnemosyne tadschikistana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. m. parnassia Bryk, 1932
Parnassius mnemosyne parnassia Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 46, TL: Parnass, Greece
Parnassius mnemosyne parnassia ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
parnassia ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 12
P. m. sarafschana Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius mnemosyne sarafschana Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 74
Parnassius mnemosyne sarafschana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. m. weidingeri Bryk & Eisner, 1932
C.Europe
P. m. ucrainica Bryk & Eisner, 1932
W.Europe Parnassius mnemosyne ucrainica Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 33
Parnassius mnemosyne ucrainica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. m. valentinae Sheljuzhko, 1943
W.Tian-Shan
P. m. akbesiana Sheljuzhko
Parnassius mnemosyne var. nubilosus r. syra Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 321, pl. 65, f. 5
Parnassius mnemosyne akbesiana f. syra ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. m. timanicus Eisner & Sedych, 1964
Parnassius mnemosyne timanicus Eisner & Sedych, 1964; Zool. Meded. Leiden 40 (17) : 137, pl. 1, f. 1-2
Parnassius mnemosyne timanicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. m. noacki Eisner, 1968
Parnassius mnemosyne noacki Eisner, 1968; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 10, TL: E.Anatolia
P. m. rogervarleti Eisner & Epstein, 1968
Parnassius mnemosyne rogervarleti Eisner & Epstein, 1968; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 16, pl. 1, f. 1-2, TL: Val Lavizarra, Ticino, 800-900m
Parnassius mnemosyne rogervarleti ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23

Parnassius stubbendorfi Ménétriés, 1849
Altai - C.Siberia, S.Siberia - Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, Mongolia - N.China - N.Korea, Amur, Japan. See [About maps] Parnassius stubbendorfi Ménétriés, 1849; Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersb. 6 (4): 273, pl. 6, f. 2, TL: [Erma River, Irkutsk Region, E. Sayan Mts]
?Parnassius hoenei Schweitzer, 1928; (Japan)
?Parnassius hoenei; [BRU, 136]
Parnassius hoenei, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius stubbendorfi ; [BRU, 136]
Parnassius stubbendorfii ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 84, pl. 4, f. 27-28; [MRS, 198]

Larva on Corydalis spp., Corydalis gigantea, C. ambigua [BRU]

P. s. stubbendorfi Ménétriés, 1849
Sayan, Transbaikalia, Yakutia
P. s. koreana Verity, 1907
S.Ussuri Parnassius stubbendorfi var. koreana Verity, 1907; 101
Parnassius stubbendorfi var. koreana ; Verity, 1911, Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 322, pl. 65, f. 19-20
Parnassius stubbendorfi koreana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. s. amurensis Verity, 1911
Parnassius stubbendorfi amurensis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 321, pl. 65, f. 17-18, TL: Wladivostok
Parnassius stubbendorfi amurensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. s. typicus Bryk, 1914
Altai Mts.
[typicus-1mu.jpg] 533x400 (~50Kb) upperside male A bushy meadow on the right bank floodland of the Koen Riverat at the mouth of the Volchikha Rivulet, just downstream of the village Nizhnii Koen, Iskitim District, Novosibirsk Province, West Siberia, Russia. 26th May 1997 (on Taraxacum officinale Wigg.), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [typicus-2mv.jpg] 400x533 (~47Kb) underside male A meadow at the bird cherry (Padus avium Mill.) thickets on the Berd' River right bank at the village Legostaevo, Iskitim District, Novosibirsk Province, West Siberia, Russia. 13th June 1994, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [typicus-3l.jpg] 533x400 (~41Kb) larva Collected at: willow and bird cherry thickets on the bottom of the Bugotak Bugotak River valley between the villages Karpysak and the state farm Samarskiy, Toguchin District, Novosibirsk Province, West Siberia, Russia. 7th May 1994 (A third instar larva, photographed in captivity), Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. s. standfussi Bryk, 1912
Lower Amur basin
P. s. bodemeyeri Bryk, 1914
Amur region, N.Ussuri
P. s. kosterini Kreuzberg & Pljushch, 1922
Magadan region
P. s. esakii Nakahara, 1926
Sakhalin
P. s. doii Matsumura, 1928
Kuriles Parnassius stubbendorfii doii Matsumura, 1928; Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 201, TL: Kuriles
P. s. diabolicus Bryk & Eisner, 1929
Parnassius stubbendorfi diabolicus Bryk & Eisner, 1929; Soc. ent. 44: 47, f. 1-2, TL: Mandschuria
Parnassius stubbendorfi diabolicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. s. heliconius Bryk, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi heliconius Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 47
Parnassius stubbendorfi heliconius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. s. conjungens Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi conjungens Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 82
Parnassius stubbendorfi conjungens ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
Parnassius stubbendorfi kjoengsoengensis Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 47, TL: N.Korea
Parnassius stubbendorfi kjoengsoengensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. s. revisus Bryk, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi revisus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 48
Parnassius stubbendorfi revisus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
P. s. taupingi Bang-Haas, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi taupingi Bang-Haas, 1932; Ent. Z. 46: 200
Parnassius stubbendorfi taupingi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. s. bronkampi Bang-Haas, 1933
Kansu Parnassius stubbendorfi bronkampi Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 46 : 261, TL: Kansu, Minschan, 3000m
Parnassius stubbendorfi bronkampi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
P. s. arakawai Bang-Haas, 1938
Korea Parnassius stubbendorfi arakawai Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 19, pl. 1, f. 10-11, TL: Kiujo, Mons Myoka
Parnassius stubbendorfi arakawai ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9

Parnassius glacialis Butler, 1866
E.China, Korea, Japan. See [About maps] Parnassius glacialis Butler, 1866; J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 9 (34) : 50
Parnassius citrinarius Motschulsky, 1866; Bull. Soc. imp. nat. Moscou 39 (1) : 189
= ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 7
Parnassius glacialis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius glacialis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 7, 15, pl. 1, f. 3; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 84, pl. 4, f. 29-30; [EBW]; [MRS, 199]
[glacialis-1l.jpg] 640x480 (~68Kb) larva Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [glacialis-2l.jpg] 640x480 (~113Kb) larva Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [glacialis-2p.jpg] 640x480 (~139Kb) pupa Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler
[glacialis-2px.jpg] 640x480 (~76Kb) pupa Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [glacialis-2u.jpg] 640x480 (~72Kb) upperside Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler [glacialis-2v.jpg] 640x480 (~61Kb) underside Utsubo, Miyagava Vill., Gifu Pref., ex. ovo 2000, Photo © Hans Degler

Larva on Corydalis ambigua, C. incisa, C. decumbens, C. remota, Aristolochia debilis [MRS]


P. g. nankingi Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius stubbendorfi nankingi Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 5, pl. 1, f. 3
Parnassius glacialus nankingi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. g. sinicus Bryk, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi sinicus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 47
Parnassius glacialis sinicus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. g. tajanus Bryk, 1932
Parnassius stubbendorfi tajanus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 48
Parnassius glacialis tajanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
P. g. anachoreta Bryk, 1936
S.Shensi Parnassius glacialis anachoreta Bryk, 1936; Parnassiana 4: 3, TL: Tapaishan (Singling), S.Shensi
Parnassius glacialis anachorea ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9

Parnassius eversmanni Ménétriés, [1850]
E.Russia - Mongolia, Japan, Alaska. See [About maps] Eversmann's Parnassian
Parnassius eversmanni Ménétriés, [1850]; Siemaschko, Russian Fauna (17): pl. 4, f. 5, TL: "Kansk" [=error?, E.Sayan Mts?]
Parnassius eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 73
Parnassius eversmanni ab. melanops Austaut, 1911; Ent. Zs. 24 (44) : 244
Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius eversmanni, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius eversmanni, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
versmanni ; Bryk & Eisner, 1937, (missp.)
Parnassius eversmanni ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 84, pl. 4, f. 31-32, pl. 5, f. 33-34; [BRU, 137]; [MRS, 200]; [NACL, #4153]; [Opler]
[eversmanni-1mu.jpg] 636x490 (~42Kb) upperside male A flowery alpine meadow in a valley of the rivulet descending from the southerm principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range between the Chikty and Akbul Rivulets, 2700 m above sea level, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 10th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [eversmanni-2fu.jpg] 543x300 (~33Kb) upperside female A flowery alpine meadow in a valley of the rivulet descending from the southerm principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range between the Chikty and Akbul Rivulets, 2700 m above sea level, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 10th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [eversmanni-2fv.jpg] 567x485 (~39Kb) underside female A flowery alpine meadow in a valley of the rivulet descending from the southerm principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range between the Chikty and Akbul Rivulets, 2700 m above sea level, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 10th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin
[eversmanni-2mu.jpg] 952x580 (~104Kb) upperside male A flowery alpine meadow in a valley of the rivulet descending from the southerm principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range between the Chikty and Akbul Rivulets, 2700 m above sea level, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West SIberia, Russia. 10th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [eversmanni-3fv.jpg] 498x400 (~38Kb) underside female A flowery alpine meadow in a valley of the rivulet descending from the southerm principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range between the Chikty and Akbul Rivulets, 2700 m above sea level, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 10th July 1998, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [eversmanni-4fu.jpg] 1731x1165 (~404Kb) upperside female Canada: British Columbia, Pink Mtn, 3.7.1981, Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla leg.
[eversmanni-4fv.jpg] 1662x1109 (~337Kb) underside female Canada: British Columbia, Pink Mtn, 3.7.1981, Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla leg. [eversmanni-4mu.jpg] 1556x1128 (~361Kb) upperside male Canada: British Columbia, Pink Mtn, 3.7.1981, Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla leg. [eversmanni-4mv.jpg] 1503x1056 (~311Kb) underside male Canada: British Columbia, Pink Mtn, 3.7.1981, Photo 2007 © Norbert Kondla leg.

Larva on Corydalis gigantea [NAB]

Larva on Corydalis arctica, C. paeoniipholia, C. gorodkovi, C. pauciflora [BRU]


P. e. eversmanni Ménétriés, [1850]
S.Siberia (mountains) altaicus Verity, 1911
Parnassius eversmanni altaica Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 319, pl. 64, f. 19, TL: Altai, Tchuja Mts, 6-8000ft
lacinia Hemming, 1934; Stylops 3 : 198 (repl. Parnassius eversmanni altaica Verity, 1911), TL: Altai, Tchuja Mts, 6-8000ft
Parnassius eversmanni altaica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. e. vosnessenski Ménétriés, [1850]
Sea of Okhotsk eversmanni magadana Weiss, 1971
P. e. thor H. Edwards, 1881
Alaska Parnassius thor H. Edwards, 1881; Papilio 1 (1): 2, TL: Upper Yukon, Alaska
kohlsaati Gunder, 1932
ochreoocellatus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
quincunx Bryk & Eisner, 1934, not Bryk, 1914
desubmarginatus Bryk, 1935
Parnassius eversmanni thor, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius eversmanni thor ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; [NACL, 4153a]
Parnassius eversmanni r. septentrionalis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 319, pl. 64, f. 17-18
Parnassius eversmanni septentrionalis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. e. maui Bryk, 1914
Parnassius eversmanni var. maui Bryk, 1915; Archiv Naturg. 80 A (7): 172
Parnassius eversmanni maui ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
?P. e. daisetsuzanus Matsumura, 1926
Japan
P. e. polarius Schulte, 1991
NE.Yakutia, Chukot

Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861
Amur, Ussuri (mountains), NE.China, Korea, Japan. See [About maps] Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 3 : 464, TL: "Raddeevka" [Radde, Amur region]
Parnassius felderi, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius felderi, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius felderi ; [BRU, 138]
Parnassius eversmanni felderi ; [MRS, 200]

Larva on Corydalis gigantea [BRU]

Bureinsky Mts Parnassius eversmanni felderi ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 84
P. f. litoreus Stichel, 1907
S.Amur
P. f. maui Sheljuzhko, 1914
Sikhote-Alin Mts

