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Papilio Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 458, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
Pterourus Scopoli, 1777; Introd. Hist. nat.: 433, TS: Papilio troilus Linnaeus
Princeps Hübner, [1807]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl. [116], TS: Papilio demodocus Esper
Amaryssus Dalman, 1816; K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 60, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 96]
Jasoniades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio turnus Linnaeus
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Euphoeades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio glaucus Linnaeus
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Heraclides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio thoas Linnaeus
Achillides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 85, TS: Papilio paris Linnaeus
Orpheides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86 (suppr. ICZN Op. 178 to Princeps Hübner, [1807]), TS: Papilio demodocus Esper
Nestorides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86, TS: Papilio gambrisius Cramer
Calaides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86, TS: Papilio androgeos Cramer
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Priamides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 87, TS: Priamides hipponous Hübner
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Iliades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 88, TS: Papilio memnon Linnaeus
Menelaides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 84, TS: Papilio polytes Linnaeus
Troilides Hübner, [1825]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. [111], TS: Troilides tros Hübner
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Clytia Swainson, 1833; Zool. Illustr. (2) 3 (26): pl. 120 (nec Lamouroux, 1812), TS: Papilio clytia Linnaeus
Thoas Swainson, 1833; Zool. Illustr. (2) 3 (26): pl. 121, TS: Papilio thoas Linnaeus
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Aernauta Berge, 1842; Schmetterlingsbuch: 19, 106-109, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 96]
Caudati Koch, 1860; (unavail.)
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Pyrrhosticta Butler, 1872; Cistula ent. 1 : 86, TS: Papilio laetitia Butler
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Druryia Aurivillius, 1881; Ent. Tidskr. 2 (1) : 44, TS: Papilio antimachus Drury
Chilasa Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 153, TS: Papilio dissimilis Linnaeus
Harimala Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 145, TS: Papilio crino Fabricius
Charus Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 149, TS: Papilio helenus Linnaeus
Sarbaria Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 258, TS: Papilio polyctor Boisduval
Cadugoides Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 260, TS: Papilio agestor Gray
Sainia Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 260, TS: Papilio protenor Cramer
Araminta Moore, 1886; J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21 (1) : 50, TS: Papilio demolion Cramer
Euploeopsis de Nicéville, [1887]; in Elwes & de Nicéville, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt. II (5) : 433, TS: Papilio telearchus Hewitson
Menamopsis de Nicéville, [1887]; in Elwes & de Nicéville, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt. II (5) : 433, TS: Papilio tavoyanus Butler
Pangeranopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, [1887]; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (4) : 374, TS: Papilio elephenor Doubleday
Panosmiopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, [1887]; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (4) : 374, TS: Papilio rhetenor Westwood
Isamiopsis Moore, 1888; Descr. Indian lep. Atkinson (3): 284, TS: Papilio telearchus Hewitson
Tamera Moore, 1888; Descr. Indian lep. Atkinson (3): 284, TS: Papilio castor Westwood
Achivus Kirby, 1896; in Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 1, Butts 2: 286, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 96]
Eques Kirby, 1896; in Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 1, Butts 2: 290 (nec Bloch, 1793), TS: Papilio nireus Linnaeus
Icarus Röber, 1898; Ent. Nachr. 24 (12) : 186 (nec Forbes, 1844), TS: Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson
Melindopsis Aurivillius, 1898; K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 31 (5) : 461, TS: Papilio rex Oberthür
Iterus Donitz, 1899; Berl. ent. Z. 44, SitzBer.: (22), TS: Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson
Sadengia Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 213, TS: Papilio nephelus Boisduval
Heterocreon Kirby, [1904]; in Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. (Wytsman's facsim.), Additional Notes: 101, TS: Papilio polytes Linnaeus
Mimbyasa Evans, 1912; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21 (3): 972, TS: Papilio janaka Moore
Agehana Matsumura, 1936; Insecta Matsumurana 10 (3): 86, TS: Papilio maraho Shiraki & Sonan
Eleppone Hancock, 1979
Motasiona Niculescu, 1979
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Sinoprinceps Hancock, 1983; Smithersia 2: 35, TS: Papilio xuthus Linnaeus
Papilio, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Priamedes ; Grote, 1899, Proc. amer. phil. Soc. 38 : 26 (missp. of Priamides Hübner, [1819])
Caliades ; dos Passos, 1964, (missp. [? of Calaides])
Harimala (Papilioninae) ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 145
Orpheides (Papilioninae) ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 146
Iliades (Papilioninae) ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 147
Menelaides (Papilioninae) ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 151
Chilasa (Papilioninae) ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 153
Papilio ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 233
Druryeia ; [EBW, (missp.)]
Chilasa (Papilionini) ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 85
Achillides (Papilionini) ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Papilio (Papilionini) ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Menelaides (Papilionini) ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9
Heraclides (Papilionini) ; [NL4A, 94]
Pterourus (Papilionini) ; [NL4A, 96]
Papilio (Papilionini) ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 85; [NL4A, 96]; [AfrL]


[sp-1.jpg] 800x657 (~158Kb) Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, August, 2002), Photo © Erich Mangl

The exact identification of this species is still unknown, but tentatively assumed to belong into this group.


Subgenus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 458, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
Amaryssus Dalman, 1816; K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 60, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
Aernauta Berge, 1842; Schmetterlingsbuch: 19, 106-109, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
Achivus Kirby, 1896; in Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 1, Butts 2: 286, TS: Papilio machaon Linnaeus
Papilio, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio (Papilionidi) ; [NL4A, 96]
Papilio (Papilio) ; [AfrL]