Parnassius ariadne (Lederer, 1853)
Altai, Saur, Tarbagatai. See [About maps] Doritis ariadne Lederer, 1853; Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. Wien 3 : 354, TL: [Bukhtarma River sources, Altai]
Doritis clarius Eversmann, 1843; Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16 (3) : 539, pl. 9, f. 1A-C (nom. praeocc.)
Parnassius ariadne, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius ariadne, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius ariadne ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 85, pl. 5, f. 37-38; [BRU, 138]; [MRS, 200]

Larva on Corydalis, C. nobilis [BRU]

Altai Parnassius clarius var. dentata Austaut, 1889; 149, pl. 21, f. 1-2
Parnassius ariadne ariadne f. dentata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. a. clarus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Saur, Tarbagatai
P. a. jiadengyuensis Huang & Murayama, 1992
Xinjiang (Altai) Parnassius ariadne jiadengyuensis Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 3, f. 3, TL: Jiadengyu, Altai, 1380-1700m
Parnassius ariadne jiadengyttensis[sic?] ; [MRS, 200]

Parnassius nordmanni Ménétriés, [1850]
Caucasus - N.Turkey. See [About maps] Parnassius nordmanni Ménétriés, [1850]; Siemaschko, Russian Fauna (17): pl. 4, f. 5, TL: "Monti Adschara"
?Parnassius nordmanni Nordmann, 1851; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 24 (4): 423
Parnassius nordmanni ab. atroguttata Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 359, f. 1
Parnassius nordmanni, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius nordmanni ab. atroguttata ; Austaut, 1912, Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 365
Parnassius nordmanni ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 85, pl. 5, f. 35-36; [BRU, 137]

Larva on Corydalis alpestris, C. conorhiza, C. emanuelii [BRU]

P. n. christophi Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius nordmanni christophi Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 90, TL: Tschugus
Parnassius nordmanni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. n. bogosi Bang-Haas, 1934
Caucasus Parnassius nordmanni bogosi Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 : 135, TL: Caucasus, Tindi, Bogos Mt.
Parnassius nordmanni bogosi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. n. thomai de Freina, 1980
Parnassius nordmanni thomai de Freina, 1980; NachrBl. bayer Ent. 29: (50-62)

Parnassius clodius Ménétriés, 1855
Alaska, British Columbia, Washington - Nevada. See [About maps] Clodius Apollo Clodius Parnassian American Apollo
Parnassius clodius Ménétriés, 1855; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 73
?clarius Boisduval
= ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
castus Bryk, 1913
sulfureus Gunder, 1932
extinctoanalis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius clodius, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Parnassius clodius clodius, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius clodius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius clodius, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Parnassius clodius ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 85, pl. 5, f. 39-40; [NACL, #4154]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 15]; [BOC, 110]; [Opler]
[clodius-1u.jpg] 1049x776 (~82Kb) upperside west of Bend, Oregon, USA, 7-91, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [clodius-2.jpg] 500x420 (~19Kb) USA: FR9031, Bandera Mtn, (47°24'28N 121°33'06W), King Co., WA, 15.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [clodius-3.jpg] 700x550 (~46Kb) USA: Wallace Falls State Park, (47°52'33N 121°39'50W), Snohomish Co., WA, 13.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela
[clodius-4fu.jpg] 1847x1478 (~536Kb) upperside female Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla [clodius-4fv.jpg] 1816x1503 (~460Kb) underside female Canada, British Columbia, Record Ridge, Photo © Norbert Kondla [clodius-4mu.jpg] 1843x1481 (~450Kb) upperside male Canada, British Columbia, nr Greenwood, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.
[clodius-4mv.jpg] 1703x1440 (~343Kb) underside male Canada, British Columbia, nr Greenwood, Photo © Norbert Kondla leg.

Larva on Dicentra formosa, D. uniflora, D. pauciflora, D. cucullaria [BOC]


P. c. altaurus Dyar, 1903
Wyoming, Idaho Parnassius clodius var. altaurus Dyar, 1903; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 5 (4) : 290, TL: Altauras Lake, near Saw-tooth Mt., Idaho, 7000-9000ft
flavoocellatus Bryk, 1935
gallatinus Stichel, 1907; , TL: Gallatin River, Wyoming
= ;
immaculatus Skinner, 1911
Parnassius clodius altaurus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius clodius gallatinus ; [NACL, #4154h]
Parnassius clodius altaurus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1; [NACL, #4154g]
P. c. shepardi Eisner, 1966
Shepard's Parnassian
Parnassius clodius shepardi Eisner, 1966; Zool. Meded. Leiden 41 (8) : 145, pl. 1, f. 1-2, TL: Wawawai, Snake River Canyon, Washington
Parnassius clodius shepardi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. c. baldur Edwards, 1877

lorquini Oberthür, 1891
lusca Stichel, 1907
binigrimaculellus Gunder, 1926
primoettertiopictaetornatus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
medionigroocellatus Bryk, 1935, not Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius clodius baldur, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius clodius baldur ; [NACL, #4154c]
P. c. claudianus Stichel, 1907
clodius claudianus Stichel, 1907; , TL: "Washington, BC., Vanc. Is."
baldus Ehrmann, 1918; , TL: Olympic Mtns
kallias Ehrmann, 1918; , TL: Olympic Mtns
Parnassius clodius claudianus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassiuc clodius claudianus ; [NACL, #4154d]
P. c. incredibilis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius clodius incredibilis Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 99
Parnassius clodius incredibilis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16; [NACL, #4154f]
P. c. menetriesii H. Edwards, 1877
Parnassius clodius var. menetriesii H. Edwards, 1877; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 7 : 164
medionigroocellatus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
nigroanalis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
albocentratus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius clodius ménétríésii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1
Parnassius clodius menetriesii ; [NACL, #4154i]
clodius pseudogallatinus Bryk, 1913; , TL: Yale, British Columbia
Parnassius clodius hel Eisner, 1956; Zool. Meded. Leiden 34 (18) : 243, pl. 3, f. 1-6, TL: Stevens Pass, Washington
Parnassius clodius hel ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
Parnassius clodius pseudogallatinus ; [NACL, #4154e]
P. c. sol Bryk & Eisner, 1932
clodius sol Bryk & Eisner, 1932; , TL: Baxters, Placer Co., California
Parnassius clodius sol, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Parnassius clodius sol ; [NACL, #4154b]
P. c. strohbeeni Sternitzky, 1945
dodgei Gunder, 1932; (ab.)
Parnassius clodius strohbeeni ; [NACL, #4154a]

Parnassius orleans Oberthür, 1890
Tibet, Mongolia, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius orleans Oberthür, 1890; Descr. esp. nouv. Lép.: 1
Parnassius orleans f. unimacula Bryk, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 32
Parnassius orleans schneideri f. purissima Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius orleans schneideri f. submarginata Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 23
Parnassius orleans, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
unimacula ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
purissima ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
submarginata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius orleans ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 85, pl. 6, f. 41-42; [MRS, 201]
P. o. johanna Bryk, 1932
Parnassius orleans johanna Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 67
Parnassius orleans johanna ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. o. parthenos Bryk, 1932
Parnassius orleans parthenos ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
P. o. tyrannus Bryk, 1932
Parnassius orleans tyrannus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 67
Parnassius orleans tyrannus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. o. lobnorica Bryk, 1934
Parnassius orleans lobnorica Bryk, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 32, TL: Lob-Nor
Parnassius orleans lobnorica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. o. janseni Bang-Haas, 1938
Parnassius orleans janseni Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 5 : 57
Parnassius orleans janseni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. o. schneideri Bang-Haas, 1938
Parnassius orleans schneideri Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 22, pl. 2, f. 1-2
Parnassius orleans schneideri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. o. lakshmi Mikami, 1998
Parnassius orleans lakshmi ; Huang, 2001

Subgenus Tadumia
Tadumia ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 138

Parnassius hardwickii Gray, 1831
N.India, Chitral - Sikkim, Kasmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan. See [About maps] Common Blue Apollo
Parnassius hardwickii Gray, 1831; Zool. Miscell. (1): 32, TL: Nepal
Parnassius hardwicki ab. afer Fruhstorfer, 1900; Stettin ent. Ztg 60 (10-12) : 354
?Parnassius hardtwicki[sic] ab. otos Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 (1) : 46, TL: Kaschmir
Parnassius hardwickii, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
otos ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
Parnassius hardwickei[sic, recte hardwickii] ; Haase, 1892, 111; [BIR, 410]
Parnassius hardwickii ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 86, pl. 6, f. 43-44; [MRS, 201]

Larva on Saxifragaceae [MRS]

Lingamius hardwickei[sic?] correctus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 21, : 42, TL: Narkundah
Lingamius hardwickei hardwickei[sic] f. correctus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
P. h. albicans Fruhstorfer, 1898
Parnassius hardtwickii[sic] albicans Fruhstorfer, 1898; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 11 (1) : 147, TL: Lochung Valley; Donkia-Pass, Sikkim16000ft
Parnassius hardwicki viridicans Fruhstorfer, 1909; 111, pl. 50, f. c-d, TL: Sikkim
Lingamius hardwickei[sic] albicans f. viridicans ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
Lingamius hardwickei[sic] albicans ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. h. tibuella Bang-Haas, 1933
Parnassius hardwicki tibuella Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 46 : 262, TL: Thibet
Lingamius hardwickei[sic] tibuella ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. h. baltistani Bang-haas, 1934
Parnassius hardwickei baltistani Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 : 8, TL: Baltistan, Kapalu
Lingamius hardwickei[sic] baltistani ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10

Parnassius acco Gray, [1853]
Karakorum, Tibet, Kashmir, Sikkim. See [About maps] Parnassius acco Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 76, pl. 12, f. 5-6, TL: Kumaon-Tibet border
?Parnassius acco gemmifer Fruhstorfer, 1909; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 110
Parnassius acco, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Tadumia acco ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8, pl. 1, f. 9
Parnassius acco ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 86, pl. 7, f. 51-54; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 18 (text)]; [MRS, 204]
P. a. hunnyngtoni Avinoff, 1916
S.Tibet Parnassius hunnyngtoni Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 351, pl. 52, f. 1-3, TL: Chumbi Valley, South Tibet
hannyngtoni[sic, recte hunnyngtoni] ; Bryk, 1932, Parnassiana 2 (3): 32
Parnassius hunningtoni[sic?] ; [EBW]
Tadumia acco hunnyngtoni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Parnassius acco hunningtoni[sic, recte hunnyngtoni] ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87
P. a. hampsoni Avinoff, 1916
Kashmir Parnassius acco hampsoni Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 352, pl. 52, f. 4, TL: Karakorum
acco punctata Tytler, 1926
acco baltorana Bang-Haas, 1937; Ent. Z. 51: 302
P. a. tagalangi Bang-Haas, 1927
Spiti, Ladak, SW.Tibet Parnassius acco tagalangi Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 23, pl. 4, f. 1-2
acco pundjabensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 23
Parnassius acco chumurtiensis Bang-Haas, 1928; Ent. Z. 42 : 59, TL: Tibet, Chumurti, Shilang Pass
Tadumia acco chumurtiensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
Tadumia acco tagalangi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
Parnassius acco tagalangi ; Huang, 1998, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 271 (note), pl. 1, f. 2c, 2d
P. a. punjabensis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius acco punjabensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 23, pl. 4, f. 3-4
Tadumia acco punjabensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. a. liliput (Bryk, 1932)
Tadumia hannyngtoni liliput Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (3): 32, f. 4-5
Tadumia hannyngtoni liliput ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
Parnassius acco liliput ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87
acco transhimalayensis Eisner, 1938; , TL: Jammu-Kashmir
Xiagangjian Mts., Sangmubati Mts. Parnassius acco gyanglaputsai Huang, 1998; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 271, pl. 1, f. 1a-d, 2a, 2b, TL: Naogaola, 5200m
Parnassius acco tulaishani ; [MRS, 204]
P. a. rosei Schulte
Parnassius acco rosei ; [MRS, 204]
P. a. humboldti Pierrat & Porion
Parnassius acco humboldti ; [MRS, 204]
Parnassius acco vairocanus ; [MRS, 204]
P. a. rosea Weiss & Michel
Parnassius acco rosea ; [MRS, 204]
P. a. goergneri Weiss & Michel
Parnassius acco goergneri ; [MRS, 204]
[goergneri-1fau.jpg] 1500x1125 (~336Kb) upperside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [goergneri-1fav.jpg] 1500x1125 (~202Kb) underside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [goergneri-1fbu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~507Kb) upperside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg.
[goergneri-1fbv.jpg] 1500x1125 (~326Kb) underside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [goergneri-1fxu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~277Kb) upperside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [goergneri-1fyu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~254Kb) upperside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg.


Parnassius przewalskii Alphéraky, 1887
Parnassius przewalskii Alphéraky, 1887; in Romanoff, Mem. lép. 3 : 403
Parnassius przewalskii ; [EBW]; [MRS, 204]
[przewalskii-1mu.jpg] 1024x768 (~127Kb) upperside male China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 4450m, 21.6.05, Photo © A. Timchenko [przewalskii-1mv.jpg] 1024x768 (~172Kb) underside male China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 4450m, 21.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko

P. p. yvonne (Eisner)
Parnassius przewalskii yvonne ; [MRS, 204]
P. p. liae Huang & Murayama, 1989
przewalskii liae Huang & Murayama, 1989; Nature & Insects 24 (4): (-)
Parnassius przewalskii liae ; [MRS, 204]

Parnassius baileyi South, 1913
-. See [About maps] Parnassius acco baileyi South, 1913; 362, TL: W.Cihna, Rama La, 15000ft
Tadumia acco baileyi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
Parnassius baileyi ; [MRS, 204]
P. b. baileyanus (Bryk, 1932)
W.China Tadumia baileyi baileyanus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 3, TL: W.China, Rama La, 15000ft
Tadumia acco baileyanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
Parnassius rothschildianus Bryk, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (6): 4
Tadumia acco rothschildianus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius rothschildianus ; [EBW]
Parnassius baileyi rothschildianus ; [MRS, 204]
Parnassius baileyi bubo ; [MRS, 204]

Parnassius maharaja Avinoff, 1916
Kashmir. See [About maps] Parnassius maharaja Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 353, pl. 54, f. 1-2
Parnassius maharaja, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius cephalus maharaja ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 86
Parnassius maharajus ; [MRS, 203]

Parnassius labeyriei Weiss & Michel
Parnassius labeyriei, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius labeyriei ; [MRS, 203]
Parnassius labeyriei kiyotakai ; [MRS, 203]
Parnassius labeyriei giacomazzoi ; [MRS, 203]
P. l. nosei Watanabe
Parnassius labeyriei nosei ; [MRS, 203]

Parnassius schultei Weiss & Michel, 1989
Parnassius schultei, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius schultei ; [MRS, 203]
[schultei-1fau.jpg] 1500x1125 (~216Kb) upperside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [schultei-1fav.jpg] 1500x1125 (~384Kb) underside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [schultei-1fbv.jpg] 1500x1125 (~169Kb) underside female China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5150m), 30.6.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg.


Parnassius szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886
Tibet, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886; Termezetr. Füz. 10: 39
Parnassius szechenyii, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius szechenyii ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 86, pl. 6, f. 45-46, pl. 15, f. 100; [MRS, 201]
P. s. germanae Austaut, 1906
Parnassius szechenyi var. germanae Austaut, 1906; Ent. Zs. 20 : 66, TL: Ta-tsin-lou
Parnassius szechenyii germanae ; [MRS, 201]
P. s. lethe Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius szechenyii lethe ; [MRS, 201]
Parnassius szechenyii evacaki ; [MRS, 201]
[evacaki-1mu.jpg] 1024x768 (~87Kb) upperside male China, Qinghai prov, W.Qinghai lake, Nan Shan mts, 40km NW of Caka town, 3500m, 28.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko [evacaki-1mv.jpg] 1024x768 (~76Kb) underside male China, Qinghai prov, W.Qinghai lake, Nan Shan mts, 40km NW of Caka town, 3500m, 28.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko [evacaki-2mfu.jpg] 1024x768 (~164Kb) upperside male female China, Qinghai prov, W.Qinghai lake, Nan Shan mts, 3500m, 28.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko

szechenyii incugnitus; (spell?)
P. s. frivaldszkyi Bang-Haas, 1928
Parnassius szechenyii frivaldszkyi Bang-Haas, 1928; 60
Koramius szechenyi frivaldszkyi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
Parnassius szechenyii frivaldszkyi ; [MRS, 201]
P. s. kansuensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Parnassius szechenyi kansuensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931; Parnassiana 1 (7/8) : 7, f. 6-7
Koramius szechenyi kansuensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. s. arnoldiana (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Koramius szechenyii arnoldiana Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 5 : 57, TL: Min-schan
Koramius szechenyii arnoldiana ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
Parnassius szechenyii arnoldianus ; [MRS, 201]
P. s. luminosa (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Koramius szechenyii luminosa Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 21
Kormaius szechenyii luminosa ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18

Parnassius cephalus Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Tibet, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius cephalus Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 446
Lingamius cephalus f. basipicta Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 21, TL: Thibet, Amdo
Lingamius cephalus f. roseopicta Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 21, TL: Amdo
Parnassius cephalus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Koramius cephalus f. basipicta ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
Koramius cephalus f. roseopicta ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Koramius cephalus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
Parnassius cephalus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 86, pl. 6, f. 47-48, pl. 7, f. 49-50; [MRS, 202]
P. c. elwesi Leech, 1893
Parnassius delphius var. elwesi Leech, 1893; 104, TL: How-Kow, Thibet
Koramius cephalus elwesi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
Parnassius cephalus elwesi ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. pythia Rothschild
Parnassius pythia ; [EBW]
Parnassius cephalus pythia ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. rileyanus (Bryk, 1932)
Lingamius cephalus rileyanus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 20, TL: Tibet, Phuse la
Koramius cephalus rileyanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius cephalus dengkiaoping ; [MRS, 202]
Parnassius cephalus micheli ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. irene Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius cephalus irene ; [MRS, 202]
[irene-1mu.jpg] 1024x768 (~121Kb) upperside male China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 4450m, 21.6.05, Photo © A. Timchenko [irene-2fu.jpg] 1024x768 (~98Kb) upperside female China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 22.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko

P. c. eierhoffi (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Koramius cephalus eierhoffi Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 21, pl. 2, f. 10, TL: Kansu
Koramius cephalus eierhoffi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. c. sengei (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Koramius cephalus sengei Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 5 : 58
Koramius cephalus sengei ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
Parnassius cephalus sengei ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. erlaensis Sorimachi
Parnassius cephalus erlaensis ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. weissi Schulte
Parnassius cephalus weissi ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. horii Ohshima, 1985
Nepal Parnassius cephalus horii Ohshima, 1985; Tyô to Ga 36 (2): 77, f. 1-2, TL: Nyrasan, 5400m, Mustang distr., Dhaulagiri
Parnassius cephalus takensakai ; [MRS, 202]
P. c. paimaensis Yoshino, 1997
N.Yunnan Parnassius cepharus[sic] paimaensis Yoshino, 1997; Neo Lepidoptera 2: 1, f. 1-4, TL: Mt. Baimashueshan, N. Yunnan

Parnassius choui Huang & Shi, 1994
Qinghai Parnassius choui Huang & Shi, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 754, 202, f. 13, TL: Huzhu, Qinghai

Subgenus Koramius
Koramius ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 138

Parnassius delphius Eversmann, 1843
Afghanistan, C.Asia, Pakistan, N.India, Kashmir, Tibet, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius delphius Eversmann, 1843; Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16 (3) : 541, pl. 7, f. 1A-B, TL: "Altai" [= error, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Kazakhstan]
?Parnassius delphius ab. cardinalina Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 356, pl. 53, f. 3
?Parnassius delphius r. mamaievi Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 357, pl. 53, f. 5-6
?Parnassius delphius workmani Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 357, pl. 53, f. 7
?Parnassius delphius kafir Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 357, pl. 53, f. 8-9
?Parnassius delphius sobolevskyi Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 358, pl. 54, f. 7, 5, TL: Kiliang Pass, Chinese Turkestan
Parnassius delphius f. eugraphica Stauder, 1924; Mitt. münch. ent. Ges. 14: 60, TL: Naryn
Parnassius delphius f. omegascriptum Stauder, 1924; Mitt. münch. ent. Ges. 14: 59, TL: Naryn
Parnassius delphius var. infernalis ab. styx Staudinger, 1886
Parnassius delphius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius delphius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
eugraphica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
omegascriptum ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
Koramius delphius f. styx ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius delphius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87, pl. 8, f. 57-60, pl. 15, f. 102; [BRU, 138]; [MRS, 205]

Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana, Corydalis onobrichis [BRU]

Dzhungarsky Alatau Parnassius delphius delphius ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 152, pl. 4, f. 1
P. d. namanganus Staudinger, 1886
NW. of Lake Issyk-Kul ?namaganus[sic?] ?Elwes, 1886; (spell., author?)
P. d. albulus Honrath, 1889
SW. of Lake Issyk-Kul Parnassius delphius var. albulus Honrath, 1889; Berl. ent. Z. 33 (1): 161, (2): pl. 2, f. 1, TL: Alai
ab. amelia Stichel, 1911; Int. Ent. Z. 4 : 277
Parnassius aurelia ab. chrysopis Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 360
Parnassius aurelia ab. chrysopis Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 366
Parnassius aurelia ab. liturata Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 360, f. 3
Parnassius aurelia ab. liturata Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 366, f. 3
Parnassius delphius var. albulus ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 154
Parnassius delphius var. albulus ab. amelia ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 155
Parnassius delphius var. albulus ab. chrysopis ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 156
Parnassius delphius var. albulus ab. liturata ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 156
Koramius delphius albulus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. d. transiens Austaut, 1889
Parnassius transiens Austaut, 1889; 81, pl. 18, f. 3, TL: Tura
Koramius delphius transiens ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 27
P. d. infumata Austaut, 1891
Parnassius delphius var. infumata Austaut, 1891; Naturaliste 13 : 180
Koramius delphius infumata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. d. atkinsoni (Moore, 1902)
Kashmir Koramius atkinsoni Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 121, pl. 412, f. 2, TL: Pir Pinjal, N.Kashmir
Koramius delphius atkinsoni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
Parnassius delphius atkinsoni ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
Parnassius delphius nicevillei ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. f. satanas Bang-Haas, 1910
delphius f. satanas Bang-Haas, 1910; (infrasubspec.)
Parnassius delphius ab. satanas ; Austaut, 1912, Int. Ent. Zs 6 (13) : 87, f. 1
P. d. var. karaschahrica Bang-Haas, 1915
Parnassius delphius var. karaschahrica Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 159, pl. 4, f. 11, TL: Tianschan, Kourgak-Taon
Parnassius delphius karaschahricus ; [MRS, 205]
P. d. chitralica Verity, 1911
Chitral Parnassius delphius var. hunza r. chitralica Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 317, pl. 64, f. 11-12, TL: Chitral, Baroghil Valley
Koramius delphius chitralica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 12
Parnassius delphius chitralica ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. mamaievi Bang-Haas, 1915
Parnassius stenosemus f. mamaievi Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 98
Koramius delphius mamaievi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. d. constans Bang-Haas, 1915
C.Tien Shan Parnassius delphius var. constans Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 157, pl. 4, f. 5-6, TL: Aksutal
P. d. nicevillei Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius delphius nicevillei Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 355, pl. 53, f. 1-2
Koramius delphius nicevillei ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
P. d. florenciae Tytler, 1926
Parnassius delphius florenciae Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 251, (3): pl. 4, f. 9, TL: Phup, Hundes
Koramius delphius florenciae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
Parnassius delphius florenciae ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. rileyi Tytler, 1926
Parnassius delphius rileyi Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 251, (3): pl. 4, f. 6-7
Koramius delphius rileyi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius delphius rileyi ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. zogilaica Tytler, 1926
Parnassius delphius zogilaica Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 251, (3): pl. 4, f. 5
Koramius delphius zogilaica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
Parnassius delphius zogilaica ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. kumaonensis Riley, 1926
Parnassius delphius kumaonensis Riley, 1926; Ent. mon. Mag. 62 : 277, pl. 2, f. 3, TL: N.Kumaon, Shillung
Koramius delphius kumaonensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
Parnassius delphius kumaonensis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. spitiensis Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius stoliczkanus spitiensis Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 33, pl. 4, f. 17-18
Koramius delphius spitiensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius delphius spitiensis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
Parnassius delphius mephisto ; [MRS, 205]
P. d. elegans (Bryk, 1932)
Koramius delphius elegans Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 20, TL: SafedKoh, 13500'
Koramius delphius elegans ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. d. tenuis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius stoliczkanus tenuis Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 25
Koramius delphius tenuis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 26
Parnassius delphius tenuis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. gracilis Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius delphius gracilis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. imitator Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius delphius imitator ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. tytlerianus Bryk & Eisner
Parnassius delphius tytlerianus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. affinis Peschke & Eisner, 1934
Parnassius delphius affinis Peschke & Eisner, 1934; Parnassiana 3: 40, TL: Dardistan, Dubunni Mt.
Koramius delphius affinis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. d. shigarensis Bang-Haas, 1935
Parnassius delphius shigarensis Bang-Haas, 1935; Ent. Z. 49 : 111
Parnassius delphius shigarensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
P. d. zanskarica Bang-Haas, 1935
Parnassius stoliczkanus zanskarica Bang-Haas, 1935; Ent. Z. 48 : 152
Koramius delphius zanskarica ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
Parnassius delphius zanskarica ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. pulchra Eisner, 1939
N. of Lake Issyk-Kul Parnassius delphius pulchra ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
Kashmir Parnassius delphius beate ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
Parnassius delphius parangensis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. d. kohibaba Clench & Shoumatoff, 1956
Afghanistan Parnassius delphius kohibaba Clench & Shoumatoff, 1956; Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturh. Forening 118 : 179, TL: btw Surtu and top of Mt. Shah Fuladi, ca. 5000m
Koramius delphius kohibaba ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17