The machaon species-group

fiPapilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758
EU, NAF, Temperate Asia, NA. See [About maps] Ritariperhonen Makaonfjäril Riddarfjäril Schwalbenschwanz Swallowtail Common Yellow Swallowtail Old World Swallowtail Artemisia Swallowtail Le Grand Porte-queue Makaon Paź królowej
Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 462, TL: Sweden
?Papilio machaon ab. spuleri Fischer, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (17) : 129
?Papilio machaon ab. sphyroides Krulikovsky, 1909; Rev. russ. ent. 9 (1-2) : 109
?Papilio machaon ab. benesignata Krulikovsky, 1909; Rev. russ. ent. 9 (1-2) : 110
?Papilio machaon ab. intacta Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 16, TL: Torgau
?Papilio machaon mutingi Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (3): 74
?Papilio machaon taigensis Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (4): 101
?Papilio machaon ruettimanni Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (4): 105
?Papilio machaon guttmanni Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (4): 112
?Papilio machaon dodi Seyer, 1977; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 27: 11
Papilio machaon dodi, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio machaon dodi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio machaon, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio machaon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio machaon, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Papilio machaon, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Papilio machaon, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Papilio machaon, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Papilio machaon, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Papilio machaon, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Papilio machaon, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Papilio machaon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 272; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 553; [BIR, 395]; [BRU, 149]; [H&R, 35]; [BOR, 60]; [NACL, #4166]; [NAB, 333]; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 5]; [MRS, 159]; [BNA: 164, pl. 7]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #121]; [Otakar Kudrna]
Papilio (Papilio) machaon ; [AfrL]
[machaon-1u.jpg] 500x345 (~52Kb) upperside Hickling Broad, Norfolf, UK 15/08/95, Photo © Simon Coombes [machaon-1v.jpg] 500x377 (~38Kb) underside Hickling Broad, Norfolf, UK 15/08/95, Photo © Simon Coombes [machaon-2u.jpg] 600x429 (~75Kb) upperside Finland, Konnevesi, June 1995, Photo © Tero Piirainen
[machaon-3l.jpg] 358x480 (~21Kb) larva Northern Poland, Biebrza river, 20.8.1996, Photo © Marek Michalski [machaon-4l.jpg] 500x750 (~31Kb) larva Finland, Sotkamo, Kontinjoki 711:54, 21.7.1997, Photo © Tero Piirainen [machaon-5l.jpg] 1047x773 (~55Kb) larva Asamushi, Aomori, Japan, 8-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt
[machaon-6l.jpg] 596x400 (~47Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [machaon-6mf.jpg] 475x523 (~116Kb) male female (copulation) The steppe-meadow top of the hill Sopka Lysaya of the hill chain called Bugotakskie Sopki, Toguchin District, Novosibirsk Province, West Siberia, Russia. Flat and woody surroundings are seen. 12th June 1995, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [machaon-6p.jpg] 596x400 (~36Kb) pupa Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[machaon-6u.jpg] 596x400 (~42Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [machaon-7l.jpg] 750x507 (~40Kb) larva Sipoo 670:40, 12.07.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [machaon-8l.jpg] 750x504 (~38Kb) larva Sipoo 670:40, 12.07.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[machaon-9u.jpg] 750x495 (~71Kb) upperside Sipoo 670:40, ex.l. 17.6.1981, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [machaon-a1f.jpg] 900x1242 (~202Kb) female Russia, Udmurtia, Izhevsk (parklike areas along shore of "Izhevsky Prud"), 5.8.2004, Photo © Markku Savela [machaon-a2l.jpg] 1000x1406 (~159Kb) larva Russia, Tatarstan, Varkljed-Bodja (56°13'N 52°49'E), about 20km S of Agriz, 8.8.2004 (on Cichorium intybus), Photo © Markku Savela
[machaon-a3p.jpg] 800x600 (~154Kb) pupa Poland: Podkarpacie - Region, Zalesie Antoniowskie, 15.8.2005, Photo © Jaroslaw Bury [machaon-a4.jpg] 1200x987 (~128Kb) Japan: Lake Kawaguchiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, 22.08.2007, Photo © Peter Payzant [machaon-a5au.jpg] 840x615 (~123Kb) upperside Russia, Moscow area, 15.8.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov
[machaon-a5bl.jpg] 692x467 (~100Kb) larva Russia, Moscow area, 7.9.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov [machaon-a5lxc.jpg] 636x558 (~100Kb) larva cocoon Russia, Moscow area, 11.9.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov [machaon-a5xc.jpg] 602x560 (~101Kb) cocoon Russia, Moscow area, 11.9.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov
[machaon-a5xu.jpg] 1004x655 (~126Kb) upperside Russia, Moscow area, 11.5.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov [machaon-a5xv.jpg] 895x679 (~137Kb) underside Russia, Moscow area, 11.5.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Umbelliferae, Cicuta virosa, Carum carvi, Pimpinella saxifraga, Aegopodium podagraria, Anethum graveolens, Angelica silvestris, A. archangelica, Levisticum officinale, Peucedanum palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sphondylium, Daucus carota [SPRK], Daucus spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum spp. [MRS]


C.Europe Papilio machaon var. marginalis Robbe, 1891; C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 35 : cccxcv, TL: Belgium
Papilio machaon ab. nigrofasciata Rothke, 1895; Stettin Ent. Ztg 55 (7-9) : 303, TL: Crefeld
Papilio machaon ab. niger Heyne, [1895]; in Rühl, Die palaearktischen Grossschmetterlinge und ihre Naturgeschichte 1 (Tagfalter): 694
?Papilio machaon var. aurantiaca de Selys-Longchamps, 1857; Ann. Soc. Ent. Belge 1 : 4
Papilio machaon var. aurantiaca Speyer, 1858; Geogr. Verbr. Schmett. 1 : 278
Papilio machaon ab. marginalis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 274
Papilio machaon ab. nigrofasciatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 274
Papilio machaon ab. niger ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 274
Papilio machaon ab. gen. aest. aurantiacus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 274
P. m. asiaticus Ménétriés
Papilio machaon var. asiatica Ménétriés, 1855; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 70
= Papilio machaon sphyrus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 275
Papilio machaon asiaticus ; [MRS, 159]
P. m. hippocrates C. & R. Felder, 1864
Japan Papilio hippocrates C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 314, 362, TL: Japan
Papilio machaon var. micado Pagenstecher, 1875; Verh. Nat. Ver. Heidelberg: 98 [? or 48]
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 276
Papilio machaon hippocrates ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 276; [Oleg Kosterin]
[hippocrates-1.jpg] 806x618 (~77Kb) A grassy bank pond, Dragonfly Biotope Ponds, Hiraoka, Ikazaki-cho, Ehime-ken, Shikoku-Chiho, Japan. 7th August 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. m. bairdii Edwards, 1866
Nevada - Kansas, Arizona, Colorado Western Black Swallowtail
Papilio bairdii Edwards, 1866; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (4) : 200, TL: Fort Whipple, nr. Prescott, Arizona
Papilio asterius var. utahensis Strecker, 1878; Lep. Rhopal. Het. (14): 128, TL: Utah
= ; [NL4A, #121a]
Papilio hollandii Edwards, 1892; Can. Ent. 24 (3): 50, TL: Colorado
= ; [NL4A, #121a]
Papilio machaon bairdii, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio machaon bairdii, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio machaon bairdii ; [NL4A, #121a]
Papilio bairdii hollandii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio bairdii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; [NACL, #4164]; [NAB, 331]
Papilio bairdi ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 548; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 11 (text only)]
Papilio machaon bairdii ; [BNA, 168]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Artemisia dracunculus [BNA], Musineon tenuifolium Reiser, 1994, J. Lep. Soc. 48 (1): 68

P. m. aliaska Scudder, 1869
Chukot Peninsula, Alaska - N.British Columbia Papilio aliaska Scudder, 1869; Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 12 : 407
Papilio machaon joannisi Verity, [1907]; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: pl. 10, f. 16
Papilio machaon petersii Clark, 1932; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 81 (2934) : 8, pl. 6, f. 3
Papilio machaon aliaska, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio machaon aliaska ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 553; [NACL, #4166a]; [BNA, 167]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Artemisia norvegica ssp. arctica, Heracleum lanatum [BNA]

P. m. oregonius Edwards, 1876
S.British Columbia - Oregon, Idaho Oregon Swallowtail
Papilio hippocrates var. oregonia Edwards, 1876; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 5 : 208, TL: Columbia River, nr. The Dalles
?Papilio bairdii oregonia ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio bairdii oregonius ;
Papilio oregonius ; [NACL, #4165]; [NAB, 332]; [BOC, 117]
Papilio machaon oregonius ; [BNA, 167]; [Bernard Rond]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Papilio machaon; Hagen, 1882

Larva on Artemisia dracunculus [BNA]

P. m. ladakensis Moore, 1884
E.Pamirs Papilio ladakensis Moore, 1884; J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 53 Pt.II (1) : 46, TL: Tarhsam, Ladak
= Papilio machaon asiaticus ; [MRS]
Papilio machaon sphyrus ab. ladakensis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 275
P. m. sikkimensis Moore, 1884
Tibet Papilio sikkimensis Moore, 1884; J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 53 Pt.II (1) : 47 (?preocc. Papilio sikkimensis Wood-Mason, 1882):Sollo,
Papilio machaon sikkimensis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 276; Huang, 2001; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75 (note)
[sikkimensis-1fu.jpg] 1024x768 (~124Kb) upperside female China, Qinghai prov, W.Qinghai lake, Nan Shan mts, 3500m, 28.6.2005, Photo © A. Timchenko [sikkimensis-2o.jpg] 1000x910 (~120Kb) ova China, S.Tibet, Nyalam town (4200m, on Heracleum sp.), 6.7.2010, Photo © A. Timchenko