Parnassius kiritshenkoi Avinoff, 1910
E.Pamirs. See [About maps] Parnassius delphius kiritshenkoi Avinoff, 1910; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 39 : 228, pl. 14, f. 1, TL: Alichur Mts, E. Pamirs
Parnassius kiritshenkoi, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius kiritshenkoi ; [BRU, 140]
?P. k. dunkeldykus Sotshivko & Kaabak, 1996
Sarykolsky Mts kiritshenkoi dunkeldykus Sotshivko & Kaabak, 1996; , TL: Sarylkolsky Mts

Parnassius maximinus Staudinger, 1891
W.Tian-Shan. See [About maps] Parnassius delphius var. maximinus Staudinger, 1891; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 4 (1) : 158, TL: [Chatkalsky Mts, Uzbekistan]
Parnassius maximinus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius maximinus, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Koramius delphius maximinus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
Parnassius maximinus ; [BRU, 139]

Larva on Corydalis darwasica, C. ledebouriana [BRU]

Parnassius maximinus maximinus ; Bergmann, 1995, Atalanta 26 (1/2): pl. I, f. 3, 5-6
P. m. kasakstanus Bang-Haas, 1933
P. m. legezina Bergmann, 1995
W.Tian-Shan Parnassius maximinus legezina Bergmann, 1995; Atalanta 26 (1/2): 140, pl. I, f. 1-2, 4, TL: Usbekistan, W. Tian-Shan, Kurmaminski-Kette, Kamtschik-Pass, 1600-2000m

Parnassius cardinal Grum-Grshimailo, 1887
Darvaz, N.Afghanistan (Badahshan). See [About maps] Parnassius delphius var. cardinal Grum-Grshimailo, 1887; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 3 : 397, TL: [Plateau Tupchek, upper reaches of Kara-Shara River, Peter 1 Mts, Tajikistan]
Parnassius cardinal, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius cardinal, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Koramius delphius cardinal ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
Parnassius cardinal ; [BRU, 140]

Larva on Corydalis ledebouriana [BRU]


Parnassius staudingeri Bang-Haas, 1882
Pamirs-Alai, Hindu Kush, Karakorum, W.Kuen-Lun. See [About maps] Parnassius staudingeri Bang-Haas, 1882; in Staudinger & Bang-Haas, Berl. ent. Z. 26 (1) : 163, pl. 2, f. 7-8, 8a, TL: [Mt. Khazret-Sultan, W. Ghissarsky Mts]
Parnassius staudingeri, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius staudingeri, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius staudingeri ; [BRU, 139]; [MRS, 205]

Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana, Corydalis onobrychis [BRU]

W.Ghissar Parnassius delphii staudingeri nat. hodja Avinoff, 1913; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 18, pl. 2, f. 6
Koramius delphius hodja ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Koramius delphius staudingeri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
P. s. infernalis Elwes, 1886
Alaisky, E.Zaalaisky Mts Parnassius delphius dolabella Fruhstorfer, 1904; Ent. Zs. 18 (8) : 30
= Koramius delphius infernalis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. s. hunza Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
SE.Pamirs Parnassius stoliczkanus var. hunza Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 303, TL: Hindukusch orient
Koramius delphius hunza ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. s. illustris Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
W. Zaalaisky Mts Parnassius delphius var. illustris Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 304, TL: Transalai
Koramius delphius illustris ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. s. jacobsoni Avinoff, 1913
SW.Pamirs
P. s. darvasicus Avinoff, 1916
W.Pamirs Parnassius delphius darvasica Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 358, pl. 54, f. 3, TL: Darvas
P. s. hissaricus Eisner, 1968
E.Ghissar Koramius delphius hissaricus Eisner, 1968; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 13, pl. 1, f. 3-6
staudingeri tzvetaevi Shchetkin, 1977
P. s. inacessibilis Shchetkin, 1979
Darvaz staudingeri valentinae Scchetkin, 1977; (nom. praeocc.)
P. s. difficilis Murzin, 1989
Turkestansky Mts
Parnassius staudingeri mustagata ; [MRS, 205]

Parnassius stenosemus Honrath, 1890
Parnassius delphius var. stenosemus Honrath, 1890; Ent. Nachr. 16 (8) : 127
Koramius delphius stenosemus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius stenosemus ; [EBW]
P. s. nobuko Ohya, 1996
Parnassius stoliczkanus nobuko Ohya, 1996; Gekkan-Mushi (309): 8, pl. 2, f. 5-6
Parnassius stenosemus nobuko ; Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 152

?Parnassius stoliczkanus C. & R. Felder, [1865]
Kashmir. See [About maps] Parnassius stoliczkanus C. & R. Felder, [1865]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (2): 138, (3): pl. 69, f. 2-3
Parnassius delphius var. stoliczkanus ab. obliterata Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 317, pl. 59, f. 1, TL: Kulu
Parnassius stoliczkanus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
obliterata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
Koramius delphius stoliczkanus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 25
Parnassius delphius stoliczkanus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88
P. s. harutai Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998
Nepal Parnassius stoliczkanus harutai Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998; Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 150, f. 1-2, TL: Tata, 4490m, Mahakali,W.Nepal

Parnassius patricius Niepelt, 1911
Tian-Shan. See [About maps] Parnassius patricius Niepelt, 1911; Int. Ent. Ztg 5 (38): 274, TL: "Naryn" [Inner Tian-Shan, Kirghizia]
Parnassius patricius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius patricius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius patricius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87, pl. 7, f. 55-56; [BRU, 140]

Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana [BRU]

P. p. priamus Bryk, 1914
P. p. kardakoffi Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Kunghei-Alatau, Zailiisky Alatau Parnassius acdestis kardakoffi Bryk & Eisner, 1930; Mitt. Dt. ent. Ges. 1: 7, f. 1-2
Koramius patricius kardakoffi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 17
P. p. uzungyrus Weiss, 1979
Kirghizsky Mts patricius haugumensis Eisner, 1979
P. p. luedwigi Kreuzberg, 1989
Chatkalsky, Talassky
P. p. lukhtanovi Rose, 1992
Khan-Tengri peak

Parnassius hide Koiwaya, 1987
China Qinghai, Kunlun Mountains Parnassius hide Koiwaya, 1987; Gekkan Mushi 201: 6
Parnassius hide, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius hide ; [MRS, 206]
P. h. meveli Weiss & Michel
Parnassius hide meveli ; [MRS, 206]
Parnassius hide aksobhya ; [MRS, 206]
[aksobhya-1mu.jpg] 1024x768 (~152Kb) upperside male China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 4450m, 21.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko [aksobhya-1mv.jpg] 1024x768 (~137Kb) underside male China, Qinghai prov, 220 km SSW of Qinghai lake, Anemaqen-Shan, 4450m, 21.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko

Parnassius hide gamdensis ; [MRS, 206]
Parnassius hide hengduanshanus ; [MRS, 206]
Parnassius hide poshurarinus ; [MRS, 206]

Parnassius acdestis Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Kirghizia, Kashmir, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius delphius var. acdestis Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 446, TL: Sinin Alp.
Parnassius acdestis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Koramius acdestis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8, pl. 1, f. 5
Parnassius acdestis ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87, pl. 8, f. 61-62, pl. 15, f. 101
P. a. lampidius Fruhstorfer, 1903
Parnassius delphius lampidius Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 (1) : 44, TL: Sikkim
Koramius acdestis lampidius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. a. whitei Bingham, 1907
Parnassius delphius r. whitei Bingham, 1907; Fauna Brit. Ind., Butts 2 : 125, f. 33
Koramius acdestis whitei ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
P. a. rupshuana Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius acdestis rupshuana Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 354, pl. 52, f. 5-6, TL: Rupshu, Tagalang-la, 17000-18000ft
P. a. ladakensis Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius acdestis ladakensis Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 354, pl. 52, f. 7
P. a. macdonaldi Rothschild, 1918
Parnassius delphius macdonaldi Rothschild, 1918; 256
Koramius acdestis macdonaldi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. a. lucifer (Bryk, 1932)
Koramius acdestis lucifer Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 6, TL: Sikkim, Gyamtshona
Koramius acdestis lucifer ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
Parnassius acdestis lucifer ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87
P. a. peshkei Eisner, 1933
P. a. takedai Mikami & Sakakibara, 1988
P. a. limitis Weiss & Michel
Parnassius acdestis limitis ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. hades (Bryk, 1932)
Koramius acdestis hades Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 5, TL: Tibet, Thung-La, 14500ft
Koramius acdestis hades ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Parnassius acdestis hades ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. vogti (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Koramius acdestis vogti Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 5 : 58
Koramius acdestis vogti ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
Parnassius acdestis vogti ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. cerevisiae Weiss & Michel
Parnassius acdestis cerevisiae ; [MRS, 205]
Parnassius acdestis lathonius ; [MRS, 205]
[lathonius-1amu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~320Kb) upperside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [lathonius-1amv.jpg] 1500x1125 (~197Kb) underside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [lathonius-1bmu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~345Kb) upperside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg.
[lathonius-1xmu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~250Kb) upperside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [lathonius-1ymu.jpg] 1500x1125 (~294Kb) upperside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [lathonius-1zmv.jpg] 1500x1125 (~228Kb) underside male China, S.Tibet, Karo-La pass (5200m), 1.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko leg.

P. a. macdonardi Rothschild
Parnassius acdestis macdonardi ; [MRS, 205]
Parnassius acdestis felix ; [MRS, 205]
Parnassius acdestis peeblesi ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. imperatoides Weiss & Michel
Parnassius acdestis imperatoides ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. ohkuma Koiwaya
Parnassius acdestis ohkuma ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. manco Koiwaya
Parnassius acdestis manco ; [MRS, 205]
Parnassius acdestis cinerosus ; [MRS, 205]
Parnassius acdestis irenaephis ; [MRS, 205]
P. a. lux (Eisner, 1969)
Koramius acdestis lux Eisner, 1969; Zool. Meded. Leiden 44 (7) : 109, pl. 1, f. 1-2, TL: Tibet, Jung-jung Khola
Koramius acdestis lux ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
Parnassius acdestis lux ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 87
P. a. horikatsuhikoi Shinkai, 1997
Parnassius acdestis horikatsuhikoi Shinkai, 1997; Wallace 3: 30
Parnassius acdestis horikatsuhikoi ; Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 154
P. a. yanae Huang, 1998
NW.Tibet Parnassius acdestis yanae Huang, 1998; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 273, pl. 1, f. 3a-d, 4a, 4b, TL: Main Peak of the Xiagangjiang Mts., 5200-5300m

Subgenus Sachaia
Sachaia, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Sachaia ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 139

Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851
Altai - W.Chukot, Yakut, Tura, N.China, Mongolia. See [About maps] Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 24 (2) : 621, TL: [Irkutsk Region, Russia]
?Parnassius tenedius var. nigromaculata Niepelt, 1916; in Strand, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 25, pl. 13, f. 16, TL: Altai
Parnassius tenedius tenedius, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius tenedius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
nigromaculata ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 20
Parnassius tenedius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 89, pl. 10, f. 75-76; [BRU, 142]; [MRS, 209]

Larva on Corydalis sibirica, C. capnoides [BRU], Corydalis spp. [MRS]

P. t. vulcanus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Altai
P. t. scepticus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Transbaikalia Parnassius tenedius sceptica ; [MRS, 209]
P. t. britae (Bryk, 1932)
Chukot, Far East Tadumia tenedius britae Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 2, TL: Sredne-Kolymsk, NE.Siberia
Tadumia tenedius britae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10

Parnassius arctica (Eisner, 1968)
NE.Yakutia. See [About maps] Tadumia simo arctica Eisner, 1968; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 15, pl. 1, f. 7-8, TL: [Verkhoyansky Mts., Yakutia]
?Parnassius ammosovi Korshunov, 1988
Parnassius ammosovi, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius arctica, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius arctica ; [BRU, 142]

Larva on Corydalis corodkovi [BRU]


Parnassius simo Gray, [1853]
Tadzhikistan, Kirghizia, Kashmir, Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Ladak, N.India, Tibet, W.China, Mongolia. See [About maps] Parnassius simo Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 76, pl. 12, f. 3-4, TL: "Chinese Tartary" [between Kumaon and Kashmir]
Parnassius simo, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius simo, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Tadumia simo ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24, pl. 1, f. 1
Parnassius simo ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 89, pl. 10, f. 73-74; [BRU, 141]; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 18]; [MRS, 209]; Huang, 1998, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 275 (note), pl. 2, f. 5d, 6c-d

Larva on Lagotis globosa?, L. decumbens? [BRU]

P. s. simulator Staudinger, 1889
?
P. s. boedromius Püngeler, 1901
Parnassius boedromius Püngeler, 1901; 177, pl. 1, f. 3-4, TL: Aksu
Tadumia simo boedromius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. s. gylippos Fruhstorfer, 1903
Parnassius gylippos Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 (1) : 45, TL: Aksu, Chinese Turkestan
gylippus[sic, recte gylippos] ; Bryk, 1935, Das Tierreich 65: 669
Tadumia simo gylippos ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 15
P. s. acconus Fruhstorfer, 1903
Sikkim Parnassiis acco acconus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Insekten-Börse 20 (19) : 148, TL: Sikkim
Parnassius acconus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 (1) : 43, pl. 1, f. 1-2, TL: Sikkim
Parnassius simo moelleri Bingham, 1907; 130, f. 34, TL: Sikkim
= ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
Tadumia simo acconus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
Parnassius simo acconus ; [MRS, 209]
P. s. simplicata Stich, 1907
simo simplicata Stich, 1907; , TL: Altun Shan
Parnassius simo simplicata ; Huang, 1998, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 275 (note), pl. 2, f. 5c
Parnassius simo simplicatus ; [MRS, 209]
P. s. avinoffi Verity, 1911
E.Pamirs Parnassius simo r. avinoffi Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica: 316, pl. 53, f.11
simo hilariae Kreuzberg, 1986
Tadumia simo avinoffi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
P. s. lorimeri Tytler, 1926
Parnassius simo lorimeri Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 252, (3): pl. 4, f. 10, TL: Kine-Kish Pass, Gilgit
Tadumia simo lorimeri ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. s. lise Eisner
Parnassius simo lise ; [MRS, 209]
Parnassius simo kunlunensis ; [MRS, 209]
Parnassius simo kosiovi ; [MRS, 209]
Parnassius simo norikae ; [MRS, 209]
P. s. zarraensis Bang-Haas, 1935
Parnassius simo zarraensis Bang-Haas, 1935; Ent. Z. 48 : 152
Tadumia simo zarraensis ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 29
P. s. confusus Bang-Haas
Parnassius simo confusus ; [MRS, 209]
Parnassius simo lenzeni ; [MRS, 209]
P. s. hingstoni (Bryk, 1932)
Tadumia simo hingstoni Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (3): 31, f. 2-3
Tadumia simo hingstoni ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Parnassius simo hingstoni ; [MRS, 209]
P. s. reinigi (Bryk, 1932)
Tadumia simo reinigi Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (3): 31, f. 1
Tadimia simo reinigi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Xiagangjian Mts. Parnassius simo bainqenerdini Huang, 1998; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 275, pl. 2, f. 5a-b, 6a-b, TL: Main Peak, 5200-5300
P. s. kanoi Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998
Nepal Parnassius simo kanoi Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998; Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 152, f. 9-11, TL: Gokyo Peak, 5000-5400m,N of Namche Bazar, Kumbu, NE.Nepal
P. s. kangchenus Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998
E.Nepal Parnassius simo kangchenus Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998; Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 154, f. 15-16, TL: nr Lhonak, 4550m, W of Mt Kanchenjunga, Mechi District, E.Nepal

Parnassius andreji Eisner, 1930
Parnassius simo andreji Eisner, 1930; Parnassiana 1 (3) : 5, pl. 1, f. 9-10, TL: Nanschan
Parnassius andreji, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Tadumia simo andreji ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 9
Parnassius andreji ; [MRS, 209]
P. a. eos Bryk & Eisner, 1934
Parnassius simo eos Bryk & Eisner, 1934; Parnassiana 3 : 25
Tadumia simo eos ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
Parnassius andreji eos ; [MRS, 209]
P. a. simillimus Bryk & Eisner, 1937
andreji simillimus Bryk & Eisner, 1937; Parnassiana 4: 58
Parnassius andreji simillimus ; [MRS, 209]
P. a. buddenbrocki (Bang-Haas, 1938)
Tadumia simo buddenbrocki Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 5 : 59
Tadumia simo buddenbrocki ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
Parnassius andreji buddenbrocki ; [MRS, 209]
P. a. dirschi Bang-Haas, 1938
Tadumia simo dirschi Bang-Haas, 1938; Parnassiana 6 : 21, TL: Kansu
Tadumia andreji dirschi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
Parnassius andreji dirschi ; [MRS, 209]
Parnassius andreji ogawai ; [MRS, 209]

Parnassius simonius Staudinger, 1889
Pamirs-Alai. See [About maps] Parnassius simonius Staudinger, 1889; Stettin Ent. Ztg 50 (1-3) : 16, TL: ".. Pamir-Gebiet (oder Transalai?)"
Parnassius simo var. simonides Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 360, f. 4, TL: N.Ladak
Parnassius simonius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius simonius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius simo var. simonides ; Austaut, 1912, Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 366, f. 4
Parnassius simonius ; [BRU, 141]

Larva on Lagotis decumbens?, Veronica luetkeana? [BRU]

Zaalaisky
P. s. grayi Avinoff, 1916
Kirghizia (W.Alai Mtns) Parnassius simo grayi Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 358, pl. 54, f. 6, TL: N.W. slopes of Alai Mtns, near Jengisbai
P. s. nigrificatus Kreuzberg, 1986
Tadzhikistan Parnassius simo nigrificatus Kreuzberg, 1986; Vest. zool. 2: 86, TL: 5km W of Kysyl-Art Pass, Transalaisky mtns, Tadzhikistan
P. s. taldicus Gundorov, 1991
Kirghizia Parnassius simonius taldicus Gundorov, 1991; Lambillionea 4: 379, TL: Taldyk Pass, Alaisky Mtns
Parnassius simonius shuvalorum Kreuzberg & Pljustsh, 1992; Vest. zool. 2: 78, TL: Taldyk pass, E Alai Mtns, Kirghizia

Parnassius boedromius Püngeler, 1901
Tian-Shan. See [About maps] Parnassius boedromius Püngeler, 1901; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 14 (1) : 177, pl. 1, f. 3-4
?Parnassius boëdromius candida Avinoff, 1913; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 13, pl. 2, f. 1
Parnassius boedromius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius boedromius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius boedromius ; [BRU, 142]

Larva on Lagotis decumbens?, L. integrifolia? [BRU]

P. b. prasolovi Kreuzberg, 1986
Inner Tian-Shan
P. b. hohlbecki Avinoff, 1913
N.Tian-Shan Parnassius boëdromius hohlbecki Avinoff, 1913; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 13, pl. 2, f. 2-3
Tadumia simo hohlbecki ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. b. martiniheringi Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Zailiisky, Kunghei-Alatau Parnassius simo martiniheringi Bryk & Eisner, 1930; Parnassiana 1 (1): 1, f. 1-4
Tadumia simo martiniheringi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 18
P. b. sokolovi Kreuzberg, 1990
NW.Tian-Shan
Subgenus Kailasius
Kailasius ; Häuser, 1993, Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 138

Parnassius charltonius Gray, [1853]
Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, N.India, Kashmir, Tibet, Chitral - Kumaon. See [About maps] Regal Apollo
Parnassius charltonius Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 77, pl. 12, f. 7, TL: "Chinese Tartary" [Mountains between Kumaon and Kashmir]
Parnassius charltonius var. ducalis Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 143, TL: Chitral
Parnassius charltonius, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius charltonius, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Kailasius charltonius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 11
Parnassius charltonius ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88, pl. 9, f. 65-66, pl. 15, f. 104; [BRU, 147]; [MRS, 208]

Larva on Corydalis stricta, Corydalis gortschakovi [BRU]

P. c. romanovi Grum-Grshimailo, 1885
Alai Parnassius romanovi Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 2 : 236
Parnassius romanovi Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 303, TL: Transalai
P. c. princeps Honrath, [1888]
Parnassius charltonius var. princeps Honrath, [1888]; Berl. ent. Z. 31 (2) : 351, TL: Transalai-Gebirge
Kailasius charltonius princeps ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 22
P. c. vaporosus Avinoff, 1913
Darvaz, W.Pamirs Parnassius charltonius vaporosus Avinoff, 1913; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 15, pl. 2, f. 4
Parnassius charltonius vaporosus ; Avinoff, 1916, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 359, pl. 54, f. 7
P. c. voigti Bang-Haas, 1927
Afghanistan Parnassius charltonius voigti Bang-Haas, 1927; Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 38, pl. 3, f. 13
Parnassius charltonius voigti ; Wyatt, 1961, J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 3 (descr. of male Allotype Kotandar Pass, Paghman Mts, Kabul, 10-12500ft)
Kailasius charltonius voigti ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
P. c. ella (Bryk, 1932)
Kailasius charltonius ella Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 49, TL: Skoro La
Kailasius charltonius ella ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. c. otto (Bryk & Eisner, 1932)
Kailasius charltonius otto Bryk & Eisner, 1932; Parnassiana 2: 66
Kailasius charltonius otto ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 21
P. c. serenissimus (Bryk, 1932)
Kailasius charltonius serenissimus Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 (4/5): 49
Kailasius charltonius serenissimus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 24
Parnassius charltonius corporaali ; [MRS, 208]
P. c. basharianus (Eisner, 1969)
E.Thibet Kailasius charltonius basharianus Eisner, 1969; Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (14) : 174, TL: Tsuling Pass, Bashar State
Kailasius charltonius basharianus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 10
P. c. ljudmilae Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985
Ghissar Parnassius charltonius ljudmilae Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985; Bjul. MOIP. Otd. biol. 90 (5): (?87-95)
Parnassius charltonius ljudmilae ; Kaabak & Lesin, 1994, Atalanta 25 (1/2): 161, pl. IV, f. 3-4
P. c. anjuta Stshetkin, Kaabak & Stshetkina, 1987
E.Pamirs, Mynkhadzhir Parnassius charltonius anjuta Stshetkin, Kaabak & Stshetkina, 1987; Entomol. obozrenio 66 (1): (?87-97)
Parnassius charltonius anjuta, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Parnassius charltonius anjuta ; Kaabak & Lesin, 1994, Atalanta 25 (1/2): 161, pl. IV, f. 1-2
P. c. mistericus Kaabak, Sotshivko & Titov, 1996
SE.Pamirs, Sarykolsky Mts
Parnassius charltonius bryki ; [MRS, 208]
Parnassius charltonius wernickei ; Wyatt, 1961, J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 3 (note)