P. m. centralis Staudinger, 1886
Turan, W.Tian-Shan, Ghissar, Darvaz, Alai, W.Pamirs Papilio machaon var. centralis Staudinger, 1886; Stett. Ent. Ztg. 47 (4-6): 193
P. m. brucei Edwards, 1893
Alberta, Saskatchewan - Nebraska, Utah Papilio brucei Edwards, 1893; Can. Ent. 25 (10) : 254 (nom. nud.?)
Papilio brucei Edwards, 1895; , TL: Colorado
= Papilio machaon bairdii ; [NL4A, #121a]
Papilio machaon[?] dodi McDunnough, 1939; Can. ent. 71: ? (216-217), TL: Red Deer River, Gleichen, MT
= ; [BNA, 167]
Papilio baidii brucei ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio bairdii dodi ;
Papilio oregonius dodi ; [NACL, #4165a]; [BOC, 117]
Papilio machaon brucei ; [BNA, 167]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Artemisia dracunculus, Petasites frigidus var. palmatus [BNA]

P. m. montanus Alphéraky, 1897
W.Sichuan, SW.Gansu, E.Qinghai, NW.Yunnan Papilio machaon var. montanus Alphéraky, 1897; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 9 : 85 (preocc. Papilio crino var. montanus C. & R. Felder, 1864), TL: Ta-tsien-lu
Papilio machaon var. montanus Alphéraky, 1897; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 9 : 229, TL: Ta-tsien-lu
Papilio machaon alpherakyi Bang-Haas, 1933; Ent. Z. 47: 90, TL: Gansu
Papilio machaon minschani Bang-Haas; (nom. nud.)
Papilio machaon chinensomandschuriensis Eller, 1939; (nom. nud.)
Papilio machaon hieromax Hemming, 1934; (repl. Papilio machaon montanus Alphéraky, 1897)
Papilio machaon montanus ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75 (note)
P. m. kamtschadalus Alphéraky, 1897
Kamchatka
P. m. mauretanica Verity, 1905
N.Africa Papilio machaon mauretanica Verity, 1905; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 12, pl. 2, f. 5, TL: Algeria
Papilio machaon var. mauretanica Blachier, 1908; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 209, TL: Morocco
Papilio machaon var. mauretanica Holl, 1910; Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Afr. N., 1: 92, TL: Morocco
Papilio machaon var. asiatica ab. caerulescens Holl, 1910; Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Afr. N., 1: 139, f. 5, TL: Harrach, Algeria
Papilio machaon var. asiatica ab. djezïrensis Holl, 1910; Bull. Soc. Hist. nat. Afr. N., 1: 140, TL: Algeria
Papilio sphyrus Hübner, [1823]; Samml. eur. Schmett. [1] : pl. 155, f. 775-776
Papilio machaon machaon maxima Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1 (suppl.): 296, pl. 52, f. 2, TL: Tangier, Morocco
Papilio machaon maxima gen.aest. angulata Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1 (suppl.): 296, pl. 60, f. 14, TL: Tangier, Morocco
Papilio machaon f. chrysostoma Chnéour, 1934; Ent. Z. Frankf. a. M. 48: 41, f. 1, TL: Tunisia
Papilio machaon sphyrus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 275
Papilio machaon mauretanica ; [BMAT, 3, pl. 1, f. 1-2]
[mauretanica-1l.jpg] 600x435 (~47Kb) larva Morocco, Tiznit, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier [mauretanica-2l.jpg] 435x600 (~37Kb) larva Morocco, Siroua, Anti-Atlas , Photo © Michel Tarrier [mauretanica-3u.jpg] 600x435 (~39Kb) upperside Morocco, Tiznit, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre
[mauretanica-4v.jpg] 600x435 (~41Kb) underside Morocco, Tiznit, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier [mauretanica-5mf.jpg] 600x435 (~42Kb) male female Morocco, Tiznit, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier

Larva on Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Bupleurum fruticescens, Daucus carota, Seseli varium, Ruta graveolens, Ruta chalepensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Ferula communis, Dictamnus sp., Artemisia sp. [BMAT]


P. m. verityi Fruhstorfer, 1907
N.Burma, Shan States, S.Yunnan Papilio machaon verityi Fruhstorfer, 1907; Ent. Zs. 20 (41) : 301, TL: Mannao, Yunnan
Papilio machaon verityi, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio machaon verityi ; [MRS, 159]; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75 (note)

Larva on Umbelliferae [MRS]

P. m. archias Fruhstorfer, 1907
S.Sichuan Papilio machaon f. archias Fruhstorfer, 1907; Ent. Zs. 20 (41) : 301, TL: Sichuan, Fou-Lin
Papilio machaon archias ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 76 (note)
P. m. birmanicus Rothschild, 1908
S.Shan States Papilio machaon birmanicus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 168, TL: Shan States; Burma
Papilio machaon birmanicus ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 76 (ntoe)
P. m. ussuriensis Sheljuzhko, 1910
Amur (south), N/C.Ussuri
..., Nepal Papilio machaon emihippocrates ; Fujioka, 1970, Spec. Bull. Lepid. Soc. Japan (4) : 4
P. m. neochinensis Sheljuzhko, 1913
Papilio machaon m.v. neochinensis Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 15, TL: Ta-tsien-lu
Papilio machaon neochinensis ; [MRS, 159]
P. m. lapponica Verity, 1911
N.Europe Papilio machaon lapponica Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 295, pl. 60, f. 9, TL: Lappland
P. m. orientis Verity, 1911
Altai, Sayan, Transbaikalia, Amur (north), Far East Papilio machaon orientis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 297, pl. 60, f. 10-12, TL: Sajan
Kurile Islands Papilio machaon septentrionalis Verity, 1911; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 299, pl. 61, f. 10-11
Papilio machaon chishimana Matsumura, 1928; Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 192, TL: Kuriles
P. m. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911
Sakhalin Papilio machaon sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911; J. Coll. Agr. Tohoku Imp. Univ. Sapporo 4 (1) : 4
P. m. oreinus Sheljuzhko, 1919
Tian-Shan Papilio machaon oreinus Sheljuzhko, 1919; Neue Beitr. syst. Insektenkunde 1: 124, TL: Naryn
P. m. gorganus Fruhstorfer, 1922
S.Europe, Urals, Caucasus Major Papilio machaon gorganus Fruhstorfer, 1922; Ent. Rundschau 39 (4): 13
P. m. hudsonianus Clark, 1932
Alberta - Quebec Papilio machaon hudsonianus Clark, 1932; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 81 (2934) : 6, pl. 3, f. 1-2
avinoffi F. & R. Chermock, 1937
Papilio machaon hudsonianus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio machaon hudsonianus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
?Papilio machaon hudsonianus f. comstocki ; [BNA, 167]
Papilio machaon hudsonianus ; [NACL, #4166b]; [BNA, 167]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Heracleum lanatum, Zizia aptera [BNA]

P. m. sylvina Hemming, 1933
Taiwan Papilio machaon sylvina Hemming, 1933; Entomologist 66: 279 (repl. sylvia Esaki, 1930)
Papilio machaon sylvia Esaki, 1930; Zephyrus 2: 201, TL: Formosa
Papilio machaon sylvinus ; [MRS, 159]

Larva on Angelica dahurica, A. hirsutiflora, Apium graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Daucus carota, Peucedanum formosanum [MRS]