Parnassius loxias Püngeler, 1901
Kirghizia, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius loxias Püngeler, 1901; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 14 (1) : 178, pl. 1, f. 5, 6, TL: 41°7'N, 80°81'E [N. of Aksu River, SE. slope of Kokshall-Tau Mts., W. China]
Parnassius loxias, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius loxias ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 89, pl. 9, f. 69-70; [BRU, 147]; [MRS, 208]

Larva on Corydalis krasnovi [BRU]

P. l. tashkorensis Kreuzberg, 1984
Inylchektau, Sary-Dzhaz Mts
P. l. raskemensis Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius loxias raskemensis Avinoff, 1916; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 359, pl. 52, f. 10, TL: Kiliang Pass
Parnassiu loxias raskemensis ; [MRS, 208]

Parnassius autocrator Avinoff, 1913
W.Pamirs - NE.Afghanistan. See [About maps] Parnassius autocrator Avinoff, 1913; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 16-17, pl. 2, f. 3
Parnassius autocrator, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius autocrator, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Parnassius autocrator ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 89, pl. 9, f. 71-72; [BRU, 147]

Larva on Corydalis fimbrillifera, C. onobrychis [BRU]


Parnassius imperator Oberthür, 1883
Tibet, W.China. See [About maps] Parnassius imperator Oberthür, 1883; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 3 : lxxvii
?Parnassius imperator supremus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Soc. Ent. 18 (7) : 50
Parnassius imperator, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius imperator ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 88, pl. 8, f. 64, pl. 15, f. 103; [MRS, 207]

Larva on Corydalis spp. [MRS]

P. i. augustus Fruhstorfer, 1903
Parnassius imperator augustus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Soc. Ent. 18 (15) : 113
Parnassius imperator augustus ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. intermedius Rothschild, 1909
Parnassius imperator intermedius Rothschild, 1909; 19
Eukoramius imperator intermedius ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
P. i. irmae (Bryk, 1932)
Tadumia imperator irmae Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 4, f. 2, TL: S.Tibet, Trum La, 16000ft
Parnassius imperator cedermarki
= ; Huang, 2001
Eukoramius imperator irmae ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 16
Parnassius imperator irmae ; [MRS, 207]; Huang, 2001
P. i. aino (Bryk, 1932)
Yunnan Tadumia imperator aino Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 5, TL: Yunnan, A-tum-Tzu
Eukoramius imperator aino ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 8
P. i. evansi (Bryk, 1932)
Tadumia imperator evansi Bryk, 1932; Parnassiana 2 : 5, TL: SE.Thibet, Charap., 14500'
Eukoramius imperator evansi ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 14
Parnassius imperator interjungens ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. karmapus Weiss & Michel
Parnassius imperator karmapus ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. regulus Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius imperator regulus Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 6
Eukoramius imperator regulus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius imperator regulus ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. regina Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius imperator regina Bryk & Eisner, 1932; 7
Eukoramius imperator regina ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 23
Parnassius imperator regina ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. dominus Bang-Haas, 1934
Parnassius imperator dominus Bang-Haas, 1934; Ent. Z. 48 (14): 109, TL: Kuku-Nor
Eukoramius imperator dominus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 13
P. i. uxoria Bang-Haas, 1935
Parnassius imperator uxoria Bang-Haas, 1935; Ent. Z. 49 : 35 (repl. Parnassius imperator tyrranus Bang-Haas, 1935), TL: Kukunor
Parnassius imperator tyrranus Bang-Haas, 1935; Ent. Z. 48 : 183 (preocc.), TL: Kukunor
Eukoramius imperator uxoria ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 28
Parnassius imperator gigas ; [MRS, 207]
P. i. musageta Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Parnassius imperator var. musageta Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 446
Eukoramius imperator musagetus ; Ackery, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 19
Parnassius imperator musagetus ; [MRS, 207]
[musageta-1fu.jpg] 1024x768 (~343Kb) upperside female China, Qinghai prov, W.Qinghai lake, Nan Shan mts, 40km NW of Caka town, 3500m, 28.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko

P. i. rex Bang-Haas
Parnassius imperator rex ; [MRS, 207]
Parnassius imperator takashi ; [MRS, 207]

Parnassius inopinatus Kotzsch, 1940
Afghanistan. See [About maps] Parnassius inopinatus Kotzsch, 1940; Ent. Z. (Frankf. a. M) 54 : 17
Parnassius inopinatus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Parnassius inopinatus ; Ackery, 1975, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 89, pl. 9, f. 67-68, pl. 15, f. 105


Unknown or unplaced taxa

Parnassius delphius vn. tancrei Austaut, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (11) : 55

Parnassius ruckbeili ab. virginea Austaut, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (11) : 55

Parnassius boedromius ab. caliginosa Austaut, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (11) : 55

Parnassius boedromius ab. anops Austaut, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (11) : 56

Parnassius tancrei ab. cocles Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 359, f. 2
Parnassius tancrei ab. cocles ; Austaut, 1912, Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 365, f. 2

Parnassius rueckbeili ab. leucostigma Austaut, 1912; Int. Ent. Zs 6 (13) : 87

Parnassius smintheus ab. fermata Bryk, 1921; Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 112

Parnassius mnemosyne bureschi Bryk, 1921; Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 115, f. 5-6, TL: Hudowa, Macedonia

Parnassius apollo ab. kitti Bryk, 1921; Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 117

Parnassius apollo var. wenzeli Bryk, 1921; Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 117

apollo valderiensis Turati
Parnassius apollo valderiensis ; Fruhstorfer, 1910, Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 156

delphius intermedia (Verity, 1907) (Parnassius); 316, pl. 18, f. 8-9
Parnassius delphius var. intermedia ; Bang-Haas, 1915, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 154, pl. 4, f. 7

Parnassius delphius var. candidatus Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 158, TL: Tianschan; Juldus (Kuldsca, Ili, Issykkul)

Parnassius bashahricus Bang-Haas, 1915; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 175, pl. 5, f. 22, 27, TL: Stargyusa, Bashahr


14.5.2013 (52)

References:
[A. Timchenko]
Andrew Timchenko; Beijing, China (ex-Moscow, Russia)
[ALBERTA]
University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum; Browse Entomology Collection
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BIR]
Wynter-Blyth, 1957; Butterflies of the Indian Region; (1982 Reprint)
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOC]
Robert Michael Pyle, 2002; The Butterflies of Cascadia
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[BRU]
Tuzov, Bogdanov, Devyatkin, Kaabak, Korolev, Murzin, Samodurov, Tarasov, 1997; Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories; Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Satyridae; Volume 1
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[ESP]
Heppner, 1981; The dates of E. J. C. Esper's Die Schmetterlinge in Abblidungen... 1776-[1830]; Archives of Natural History (1981) 10 (2): 251-254
[H&R]
Higgins, L.G, Riley, N.D, 1970; A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Hans Degler]
e-mail: Hans Degler
[Ilya Osipov]
The insects from former USSR for collectors Web site; e-mail: Ilya Osipov; http://www.osipov.org/insects/
[Kimmo Silvonen]
Espoo, Finland; Kimmo's Lep Site
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[Mario Maier]
Europäische Schmetterlinge; e-mail: Mario Maier
[Michael Borsch]
Geesthacht, Germany; contact through; e-mail: Francisco Welter-Schultes
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NBC]
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis; NBC naturalis
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[NORLEP]
Norges Sommerfugler
[Norbert Kondla]
Canada, BC; e-mail: Norbert Kondla
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.
[Pertti Pakkanen]
e-mail: Pertti Pakkanen; Butterfly and moth observations from Finland
[S. Shuichi Haupt]
e-mail: S. Shuichi Haupt; http://www.tu-berlin.de/fb7/ioeb/biologie/stefan.htm
[SPRK]
Seppänen, E. J, 1970; Suomen suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit, Animalia Fennica 14
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)
[SZMN]
Lepidoptera; Siberian Zoological Museum
[Simon Coombes]
1 Park Street, Plymouth, PL3 4BL, UK; 01752 607854; e-mail: Simon Coombes; http://www.butterfly-guide.co.uk
[Tero Piirainen]
Tampere, Finland; e-mail: Tero Piirainen
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group
[²]
This may require parentheses or not. I don't have the necessary information for this taxon.