P. m. syriacus Verity, 1908
Caucasus Minor, Armenia, Talysh Mts Papilio machaon syriaca[?] Verity, 1908; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 12
Papilio (Papilio) machaon syriacus ; [AfrL]
P. m. taliensis Eller, 1939
N.Yunnan Papilio machaon taliensis Eller, 1939; , TL: Dali
Papilio machaon taliensis ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75 (note)
W.Sichuan Papilio machaon kunkalaschani ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 76 (note)
P. m. suroia Tytler, 1939
Manipur, Assam, NE.India Papilio machaon suroia Tytler, 1939; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 41 (2): 239
Papilio machaon suroia ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 76 (note)
Kopet-Dagh Papilio machaon weidenhofferi Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (3): 72
P. m. schapiroi Seyer, 1976
S.Ussuri Papilio machaon schapiroi Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (4): 107
?P. m. pikei Sperling, 1987
pikei Sperling, 1987; , TL: Dunvegan, Alberta
Papilio machaon pikei, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio oregonius pikei ; [BOC, 117]
P. m. muetingi Seyer, 1976
S.Arabia Papilio machaon muetingi Seyer, 1976; Mitt. Ent. Ges. Basel 26 (3): 74
Papilio (Papilio) machaon muetingi ; [AfrL]
P. m. kiyonobu Morita, 1997
Tibet
P. m. chinensis Verity, 1905
Sichuan, ...? Papilio machaon chinensis Verity, 1905; Rhopalocera Palaearctica 1: 16, 109, 297, pl. 11, f. 2, TL: Sichuan, Venchuan
Papilio machaon venchuanus Moonen
?Papilio machaon schantungensis Eller, 1936; , TL: Tsingtau
Papilio machaon venchuanus ; [MRS, 159]
Papilio machaon chinensis ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 76 (note)
P. m. annae Gistel, 1857
machaon annae Gistel, 1857; Vacuna 2: 603
Papilio machaon annae ; [MRS, 159]
P. m. baijianensis Huang & Murayama, 1992
Xinjiang (Tianshan) Papilio machaon baijianensis Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 1, TL: Huocheng, Tianschan, 2300m
Papilio machaon baijianensis ; [MRS, 159]

Papilio saharae Oberthür, 1879
N.Africa, Arabia. See [About maps] Papilio machaon var. saharae Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 68, TL: Laghouat, Algeria
= Papilio machaon sphyrus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 275
Papilio machaon var. hospitonides Oberthür, 1888; Étud. d'Ent. 12 : 21 (larva), TL: Biskra, Algeria
= Papilio machaon sphyrus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 275
Papilio machaon saharae f. xanthosoma Turati, 1924; Atti Soc. ital. Sci. nat. 63 : 27, pl. 1, f. 1, TL: Bengazi, Libya
Papilio saharae, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Papilio (Papilio) saharae ; [AfrL]
[saharae-1l.jpg] 600x435 (~16Kb) larva Morocco, Tizi-n-Bachkoum, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier [saharae-2u.jpg] 600x435 (~41Kb) upperside Morocco, Tizi-n-Bachkoum, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier

Larva on Deverra scopularia, D. chloranthus, D. tortuosus, Seseli varium [BMAT]

Larva on (Saudi Arabia) Ferula sinaica, Pycnocycla glauca [BMAT]


Papilio saharae saharae ; [BMAT: 3, pl. 1, f. 3-5, 10]
P. s. rathjensi Warnecke, 1932
Yemen, SW.Saudi-Arabia Papilio saharae rathjensi Warnecke, 1932; Int. ent. Zs. 25 : 473, TL: Yemen
Papilio (Papilio) saharae rathjensi ; [AfrL]

Papilio hospiton Géné, 1839
Corsica, Sardinia. See [About maps] Corsican Swallowtail
Papilio hospiton Géné, 1839; Mem. Acad. Torin.: 43, pl. 2, f. 20-21, TL: Tortoli, Sardinia
Papilio hospiton ab. solaris Fischer, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (17) : 130
Papilio hospiton, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Papilio hospiton ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 277; [H&R, 35]; [Otakar Kudrna]

Larva on Umbelliferae, Foeniculum vulgare [H&R]


Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800
SEU, Asia Minor, S.Balkans, W.Asia, Iran, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. See [About maps] Southern Swallowtail Baluchi Yellow Swallowtail
Papilio alexanor Esper, 1800; Die Schmett., Suppl. Th 1 (8-9): 89, pl. 110, f. 1, TL: Nice, France
Papilio polidamas Prunner, 1798; Lepidopt. Pedemont. Suppl.: 69
Papilio alexanor, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Papilio alexanor, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Papilio alexanor, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Papilio polidamas ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 277
Papilio alexanor ; [BIR, 396]; [BRU, 150]; [H&R, 36]; [BOW: pl. 1, f. 4]; [Otakar Kudrna]

Larva on Umbelliferae, Trinia vulgaris, Seseli montanum, Ptychotis heterophylla [H&R], Falcaria vulgaris, Seseli libanotis, Torilis heterophylla, Ferula karategina, F. ugamica [BRU]

Papilio alexanor alexanor ; Sala & Bollino, 1991, Atalanta 22 (2/4): pl. XVII, f. 3a
P. a. orientalis Romanoff, 1884
Armenia Papilio alexanor var. orientalis Romanoff, 1884; in Romanoff, Mém. Lépid. 1 : 41, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: SE.Caucasus
Papilio polidamas orientalis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 277
P. a. judaeus Staudinger, 1894
Asia Minor, Palestine, Transcaucasia Papilio alexanor var. judaeus Staudinger, 1894; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 6 (2) : 369 (repl. Papilio alexanor var. maccabaeus Staudinger, 1891), TL: Jerusalem
Papilio alexanor var. maccabaeus Staudinger, [1892]; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 4 (2) : 224 (preocc.), TL: Jerusalem
Papilio polidamas orientalis ab. maccabaeus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 278
P. a. hazarajatica Wyatt, 1961
Kopet-Dagh, S.Ghissar Papilio alexanor hazarajatica Wyatt, 1961; J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 2, TL: Joshanak Valley, S. of Band-iAmir, W. Koh-i-Baba Mts., 9500ft
P. a. destelensis Nel & Chauliac, 1983
Papilio alexanor destelensis Nel & Chauliac, 1983; Alexanor 13: (16-20)
Papilio alexanor destelensis ; Sala & Bollino, 1991, Atalanta 22 (2/4): 75 (note), pl. XVII, f. 3c
P. a. voldemar Kreuzberg, 1989
W.Tian-Shan
P. a. radighierii Sala & Bollino, 1991
Papilio alexanor radighierii Sala & Bollino, 1991; Atalanta 22 (2/4): 75, pl. XVII, f. 1-2, 3b, 4, TL: Piemonte, Valdieri

Larva on Trinia glauca Sala & Bollino, 1991, Atalanta 22 (2/4): 77


Papilio indra Reakirt, 1866
-. See [About maps] Indra Swallowtail Short-tailed Black Swallowtail Cliff Swallowtail
Papilio indra Reakirt, 1866; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 123, TL: Pike's Peak, Colorado
Papilio indra indra, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio indra ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 552; [NACL, #4168]; [NAB, 335]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 7]; [BNA: 175, pl. 7, 8]; [BOC, 120]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #120]
[indra-1.jpg] 700x597 (~57Kb) USA: Bridge Creek Trailhead, North Cascades Highway, (48°30'30N 120°43'00W), Chelan Co., WA, 28.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [indra-2.jpg] 700x739 (~92Kb) USA: Bridge Creek Trailhead, North Cascades Highway, (48°30'30N 120°43'00W), Chelan Co., WA, 28.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Cymopterus purpurea, C. panamintensis var. acutifolius, Aletes acaulis, Harbouria trachypleura, Lomatium lucidum, L. parryi, L. nuttallii, L. eastwoodi, L. marginatum, L. scabrum, L. latilobum, L. junceum, L. grayi, L. triternatum, L. dissectum var. multifidum, Pteryxia hendersonii, P. petraea, P. terebinthina var. californica, Tauschia parishii, T. arguta, less Thamnosma montana [BNA], Musineon tenuifolium Reiser, 1994, J. Lep. Soc. 48 (1): 68


NW.USA Papilio indra indra ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 553; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. i. minori Cross, 1937
Colorado indra minori Cross, 1937; Proc. Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 16 (1): 4, TL: Colorado
Papilio indra minori, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra minori ; [NACL, #4168a]; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. i. pergamus H. Edwards, 1874
W.California Papilio pergamus H. Edwards, 1874; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 5 (27) : 423, TL: California
Papilio indra pergamus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio indra pergamus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra pergamus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 553; [NACL, #4168b]; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]; [NL4A, #120a]
P. i. kaibabensis Bauer, 1955
Arizona Papilio indra kaibabensis Bauer, 1955; Lepid. News 9 (2-3): 49, TL: Arizona
Papilio indra kaibabensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra kaibabensis ; [NACL, #4168c]; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. i. fordi Comstock & Martin, 1956
E.California Papilio indra fordi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra fordi ; [NACL, #4168d]; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. i. martini Emmel & Emmel, 1966
California indra martini Emmel & Emmel, 1966; Ent. News 77 : 57
Papilio indra martini, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra martini ; [NACL, #4168e]
P. i. nevadensis Emmel & Emmel, 1971
Nevada indra nevadensis Emmel & Emmel, 1971; Pan-Pac. Entom. 47: 220
Papilio indra nevadensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio indra nevadensis ; [NACL, #4168f]
California indra panamintensis Emmel, 1982; J. Lep. Soc. 35 (4): (297-302)
P. i. phyllisae Emmel, 1982
indra phyllisae Emmel, 1982; J. Lep. Soc. 35 (4): (297-302)
Papilio indra phyllisae, Butterflies of America [BOA]
P. i. shastensis Emmel & Emmel, 1998
California (Napa Co.) - S.Oregon Papilio indra shastensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
P. i. calcicola Emmel & Griffin, 1998
California Papilio indra calcicola Emmel & Griffin, 1998; , TL: California
Papilio indra calcicola, Butterflies of America [BOA]
P. i. pygmaeus Emmel, Emmel & Griffin,1998
California Papilio indra pygmaeus Emmel, Emmel & Griffin,1998; , TL: Dead Mountains in San Bernardino, California
P. i. bonnevillensis Whaley, ?2000
Utah Papilio indra bonnevillensis Whaley, ?2000; , TL: Utah

Papilio brevicauda Saunders, 1869
S.Labrador, Newfoundland. See [About maps] Short-tailed Swallowtail
Papilio brevicauda Saunders, 1869; Packard's Guide Ins.: 245
Papilio anticostiensis Strecker, 1873; Lep. Rhopal. Het. (2): 10, pl. 2, f. 2
Papilio medicandus Bryk, 1930
Papilio brevicauda brevicauda, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio brevicauda, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio polyxenes brevicauda ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 548
Papilio brevicauda ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; [NACL, #4162]; [NAB, 330]; [BNA: 174, pl. 7]; [Opler]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Papilio asterius; Gosse, 1840, Canad. Natur.: 184

Larva on Ligusticum scothicum, Coelopleurum lucidum, Heracleum lanatum, Angelica atropurpurea, Pastinaca sativa, Conioselinum chinense, Daucus carota var. sativus, Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens, Dictamnus albus? [BNA]

Newfoundland Papilio brevicauda brevicauda ; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. b. gaspeensis McDunnough, 1934
Labrador, Quebec brevicauda gaspeensis McDunnough, 1934; Can. ent. 66: 84
Papilio brevicauda gaspeensis ; [NACL, #4162a]; [BNA, 175]; [Bernard Rond]
P. b. bretonensis McDunnough, 1939
Papilio brevicauda bretonensis McDunnough, 1939; Can. ent. 71: ? (153-158), TL: ?Cape Breton I.
Papilio brevicauda bretonensis ; [NACL, #4162b]

Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775
-. See [About maps] Black Swallowtail Eastern Black Swallowtail American Swallowtail
Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 444, TL: America
asterioides Eimer, 1895, not Reakirt, 1866
Papilio polyxenes, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio polyxenes, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Papilio polyxenes ; Godman & Salvin, [1893], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 242; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 730; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 540; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4; [NACL, #4150]; [NAB, 327]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 11]; [BNA: 171, pl. 6-8]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #122]
[polyxenes-1.jpg] 700x534 (~118Kb) USA: Mesa Verde National Park, SW Colorado, 14.8.2005, Photo © Markku Savela [polyxenes-2mu.jpg] 1200x830 (~122Kb) upperside male USA: Alabama, Jeff., Co., 29.9.1999, Photo © Vitaly Charny [polyxenes-2mv.jpg] 1000x875 (~94Kb) underside male USA: Alabama, Jeff., Co., 29.9.1999, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[polyxenes-3fu.jpg] 1400x1050 (~238Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 8.4.2004, Photo © Vitaly Charny [polyxenes-4fv.jpg] 900x971 (~120Kb) underside female USA: Alabama, 14.8.2004, Photo © Vitaly Charny [polyxenes-5la.jpg] 1500x996 (~170Kb) larva USA: Alabama, 11.9.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[polyxenes-5lb.jpg] 1400x930 (~431Kb) larva USA: Alabama, 11.9.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny [polyxenes-6.jpg] 1000x1258 (~118Kb) USA: Alabama, 20.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Daucus carota, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Ruta graveolens, Thamnosma texana [NAB]

Larva on Apium leptophyllum, Foeniculum vulgare [BCR]


Cuba Papilio philoxenes ; Holland, 1927, (missp.)
Papilio polyxenes polyxenes ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 547; [NL4A, #122a]; [Bernard Rond]
P. p. asterius Stoll, 1782
E.USA, S.USA, Mexico - Nicaragua Papilio asterius Stoll, [1782]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (32-32): pl. 385, f. C, D
Papilio ajax Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 462 (part, rej. name ICZN Op. 286)
troilus Drury, 1773, not Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio asterius var. ampliata Ménétriés, 1857; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 99, TL: N.Amer.
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio calverleyi Grote, 1864; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 2 : 441, TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterioides Reakirt, [1867]; Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 18 (4): 331, TL: Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterias[sic] var. viridis Cockerell, 1889
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterias[sic] var. alunata Skinner & Aaron, 1889; Can. Ent. 21 : 127, TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio mediocauda Eimer, 1895; , TL: "Canada?"
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterias[sic] var. semi-alba Ehrmann, 1900; Can. Ent. 32 (11) : 348, TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio polyxenes var. curvifascia Skinner, 1902; Ent. News 13 (6) : 183, TL: New Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterias[sic] ab. ehrmanni Ehrmann, 1925; Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 20: 84, TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio asterius ab. gertrudis Kruck, 1931; Ent. Rndsch. 48: 236, TL: Mexico, Oaxaca
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio polyxenes ab. forsythae Wood, 1937; Ent. News 48 (10) : 273, TL: Florida
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio gracehus Fabricius, 1938; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio ajax f. pseudoamericus Brown, [1943]; , TL: Illinois
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
f. subamplicata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 106, TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #122c]
Papilio joanae Heitzman, 1973; J. Res. Lepid. 12 (1): (1-10)
Papilio polyxenes asterius, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio polyxenes asterius, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio joanae, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio polyxenes asterius, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]

asterias ; Fabricius, 1787, (missp.)
alunatus ;
Papilio mediocanda[sic, recte mediocauda] ; Eimer, 1895, (incorr. orig. spell.)
Papilio polyxenes amplicata[sic, recte ampliata] ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4
Papilio joanae ; [NACL, #4160]; [Opler]
Papilio polyxenes calverleyii ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4
Papilio polyxenes alunata ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4
Papilio polyxenes semialba ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4
Papilio polyxenes curvifascia ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 4
Papilio polyxenes asterius ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 543; [NACL, #4150a]; [NL4A, #122c]; [Bernard Rond]
Misidentified/misapplied:
astyanax; Scudder, 1898
stabilis; dos Passos, 1964

Larva on Angelia ampla, A. atropurpurea, A. venenosa, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Conium maculatum, Daucus pusillus, D. carota, Daucus carota var. sativus, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Harbouria trachypleura, Heracleum lanatum, Levisticum officinale, Ligusticum scothicum, Berula erecta, Osmorhiza longistylis, Oxypolis canbyi, Pastinaca sativa, Petroselinum crispum, Ptilimnium capillaceum, Carum carvi, Cicuta maculata, C. bulbifera, Cicuta douglasii, Sium suave, Spermolepis divaricata, Taenidia integerrima, Thaspium barbinode, Thamnosma texana, Ruta graveolens, Dictamnus albus [BNA], Musineon tenuifolium Reiser, 1994, J. Lep. Soc. 48 (1): 68, Oxypolis rigidior Williams, 2003, J. Lep. Soc. 57 (2): 149-150