Some related literature:
Abadjiev, 2002
Types of Balkan butterflies in the collection of The Natural History Museum, London Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 3-53
Ackery, 1973
A list of the type specimens of Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the British Museum (Natural History) Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 29 : 1-35, 1pl
Ackery, 1975
A guide to the genera and species of Parnassinae (Lepidoptera : Papilionidae) Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Ent. 31 (4) : 71-105, pl. 1-16
Alphéraky, 1881
Lépidoptères du district de Kouldjà et des montagnes environnantes. (1-3) Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 16 (3-4): 334-435, pl. 14-15 (1881), 17 (1-2): 15-103, pl. 1-3 (1882), 17 (3-4): 156-227, pl. 8-9 (1883)
Alphéraky, 1887
Diagnoses de quelques lépidoptères inédits du Thibet in Romanoff, Mem. lép. 3 : 403-406
Austaut, 1891
Deux Parnassius nouveaux de l'Asie Centrale Naturaliste 13 : 180
Austaut, 1895
Notice sur le Parnassius poeta Oberthür et sur une variété inédite de cette espèce Naturaliste 17 : 247-248
Austaut, 1899
Lepidoptères nouveaux de l'Asie Le Naturaliste 21 : 285
Austaut, 1906
Notice sur quelques espèces nouvelles ou peu connues du genre Parnassius Ent. Zs. 20 : 66-68
Austaut, 1910
Notice sur quelques Parnassius nouveaux Ent. Zs. 24 (11) : 55-56
Austaut, 1911
Lépidoptères asiatiques nouveaux Ent. Zs. 24 (44) : 242-244
Austaut, 1912
Notice sur quelques formes aberrantes de Parnassius et sur une espèce du genre Oeneis Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (59) : 359-361
Austaut, 1912
Einige Aberrationen aus der Gattung Parnassius und eine neue Art von Oeneis Int. Ent. Zs. 5 (51) : 365-367
Austaut, 1912
Lépidoptères asiatiques nouveaux Int. Ent. Zs 6 (13) : 87-89
Avinoff, 1910
[Contribution à la faune des Rhopaloceres du Pamir] (in Russian) Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 39 : 225-246, pl. 14
Avinoff, 1910
[New forms of Rhopalocera from Fergana] (in Russian) Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 39 : 247-250, pl. 14
Avinoff, 1913
Quelques formes nouvelles du genre Parnassius Latr. [Russian] Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 40 (5) : 1-21, pl. 2
Avinoff, 1916
Some new forms of Parnassius (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 : 351-360, pl. 52-54
Bang-Haas, 1912
Neue oder wenig bekannte palaearktische Makrolepidopteren. (IV-VI) Dt. ent. Z. Iris 26 (2): 103-110 (1912), (3): 139-162 (1912), (4): 229-230, pl. 6 (1913)
Bang-Haas, 1915
Rhopalocera der Chotan-Ausbeite 1914 Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 92-100
Bang-Haas, 1915
Zur Kenntnis von Parnassius delphius Eversm. und verwandter Arten Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 148-170, pl. 4-5
Bang-Haas, 1915
Einiges über Parnassius Dt. ent. Z. Iris 29 (2/3) : 170-175, pl. 5
Bang-Haas, 1927
Horae Macrolepidopterologicae Regionis Palaearcticae Horae Macrolep. Palaearct. 1 : 1-128, pl. 1-11
Bang-Haas, 1928
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna I Ent. Z. 42 : 59-61
Bang-Haas, 1932
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna III Ent. Z. 46: 200
Bang-Haas, 1933
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna IV Ent. Z. 46 : 261-263
Bang-Haas, 1934; Bang-Haas, 1935
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearktischenk Macrolepidopterenfauna. VIII, XIII, XIV-XVII Ent. Z. 48 : 7-8, (14): 108-110, (16): 128, : 135, : 152 (1935), : 183-184 (1935)
Bang-Haas, 1935
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearktischen Macrolepidopterenfauna. XVIX-XX Ent. Z. 49 : 35, : 111-112
Bang-Haas, 1938
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearactischen Macrolepidoptera. XXXIV. Eine Parnassius-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Minschan-Gebirge Parnassiana 5 : 56-59
Bang-Haas, 1938
Neubeschreibungen und Berichtigungen der Palaearactischen Macrolepidoptera. XXXVII Parnassiana 6 : 15-24
Belling, 1915
Nochmals Parnassius apollo L. aus dem Karwendelbirge Dt. ent. Z. 1915: 655-656
Belling, 1923
Zwei neue Unterarten von Parnassius apollo L., Parn. apollo ladinus und Parn. apollo venustus Dt. ent. Z. 1923: 287-290
Bergmann, 1995
Eine neue Unterart von Parnassius (Koramius) maximinus (Staudinger, 1891) aus Usbekistan Atalanta 26 (1/2): 139-142
Billberg, 1820
Enumeratio Insectorum Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb. : 1-138
Bingham, 1907
The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. BUTTERFLIES. 2 (edn 1) Fauna Brit. Ind., Butts 2 : 1-480, pl. 11-20
Boisduval, 1836
Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Species Général des Lépidoptéres. Tome Premier Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 1-690, pl. 1-24
Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912
Descripton sommaires de formes nouvelles de Papilionidae [Lep.] Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912: 141-143 : 141-143
Bremer, 1861
Neue Lepidopteren aus Ost-Sibirien und dem Amur-Lande gesammelt von Radde und Maack, bescrieben von Otto Bremer Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 3 : 461-496, Mélanges biol. St.-Pétersb. 3 (5-6): 538-589
Bremer, 1864
Lepidopteren Ost-Sibiriens, insbesondere der Amur-Landes, gesammelt von den Herren G. Radde, R. Maack und P. Wulffius Mém. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. (7) 8 (1) : 1-104, 8pls
Bryk, 1911
Ueber di karelische Mnemosyne Soc. Ent. 26 (11)
Bryk, 1914
Neue Parnassier für den Junk'schken Katalog Int. ent. Z. 8: 35-36
Bryk, 1914
Parn. mnemosyne ugrjumovi n. subsp. Berl. ent. Z. 58: 201-210
Bryk, 1915
Uber das Abändern von Parnassius apollo L. Archiv Naturg. 80 A (7): 153-184
Bryk, 1915
Uber das Abändern von Parnassius apollo L. Archiv Naturg. 80 A (7): 133-164
Bryk, 1921
Parnassiana. Parnassius mnemosyne L. in Europa Soc. ent. 36 : 17-19
Bryk, 1921
Neue Parnassiiden Ent. Tidskr. 42 : 112-119, f. 1-13
Bryk, 1922
Parnassiana. Parnassius mnemosyne L. in Europa Soc. ent. 37: 5-6
Bryk, 1922
Parnassiana. Parnassius mnemosyne L. in Europa. Einige südlandische Formen meiner Sammlung Soc. ent. 37 : 13-16, : 18-20
Bryk, 1925
Parnassiana. Parnassius mnemosyne L. in Galizien und Rumänien Soc. ent. 40: 29-30
Bryk, 1931
Parnassius rothschildianus m. Parnassiana 1 (6): 4
Bryk, 1931
Die Abhängigkeit der Augenflecke vom Flügelgeäder in der Gattung Parnassius Latr. Ein Beitrag zur Zeichnung der Lepidopteren Zool. Jb. Syst. 62: 149-174
Bryk, 1932
Parnassiologische Studien aus England Parnassiana 2 : 1-6, : 19-21, (3): 31-33, : 42, (4/5): 46-50, : 67-68
Bryk, 1934
Parnassiologische Studien aus England Parnassiana 3 : 27-28, : 31-32
Bryk, 1935
Lepidoptera. Parnassiidae pars II Das Tierreich 65: i-li, 1-788
Bryk, 1936
H. Hönes Parnassiusausbeute vom Jahre 1936 Parnassiana 4: 1-4
Bryk & Eisner, 1929
Parn. stubbendorfi Elwes subspecies diabolicus (n.) Soc. ent. 44: 47-48
Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Eine neue Rasse von Parnassius simo Parnassiana 1 (1): 1-3
Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius mnemosyne L. ssp. balcanica (n.) Parnassiana 1 (2): 3-4
Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius apollo L. in Klein-Asien Parnassiana 1 (4): 1-3
Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Eine neue Rasse von Parnassius acdestis Gr. Gr. (Lep. Parnass.) Mitt. Dt. ent. Ges. 1: 7-8
Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Zwei neue Phoebus-Rassen Parnassiana 1 (5) : 5-7
Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Parnassius mnemosyne L. in Kleinasien Parnassiana 1 (7/8) : 1-3
Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Uber Parnassius szechenyi Friw. Parnassiana 1 (7/8) : 6-8
Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Ein neuer charltonius Parnassiana 2: 66
Bryk & Eisner, 1934
Eine neue geographische Konvergenzerscheinung aus dem Kansu-Gebiet Parnassiana 3 : 24-27
Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius unter Benutzung des Materials der Kollektion Eisner Parnassiana 5 : 9-15, : 21-28
Burdick, 1941
A new race of Parnassius smintheus from the Olympic Mountains of Washington (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Can. Ent. 73 (7): 117-118, 3fgs
Butler, 1866
A list of the diurnal Lepidoptera recently collected by Mr. Whitely in Hakodadi (North Japan) J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 9 (34) : 50-58
Clench & Shoumatoff, 1956
Lepidoptera Rhopalocera (Insecta) from Afghanistan. The 3rd Danish Expedition to Central Asia (Zoological Results 21) Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturh. Forening 118 : 141-192, 23 fgs
Doubleday, [1847]
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Dyar, 1903
A List of North American Lepidoptera and Key to the Literature of this Order of Insects Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1-723
Dyar, 1903
New North American Lepidoptera with notes on larvae Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 5 (4) : 290-297
Edwards, 1870
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 10-22
H. Edwards, 1877
Pacific Coast Lepidoptera. - No. 22. Notes on some Diurnal Lepidoptera, with description of new varieties Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 7 : 163-173
H. Edwards, 1881
On two new forms of the genus Parnassius Papilio 1 (1): 2-4
Eisner, 1928
Eine neue spanische apollo-Rasse Int. ent. Z. 22: 309-311
Eisner, 1930
Eine neue Rasse von P. simo Gray Parnassiana 1 (3) : 5
Eisner, 1932
Parnassius epaphus subsp. gyaella (nova subsp.) Parnassiana 2: 68
Eisner, 1936
P. mnemosyne subsp. bulgarica (subs. nova) Parnassiana 4 (1-2): 9
Eisner, 1939
Zwei Parnassius-Unterarten aus Korea Parnassiana 6: 38-39
Eisner, 1955
Parnassiana nova: VI: Kritische revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 3) Zool. Meded. Leiden 33 (21): 181-207
Eisner, 1956
Parnassiana nova: VIII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 5) Zool. Meded. Leiden 34 (10) : 155-172
Eisner, 1956
Parnassiana nova: X. Zwei neue nordamericanische Parnassius Subspecies Zool. Meded. Leiden 34 (18) : 243-245
Eisner, 1958
Parnassiana nova: XIX. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 13) Zool. Meded. Leiden 36 (2) : 5-32
Eisner, 1964
Parnassiana nova: XXXV. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassinae (Fortsetzung 8) Zool. Meded. Leiden 40 (5) : 25-27
Eisner, 1966
Parnassiana nova: XXXIX. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassinae (Fortsetzung 12) Zool. Meded. Leiden 41 (8) : 143-149
Eisner, 1968
Parnassiana nova XLIII. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 16) Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 9-15, pl. 1-2
Eisner & Epstein, 1968
Parnassiana nova XLIII. Parnassius mnemosyne L. in der Südschweiz und in Norditalien Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (2) : 15-17, pl. 1
Eisner, 1969
Parnassiana nova XLIV. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 17) Zool. Meded. Leiden 43 (14) : 173-176
Eisner & Zelny, 1969; Eisner, 1969
Parnassiana nova: XLV. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 18) Zool. Meded. Leiden 44 (7) : 109-112
Eisner & Peschke, 1934
P. actius Ev., subspecies catilina (subsp. nova) Parnassiana 3: 41
Eisner & Sedych, 1964
Parnassiana nova: XXXVII. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassinae (Fortsetzung 10) Zool. Meded. Leiden 40 (17) : 137-138
Elwes, 1886
On Butterflies of the Genus Parnassius Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1886
Esper, [1803]
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Supplement Theil 1. Abschnitt 1 Die Schmett., Suppl. Th 1 (1-2): 1-8, pl. 94 (1789), (3-4): 9-60, pl. 95-101 (1789), (5-6): 61-68, pl. 102-106 (1794), ([7]): [69-88], pl. [107-109] (1798), (8-9): 89-104, pl. 110-112 (1800), (10): 105-120, pl. 113-116 ([1803-1804])
Eversmann, 1843
Quaedam lepidopterorum species novae in montibus Uralensibus et Altaicus habitantes nunc descriptae et depictae Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16 (3) : 535-553, 4pls
Eversmann, 1847
Lepidoptera quaedam nova Rossiae et Sibiriae indigena descripsit et delineavit Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 20 (3) : 66-83, 6 pls.
Eversmann, 1851
Description de quelques nouvelles espéce de Lépidoptéres de la Russie Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 24 (2) : 610-644
Fabricius, 1807