Larva on (for _joanae_) Taenidia integerrima, Thaspium barbinode, Zizia aurea [BNA]

P. p. kahli Chermock, 1937
S.Saskatchewan, S.Manitoba Papilio kahli Chermock & Chermock, 1937; Bull. S.Calif. Acad. Sci. 36: 12
Papilio kahli ; [NACL, #4161]
Papilio polyxenes kahli ; [BNA, 172]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Daucus carota, Pastinaca sativa, Petroselinum crispum, Zizia aurea, Z. aptera [BNA]

P. p. coloro Wright, 1906
SE.California, W.Arizona Desert Swallowtail
Papilio coloro Wright, 1906; Butts. West Coast (2nd edn.) : 86, pl. 3, f. 25, TL: California
Papilio bairdii f. rudkini Comstock, 1935; , TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #122d]
Papilio rudkini f. clarki Chermock & Chermock, 1937; Bull. S.Calif. Acad. Sci. 36: 8, TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #122d]
Papilio rudkini f. comstocki Chermock & Chermock, 1937; Bull. S.Calif. Acad. Sci. 36: 10, TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #122d]
Papilio polyxenes coloro, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio polyxenes coloro, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio polyxenes coloro, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio rudkini ; [NACL, #4161]; [NAB, 329]
Papilio polyxenes coloro ; [BNA, 172]; [Bernard Rond]; [NL4A, #122d]

Larva on Daucus carota, Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselinum crispum, Cymopterus panamintensis var. acutifolius, Tauschia parishii, T. arguta, Thamnosma monana, Ruta graveolens [BNA]

P. p. stabilis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Costa Rica - Panama Papilio polyxenes stabilis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 543, TL: Costa Rica
Papilio asterius ab. streckeri Holland, 1927; , TL: Costa Rica
= ; [NL4A, #122g]
Papilio polyxenes stabilis ; [BCR: 71, pl. 4, f. 7]; [Bernard Rond]; [NL4A, #122g]

Larva on Apium leptophyllum, Foeniculum vulgare [BCR]

P. p. americus Kollar, [1849]
Colombia - Peru Papilio americus Kollar, [1849]; Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 1 : 354, TL: Colombia
Papilio polyxenes americus f. melasina Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 542, TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #122b]
Papilio americus ; Godman & Salvin, [1893], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 243, 3: pl. 72, f. 8; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3 (missid.?)
Papilio polyxenes americus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 541; [Bernard Rond]; [NL4A, #122b]
P. p. gerardi Bollino & Vitale, 2002
Peru Papilio polyxenes gerardi Bollino & Vitale, 2002; Lambillionea 102 (2): 152, f. 1-2, TL: Peru, Cajamarca, road Celendín pass, ~(6°51'S 78°05'W), 1800-2500m
Papilio polyxenes gerardi ; [NL4A, #122e]
P. p. sadalus Lucas, 1852
Ecuador Papilio sadalus Lucas, 1852; Revue Mag. Zool. (2) 4 (3): 133, 4 (9): pl. 10, f. 4, TL: Ecuador, Quito
Papilio sardalus Becker, 1851; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr.: 33 (nom. nud.), TL: Ecuador
= ; [NL4A, #122f]
Papilio polyxenes sadalus ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #122f]

Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852
Pacific Coast, British Columbia - Baja California. See [About maps] Anise Swallowtail Western Swallowtail
Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852; Revue Mag. Zool. (2) 4 (3): 136, TL: San Francisco, California
Papilio zolicaon[sic] ab. impunctata Fischer, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (17) : 129
= ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio zolicaon[sic] ab. melanotaenia Fischer, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (17) : 129
= ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio zolicaon[sic] ab. formosa Fischer, 1908; Soc. Ent. 23 (17) : 129
= ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio zelicaon tr.f. mcdunnoughi Gunder, 1928; Can. Ent. 60 : 162, pl. A, f.1 , 1a
= ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio macdunnoughi dos Passos, 1964; (emend.)
Papilio zelicaon, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio zelicaon, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio zelicaon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio zelicaon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio zolicaon[sic, recte zelicaon] ; Boisduval, 1852, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 281
Papilio formosus ;
Papilio zelicayn[sic, recte zelicaon] ; Skinner, 1898
Papilio zolicaon[sic, recte zelicaon] ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio zelicaon ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 550; [NACL, #4167]; [NAB, 334]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 14]; [BNA: 170, pl. 7]; [Bernard Rond]; [BOC, 118]; [Opler]
Papilio polyxenes zelicaon ; [NL4A, #122h]
[zelicaon-1v.jpg] 1047x773 (~62Kb) underside Minto Island, Salem, Oregon, USA, 8-91, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [zelicaon-2.jpg] 800x593 (~93Kb) USA: Bridge Creek Trailhead, North Cascades Highway, (48°30'30N 120°43'00W), Chelan Co., WA, 28.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [zelicaon-3.jpg] 700x535 (~85Kb) USA: Bridge Creek Trailhead, North Cascades Highway, (48°30'30N 120°43'00W), Chelan Co., WA, 28.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Anthum graveolens, Angelica ampla, A. arguta, A. hendersonii, A. kingii, A. lineariloba, A. tomentosa, A. lucida, Apium graveolens, Cicuta maculata, Conioselinum scopulorum, Daucus carota, D. pusillus, Conium maculatum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Harbouria trachypleura, Heracleum lanatum, H. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium ssp. montanum, Ligusticum porteri, L. grayi, Lomatium nuttallii, L. californicum, L. dasycarpum, L. urticulatum, L. parryi, L. grayi, L. triternatum, L. marginatum, L. martindalei?, L. dissectum var. multifidum, Oenanthe sarmentosa, Zizia aptera, Pseudocymopterus montanus, Pimpinella, Petroselinum crispum, Pteryxia hendersoni, P. petraea, P. terebinthina var. californica, Pastinaca sativa, Perideridia bolanderi, P. gairdneri, P. kelloggii, Sphenosciadium capitellatum, Tauschia arguta, T. parishii, Citrus sinensis, C. limon, Ruta graveolens [BNA]


Papilio machaon var. californica Ménétriés, 1855; Cat. lep. Petersb. 1: (supplement) 69 [?? bad ref.], TL: California
= Papilio polyxenes zelicaon ; [NL4A, #122h]
P. z. nitra Edwards, 1883
Papilio nitra Edwards, 1883; Papilio 3 (7-10) : 158, 162, TL: Montana
= Papilio polyxenes zelicaon ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio gothica Remington, 1968; Postilla 119: 2, TL: Colorado
= Papilio polyxenes zelicaon ; [NL4A, #122h]
Papilio nitra ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 550
Papilio indra nitra ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio zelicaon nitra ; [NACL, #4167a]

Larva on Anthum graveolens, Angelica ampla, Harbouria trachypleura, Heracleum lanatum, Zizia aptera, Lomatium nuttallii [BNA], Musineon tenuifolium Reiser, 1994, J. Lep. Soc. 48 (1): 68


Subgenus ?