Systema Glossatorum. Die neueste Gattungs-Eintheilung der Schmetterlinge aus den Linnéischen Gattungen Papilio und Sphinx Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 277-295
C. & R. Felder, [1864]; C. & R. Felder, [1865]
Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Behilfen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 1-136, pl. 1-21 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, [1865]), (2): 137-378, pl. 22-47 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1865), (3): 379-536, pl. 48-74 (Rhop.) (C. & R. Felder, 1867), (4): 537-548, pl. 75-120, (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-9 (pl. 1-74), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874) , (5): pl. 121-140, (erklärung) 1-10 (pl. 75-107), (Inhalts-Verz.) 1-20 (pl. 108-140), (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
de Freina, 1980
Eine neue Unterart von Parnassius nordmanni Nordmann aus Kleinasien (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) NachrBl. bayer Ent. 29: 50-62
Fruhstorfer, 1898
Eine neue Parnassius-Form aus Indien Dt. ent. Z. Iris 11 (1) : 147-148 (10 August)
Fruhstorfer, 1900
Eine neue Parnassius-Aberration Stettin ent. Ztg 60 (10-12) : 354-355 (April)
Fruhstorfer, 1903
Zwei neue Sikkim-Falter Insekten-Börse 20 (19) : 148 (7 May)
Fruhstorfer, 1903
Zwei neue Parnassier Soc. Ent. 18 (7) : 49-50 (1 July)
Fruhstorfer, 1903
Neue Parnassier Dt. ent. Z. Iris 16 (1) : 43-46, pl. 1, f. 1-2 (early October)
Fruhstorfer, 1903
Parnassius epaphus huwei nov. subspec. Stettin ent. Ztg 64 (2) : 360-361 (October)
Fruhstorfer, 1903
Parnassius imperator augustus n. subsp. Soc. Ent. 18 (15) : 113 (1 November)
Fruhstorfer, 1904
Ein neuer Parnassius. Parnassius delphius dolabella nov. subspec. Ent. Zs. 18 (8) : 29-30 (22 May)
Fruhstorfer, 1908
Neue Parnassier aus der mnemosyne-Gruppe Int. ent. Zs. 2 (3) : 17-18 (18 April)
Fruhstorfer, 1908
Neue Parnassius-Rassen Ent. Zs. 22 (3) : 12 (18 April)
Fruhstorfer, 1908
Eine neue Parnassius-Rasse Ent. Zs. 22 (12) : 51 (20 June)
Fruhstorfer, 1909
6. Gattung: Parnassius LATR. in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 9 : 110-112 (28 August), pl. 50
Fruhstorfer, 1909
Neues über Parnassius apollo Int. ent. Zs. 3 (30) : 161 (23 October)
Fruhstorfer, 1909
Neues über Parnassius apollo L. Ent. Zs. 23 (34) : 150-151 (20 November)
Fruhstorfer, 1911
Neue palaearktische Rhopaloceren Soc. ent. 25 (13): 50-52 (24 September, 1910), (14): 54-55 (8 October, 1910), (15): 58-60, f. 1-4 (22 October, 1910), (24): 95-96 (25 February, 1911)
Fruhstorfer, 1910
Parnassiusrassen aus der Schweiz und Piemont Ent. Zs. 24 (28) : 155-156 (15 October)
Fruhstorfer, 1910
Zu dem Artikel: Neue Parnassiusrassen aus der Schweiz und Piemont Ent. Zs. 24 (35) : 192 (3 December)
Fruhstorfer, 1917
Neue Rhopaloceren aus der Sammlung Leonhard Archiv Naturg. (A) 82 (2) : 1-28, pl. 1 (January)
Fruhstorfer, 1921
Neue Parnassius apollo-Rassen Ent. Anz. 1 (3): 29-31, f. 1-5 (10 March), (7): 77-80 (10 July), (8): 87-89 (10 August)
Fruhstorfer, 1921
Neue und interessante Parnassius apollo Rassen Ent. Anz. 1 (4): 41-42, f. 1-6 (10 April), (6): 65-66, 2 f. (10 June)
Fruhstorfer, 1921
Die Parnassius apollo-Rassen der Südschweiz Ent. Anz. 1 (4): 43-44 (10 April), (5): 53-56, 4fgs. (10 May)
Fruhstorfer, 1923
Die Parnassius apollo-Rassen der Schweiz Ent. Anz. 3 (5): 55-60 (15 May), (6): 72-74 (15 June), (7): 86-87 (15 July), (8): 96-98 (15 August)
Gray, 1831
The Zoological Miscellany Zool. Miscell. (1): [1], 1-40 (1831), (2a): 41-48 (1842), (2b): 49-56 (1842), (2c): 57-72 (1842), (2d): 73-80 (1842), (3): 81-86 (1844)
Gray, [1853]
Catalogue of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part 1. Papilionidae. [1853 Jan], "1852" Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 1-84, pl. 1-10,10*,11-13
Grum-Grshimailo, 1885
Bericht über meine Reise in das Alai Gebiet (Correspondenz) in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 2 : 212-247
Grum-Grshimailo, 1887
Bericht über meine Reise in das östliche Buchara (Correspondez; mit 1 Karte). Nebst Anghang: Dianosen einger neuen Species in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 3 : 357-402
Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
Novae species et varietates Rhopalocerum e Pamir Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 303-307
Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Lepidoptera nova in Asia centrali novissime lecta et descripta Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 445-465
Gundorov, 1991
New subspecies of Parnassius simonius from Central Asia Lambillionea 4: 379
Guppy, 1998
Notes on Parnassius smintheus Doubleday on Vancouver Island J. Lep. Soc. 52 (1): 115-118
Hemming, 1934
Revisional notes on certain species of Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera) Stylops 3 : 193-200
Honrath, [1888]
Neue Rhopalocera (6) Berl. ent. Z. 31 (2) : 347-352, pl. 6
Honrath, 1889
Neue Rhopalocera (8) Berl. ent. Z. 33 (1): 161-166, (2): pl. 2 (March 1890)
Honrath, 1890
Diagnosen von zwei neuen Rhopaloceren Ent. Nachr. 16 (8) : 127
Huang, 1998
Research on the butterflies of the Namjagbarwa Region, S. E. Tibet Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 207-264
Huang, 1998
Five New Butterflies from N. W. Tibet Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 41: 271-283
Huang & Murayama, 1992
Butterflies of Xinjiang province, China Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 1-22
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Häuser, 1993
An annotated checklist of the species of the Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Tijdschr. Ent. 136 : 137-146
Kaabak & Lesin, 1994
On two subspecies of Parnassius charltonius Gray, 1853: ssp. anjuta Stshetkin, Kaabak & Stshetkina, 1987 and ssp. ljudmilae Sthsetkin & Kaabak, 1985 Atalanta 25 (1/2): 161-162
Kolar, 1922
Parnassius apollo L. in Salzburg Ent. Anz. 2: 41-43
Kolar & Rebel, 1934
in Kolar, Parnassius apollo auf dem Olymp. Int. ent. Z. 28 (29): 366-368
Kotzsch, 1940
Parnassius inopinatus, eine überreschende neue Art Ent. Z. (Frankf. a. M) 54 : 17-21
Kreuzberg, 1986
New subspecies of Parnassius simo (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from Middle Asia [in Russian] Vest. zool. 2: 85-87
Krulikowsky, 1908
Einige neue Varietäten und Aberrationen der Lepidopteren des östlichen Russlands Soc. Ent. 23 (1): 2-3, (2): 11-12, (3): 18
Kudrna, 1985
European butterflies named by Hans Fruhstorfer Nachr. ent. Ver. Apollo, Suppl. 5: 1-60
Kunz, 1922
Gesammelte Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Parnassius mnemosyne L. 1.Eine montane mnemosyne Rasse aus Südwesttirol Z. öst. EntVer. 7: 12-14
Lederer, 1853
Lepidopterologisches aus Sibirien Verh. zool.-bot. Ver. Wien 3 : 351-386, pl. 1-7
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Lukhtanov, 1999
Neue Taxa und Synonyma zentalasiatischer Tagfalter Atalanta 30 (1/4): 135-150
Matsumura, 1927
A list of the butterflies of Corea, with description of new species, subspecies and aberrations Insecta Matsumurana 1 (4) : 159-170
Matsumura, 1928
New Butterflies especially from the Kuriles Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 191-201
McDunnough, 1936
A new race of Parnassius smintheus from California Can. ent. 68: 272-274
Ménétriés, 1849
Descriptions des insectes, recueillis par feu Lehmann Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersb. 6 (4): 219-329
Ménétriés, 1855
Enumeratio corporum animalium Musei Imperialis Academiae Scientiarum Petropilitanae. Classis Insectorum, Ordo Lepidopterorum Cat. lep. Petersb. 1: 1-66, pl. 1-6, (supplement) 67-112 (1855), 2: 67-97,99-144, pl. 7-14 (1857), 3: 145-161, pl. 15-18 (1863)
Moltrecht, 1909
Beitrag zur Kenntnis der ostpaläarktischen Lepidopterenfauna Ent. Zs. 22 (44) : 184-185
Motschulsky, 1866
Catalogue des Insectes recus du Japon Bull. Soc. imp. nat. Moscou 39 (1) : 163-200
Neumann, 1890
New beauties from near and far Ent. Amer. 6 : 61-64
Niepelt, 1911
Neue paläarktische Macrolepidopteren Int. Ent. Ztg 5 (38): 274-275
Nordmann, 1851
Die im Gebiete der Fauna Taurico-Caucasica beobachteten Schmetterlinge Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 24 (4): 395-428, 6 pls
Oberthür, 1879
Catalogue raisonné des Papilionidae de la Collection de Ch. Oberthür Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 19-102, 107-117 (Appendice), pl. 1-6
Oberthür, 1883
[no title] Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 3 : xi-xiii, [11-13], : xliii, [43], : lxxvi-lxxvii, : lxxxiv, [84], : cxxviii-cxxix, [128-129]
Ohshima, 1985
A New Subspecies of Parnassius cephalus GRUM-GRSHIMAILO from Nepal Himalaya (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) Tyô to Ga 36 (2): 77-82
Ohya, 1996
Two new subspecies of Parnassius from Nepal and Tibet Gekkan-Mushi (309): 4-9, pl. 2
Omoto & Kawasaki, 1998
Some new parnassiine butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from Nepal in the Haruta collection Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3): 147-155
Peebles & Bryk, 1931
Parnassius mnemosyne subsp. republicanus (n) Parnassiana 1 (6): 4
Peschke & Eisner, 1932
_P. apollo liptauensis (subspecies nova) Int. ent. Z. 26: 249-250
Peschke & Eisner, 1934
P. delphius Ev. subsp. affinis (subsp. nova) Parnassiana 3: 40-41
Püngeler, 1901
Neue Macrolepidopteren aus Centralasien Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 14 (1) : 171-191, pl. 1-3
Riley, 1923
The Rhopalocera of the Mt. Everest 1921 Expedition Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1922 (3-4) : 461-483, pl. 36-37
Riley, 1926
Entomological Notes on a Tour of the Kumaon-Tibet Border in 1924 by H. G. Champion, M.A., F.E.S. with descriptions of three new Rhopalocera Ent. mon. Mag. 62 : 271-279, pl. 2-3
Rothschild, 1908
New Subspecies of Parnassius apollo Novit. Zool. 15 : 390
Rothschild, 1918
Catalogue of the Parnassiidae in the Tring Museum Novit. Zool. 25 : 218-262
Shinkai, 1997
A new subspecies of Parnassius acdestis Grum-Grshimailo 1891 (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae), from Nepal Wallace 3: 30-31
J.J. & J.L. Shchetkin, 1989; J.L. & J.J. Shchetkin, 1989
Two new subspecies of the Pamiro-Alai endemic Parnassius honrathi Stgr. (in Russian) Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 94: 53-55
Sheljuzhko, 1913
Lepidopterologische Notizen Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 13-22
Sheljuzhko, 1924
Neue Parnassius-Formen Z. öst. EntVer. 9: 57-60
Stauder, 1924
Neue Palaearktenformen. II Mitt. münch. ent. Ges. 14: 59-66
Stauder, 1924
Teriolensia. I. Dt. ent. Z. 1924: 1-29
Staudinger, 1889
Centralasiatische Lepidopteren Stettin Ent. Ztg 50 (1-3) : 16-60
Staudinger, 1891
Eine neue Parnassius-Form und swei neue paläarktische Arctia-Arten Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 4 (1) : 158-162
Staudinger, 1898
Einige neue Tagfalterarten und Varietäten Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 10 (2) : 344-360
Bang-Haas in Staudinger & Bang-Haas, 1882; Staudinger in Staudinger & Bang-Haas, 1882
Ueber einige neue Parnassius- und andere Tagfalter-Arten Central-Asiens Berl. ent. Z. 26 (1) : 161-177, pl. 1-2
Niepelt in Strand, 1916
Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer und wenig bekannter Lepidoptera aus der Sammlung W. Niepelt Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 1-26, pl. 13-17
Turati, 1908
Nuove forme di Lepidotteri Natur. Sicil. 20 (1-3) : 1-48, pl. 1-6
Tytler, 1926
Notes on some new and interesting Butterflies from India and Burma. (1) & (2) J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 248-260, (3): 578-590, pl. 1-5 [?]
Verity, [1907]
Rhopalocera Palaearctica Iconographie et Description des Papillons diurnes de la région paléarctique. Papilionidae et Pieridae Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 86+368pp, 2+12+72pls
Warnecke, 1919
Drei lokalformen von Amur-Lepidopteren Int. Ent. Z. 13: 25
Wyatt, 1961
Additions to the Rhopalocera of Afghanistan with descriptions of new species and subspecies J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 1-18, 3pls
Wyatt, 1969
Eine neue Rasse von Parnassius phoebus L. aus Kanada Z. wien. ent. Ges. 54: 132-133
Yoshino, 1997
New Butterflies from China 2 Neo Lepidoptera 2: 1-8
Ziegler, 1901
In: Sitzungberichte des Entomologischen Vereins in Berlin für das Jahr 1900. 1. Theil. Sitzung vom 22. März Berliner Ent. Zeitschrift 46 (1): (11)-(12)


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.