The xuthus species-group
sinoprinceps Hancock, 1983

Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767
E.China - Taiwan, Korea, Ussuri, Amur, Japan, Hawaii. See [About maps] Asian Swallowtail
Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767; Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): 751 corrigenda, TL: Kanton, China
Papilio xanthus Linnaeus, 1767; Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): 751 (missp. in some editions?)
Papilio xuthulus Bremer, 1861; Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb. 3 : 463
?Papilio xanthus xuthulus f. hondoensis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 47, TL: Hondo,...
?Papilio xuthus ab. igneus Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 15, TL: Ogaki, Japan
Papilio xuthulinus Murray, 1874; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 166, TL: Yokohama
Sinoprinceps xuthus, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Papilio xuthus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio xuthus, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Sinoprinceps xuthus ;
Papilio xanthus ab. gen. vern. xuthulus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 279
Papilio xanthus ab. gen. aest. xanthus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 279
Papilio xanthus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 278
Papilio xuthus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (4): 503; [BOR, 60]; [MRS, 157]; [BNA: 164, pl. 63]; [Bernard Rond]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
[xuthus-1v.jpg] 1047x773 (~50Kb) underside Yonahadake, Okinawa, Ryukyus, Japan, 8-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [xuthus-2.jpg] 900x530 (~67Kb) Dragonfly Station, Gurye County, Jeonnam Province, S Korea, 28th July 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Phellodendron amurensis [BRU], Poncirus trifoliata, Zanthoxylum sp., Citrus sp., Euodia Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8


Yunnan, ...?
P. x. koxingus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Taiwan Papilio xanthus koxinga Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46, TL: Formosa
Papilio xuthus koxinga ab. umbriferus Murayama & Shimonoya, 1966; Tyô to Ga 15 (3/4) : 58, f. 5, TL: Kuraru, Formosa
Papilio xuthus koxingus ; [MRS, 157]

Larva on Poncirus trifoliata, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. nitidum, Citrus spp., Evodia ruaecarpa [MRS]

P. x. neoxuthus Fruhstorfer, 1908
Papilio xanthus neoxuthus Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46
Papilio xanthus neoxuthus f. xuthina Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 47
?Papilio xanthus neoxanthus ; Fruhstorfer, 1908, Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 47 (missp.?)
Papilio xuthus neoxuthus ; [MRS, 157]
P. x. benguetanus Joicey & Talbot, 1923²
Philippines (N.Luzon, ...) benguelana Joicey & Talbot, 1923; The Entomologist 56: 273 (spell.?)
?benguetana Joicey & Talbot, 1929
Papilio benguelana ; [BOR, 60]
?Papilio xuthus benguetanus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 43, f. 1-4

Subgenus Druryia Aurivillius, 1881
Druryia Aurivillius, 1881; Ent. Tidskr. 2 (1) : 44, TS: Papilio antimachus Drury
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Eques Kirby, 1896; in Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 1, Butts 2: 290 (preocc. Bloch, 1793), TS: Papilio nireus Linnaeus
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
= Druryia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Icarus Röber, 1898; Ent. Nachr. 24 (12) : 186 (preocc. Forbes, 1844), TS: Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
= Druryia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Melindopsis Aurivillius, 1898; K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 31 (5) : 461, TS: Papilio rex Oberthür
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
= Druryia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Iterus Donitz, 1899; Berl. ent. Z. 44, SitzBer.: (22) (repl. Icarus Röber, 1898), TS: Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
= Druryia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Druryia (Papilio) ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The antimachus species-group
antimachus ; [AfrL]

Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782
-. See [About maps] Giant African swallowtail
Papilio antimachus Drury, 1782; Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects 3: index & 1, : pl. 1, TL: Sierra Leone
Druryia antimachus ;
Druryeia antimachus ; [EBW]
Papilio antimachus ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 21]; [BAFR, 6]
Papilio (Princeps) antimachus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) antimachus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
[antimachus-1u.jpg] 800x573 (~110Kb) upperside C. Africa, Photo © D. Smirnov [antimachus-1v.jpg] 800x568 (~116Kb) underside C. Africa, Photo © D. Smirnov

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, S.Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C.A.R, W.Congo Republic, S.Sudan, N.Angola Drurya[sic] antimachus var. gigantea Watkins, 1899; Ent. mon. Mag. 35 : 109, TL: Gabon
= ; [AfrL]
Druryia antimachus ab. plagiata Stichel, 1903; Insekten-Börse 20 : 165, TL: Cameroon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. parvus Reuss, 1922; Archiv Naturg. 87 A (11) : 232, TL: Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. karschi Reuss, 1922; Archiv Naturg. 87 A (11) : 233, TL: Togo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. rothschildiana Reuss, 1922; Archiv Naturg. 87 A (11) : 234
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. staudingeri Reuss, 1922; Archiv Naturg. 87 A (11) : 234, TL: Gabon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. centrispila Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 372, TL: Cameroon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus f. melanescens Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 372, TL: Congo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 138, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. vreuricki Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 138, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. pupillata Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 138, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. obsoleta Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 138, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. lagai Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 139, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. virgularia Dufrane, 1929; Lambillionea 29 : 139, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus coffea Talbot, 1936; Entomologist 69: 112, TL: Ivory Coast
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antimachus congolanus ab. burgeoni Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) antimachus antimachus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) antimachus antimachus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. a. parva (Jackson, 1956)
E.Congo Republic, Uganda Papilo antimachus parva Jackson, 1956; J. E Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 23 : 72, TL: Uganda, Kigezi, Kanyonza
Papilio (Princeps) antimachus parva ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) antimachus parva ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The zalmoxis species-group
zalmoxis ; [AfrL]

Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, ?Togo, S.Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C.A.R, Angola, Congo Congo, S.Sudan, Uganda. See [About maps] Giant blue swallowtail
Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson, 1864; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio VI): [12], pl. [6], f. 18, TL: Nigeria, Calabar
Icarus zalmoxis f. sufferti Röber, 1898; Ent. Nachr. 24 (12) : 186
= ; [AfrL]
Icarus zalmoxis f. ripponi Röber, 1898; Ent. Nachr. 24 (12) : 186, TL: Calabara, Congo, ...
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zalmozis ab. cinereus Schultze, 1913; Archiv Naturgesch. 79 A (7) : 4, TL: Cameroon
= ; [AfrL]
Druryia zalmoxis ;
Iterus zalmoxis ; [EBW]
Papilio zalmoxis ; [BOW: pl. 91, f. 2]; [BAFR, 4]
Papilio (Princeps) zalmoxis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) zalmoxis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The rex species-group
rex ; Aurivillius, 1908, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 13 : 32; [Bernand Rond]

Papilio rex Oberthür, 1886
-. See [About maps] Regal Swallowtail
Papilio rex Oberthür, 1886; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 6 : 114, TL: Tanzania, Mhonda, dans l'Ouzigoua
Papilio rex ; Oberthür, 1888, Étud. d'Ent. 12 : 2, pl. 1, f. 2; [BOW: pl. 91, f. 1]; [BK, 109]
Papilio (Princeps) rex ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The Kenyan forms mimic Tirumala formosa. [BK]

Larva on Teclea tricocarpa, T. stuhlmanni, Calodendrum sp., Citrus sp., Clausena sp., Fagara sp., Toddalia sp. [AfrL]

Kenya (east of the Rift Valley), NE.Tanzania, C.Tanzania ?Papilio rex var. arnoldi Richelmann, 1909; Int. ent. Z. 3 : 102, TL: Hochländern zwischen Viktoria See und indischem Ozean
= ?; [AfrL]
Papilio rex rex ; [BAFR, 8]
Papilio (Princeps) rex rex ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex rex ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. mimeticus Rothschild, 1897
Congo Republic (Ituri, Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, NW.Tanzania, W.Kenya Papilio mimeticus Rothschild, 1897; Entomologist 30 : 165, TL: Uganda, Msarosaro
Papilio rex barnsi Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 373, TL: Congo Belge, Upper Lowa Valley, West of Masisi N.O. Kivu, 4500-5000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex mimeticus ; [BAFR, 8]
Papilio (Princeps) rex mimeticus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex mimeticus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. franciscae Carpenter, 1928
S.Sudan, SW.Ethiopia Papilio rex franciscae Carpenter, 1928; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 76 : 28, TL: Sudan, Didinga
Papilio (Princeps) rex franciscae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) franciscae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. commixta Aurivillius, 1908
Kenya (highlands west of the Rift Valley) Papilio rex commixta Aurivillius, 1908; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 13 : 12
Papilio rex alinderi Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 14, TL: Northern Victoria Nyanza
= ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio rex var. alinderi f. lindblomi Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 14, TL: Kenya, Mount Elgon
= Papilio rex alinderi ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex f. intermediata Bryk, 1930; in Strand, Lepid. Cat. 24 (39): 515, TL: Nyangori; Kisumu, Victoria Nyanza
= Papilio rex alinderi ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex alinderi f. holmi Bryk, 1953; Ent. Tidskr. 74: 48, TL: Ost-Seite Mount Elgon, Kaptega Estate, 2100m
= Papilio rex alinderi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) rex alinderi ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex commixtus ; [BAFR, 8 (text)]
Papilio (Druryia) rex commixtus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. schultzei Aurivillius, 1904
E.Nigeria, Cameroun (highlands) Papilio schultzei Aurivillius, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 : 363, TL: Hossere Uba, Nord Adamana
Papilio rex schultzei ; [BAFR, 8 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) rex schultzei ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex schultzei ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. abyssinicana Vane-Wright, 1995
SE.Ethiopia (highlands) Papilio (Princeps) rex abyssinicana Vane-Wright, 1995; in Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright, Carcasson's African Butterflies: 156, TL: S. W. Abyssinia, Ganji River, Nado's Prov., 5500ft
rex abyssinicus Poulton, 1925; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1925 : 42 (preocc. Papilio nireus var. abyssinica Cannaviello, 1900), TL: S. W. Abyssinia, Ganji River, Nado's Prov., 5500ft
Papilio rex abyssinicus ; [BAFR, 8]
Papilio (Princeps) rex abyssinicana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex abyssinicana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. r. regulana Vane-Wright, 1995
Kenya (highlands E of Rift Valley) Papilio (Princeps) rex regulana Vane-Wright, 1995; in Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright, Carcasson's African Butterflies: 156 (repl.), TL: Kijabé (Kikuyu Escarpment), 2100m
Papilio rex var. regulus Le Cerf, 1919; Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris 25 : 162 (preocc. Papilio regulus Stoll, 1790), TL: Kijabé (Kikuyu Escarpment), 2100m
Papilio rex ab. eisneri Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 14, TL: Br. Ost. Afr., Escarpment, 9000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex f. endymion Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 5, TL: [Nairobi], Nairobi and Kitale
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio rex regulus ; [BAFR, 8]
Papilio (Princeps) rex regulana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) rex regulana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The mackinnoni species-group
mackinnoni ; [Bernand Rond]

Papilio mackinnoni Sharpe, 1891
Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Uganda, E.Zaire, S.Sudan. See [About maps] MacKinnon's Swallowtail
Papilio mackinnoni Sharpe, 1891; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1891 : 187, pl. 16, f. 1, TL: Between Sotik and Kavirondo, Kikuyu
Druryia mackinnoni ;
Papilio mackinnoni ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 15]
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Rutaceae, Clausema, Toddalia, Citrus [BK], Teclea simplicifolia, T. nobilis, T. tricocarpa [AfrL]

S.Sudan, Congo Republic (Ituri, Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, NE.Tanzania Papilio mackinnoni immaculatus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 96, TL: Hinterlande von Usambara
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnoni bimaculatus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 96, TL: Hinterlande von Usambara
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnoni f.indiv. unimaculatus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 384, TL: Usambara hinterland
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnnoni[sic] var. elgonia Bryk, 1926; J. East Afr. Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc. (25) : 89, TL: Mt. Elgon, 8300ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnoni ab. ampliusmaculata Krüger, 1928; Int. ent. Zs. 22 : 255, TL: Mt. Elgon Gebiet
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnoni mackinnoni f. addenda Dufrane, 1953; Bull. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 89 : 43, TL: Kivu, rivière Muana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mackinnoni mackinnoni ; [BAFR, 18]; [BK, 111]
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni mackinnoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni mackinnoni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. benguellae Jordan, 1908
C.Angola (highlands) Papilio mackinnoni benguellae Jordan, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 253, TL: Cuval River, Benguella
Papilio mackinnoni benguellae ; [BAFR, 18 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni benguellae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni benguellae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. theodori Riley, 1921
S.Zaire (Shaba), NW.Zambia Papilio mackinnoni theodori Riley, 1921; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1921 (1-2) : 234, TL: N.W. Rhodesia, Solwezi
Papilio mackinnoni theodori ; [BAFR, 18 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni theodori ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni theodori ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. isokae (Hancock, 1984)
NE.Zambia, W.Tanzania, N.Malawi Princeps (Druryia) mackinnoni isokae Hancock, 1984; Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (12): 187, TL: Chowa Forest, Nyika Plateau, 2300m
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni isokae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni isokae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. mpwapwana Kielland, 1990
E.Tanzania Papilio mackinnoni mpwapwana Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 42, TL: Tanzania, Mpwapwa, Rubeho Mts, Mangalisa Mt, 2200m
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni mpwapwana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni mpwapwana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. reductofascia Kielland, 1990
N.Tanzania, S.Kenya Papilio mackinnoni reductofascia Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 41, TL: Arusha, Longido, 2600m
Papilio (Princeps) mackinnoni reductofascia ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mackinnoni reductofascia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The nireus species-group
nireus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio nireus Linnaeus, 1758
-. See [About maps] Narrowly green-banded swallowtail
Papilio nireus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 464
Papilio nireus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Druryia nireus ;
Papilio nireus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 17]
Papilio (Princeps) nireus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
[nireus-1m.jpg] 740x567 (~118Kb) male Ethiopia, Amhara, Lake Hayk. 7th August 2012, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Calodenderum capense, Citrus spp., Clausena anisata, C. spp., Fagara macrophylla, Oricia bachmannii, Teclea natalensis, Toddalia asiatica, Vepris lanceolata, Zanthoxylum capense, Z. delagoense [AfrL]


Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, S.Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Angola, C.A.R, Congo Republic, W.Uganda (-Bwamba), W.Tanzania, Zambia Papilio erinus Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 26
Papilio nireus f. nora Strand, 1915; Ent. Mitt. 4 (7/9): 194 (nom. nud.), TL: Kamerun, Bonaberi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus f. dimidiatus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 385, pl. 4, f. 37, TL: W. Africa, Aguapim
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireoides Braun, 1932; Ent. Zs. 46: 11, TL: Kamerun,Togo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. bedoci Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. punctata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. seeldrayersi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. pierardi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. falcata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Luebo Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ab. houzeaui Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 105, TL: Côte d'Ivoire, Man
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus f. tenuivittata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 105, TL: Côte d'Ivoire, route de Man à Danané, bac sur le Covally
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus var. xerophila Storace, 1952; Lambillionea 52: 15, TL: Kafakumba [Congo Republic]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus micronireus Storace, 1952; Lambillionea 52: 15, TL: Senegal; Guinea; Sierra Leone; Liberia; Ivory Coast
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus ?ab. lyaeoides Storace, 1952; Lambillionea 52: 19, TL: Cameroon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus f. cedeae Sala, 1992; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 75-76 : 35, TL: Central African Republic
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus nireus ; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Princeps) nireus nireus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus nireus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. lyaeus Doubleday, 1845
S.Sudan (Didinga Mountains), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (Caprivi), South Africa, Swaziland Narrow Green-Banded Swallowtail
Papilio lyaeus Doubleday, 1845; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1) 16 (104): 178, TL: Africa
Papilio lyaeus aelyus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 98, pl. 3, f. 1-2, TL: Deutsch-Ost-Africa, Walde zwischen Mori und Mangati [Tanzania]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mantitheus Ehrmann, 1920; Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 15 : 21, TL: Br. East Africa [Uganda]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus-lyaeus f. callistria Le Cerf, 1927; Encycl. ent. (B.3 Lep.) 2: 57, TL: Afrique orientale ex allemande [Tanzania]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus pseudonireoides Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 51, TL: Busog, strada fra Jinja e Jganga [Uganda]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus lyaeus ; [BK, 113]; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Princeps) nireus lyaeus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus lyaeus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausema inaequalis, Calodendron capense, Toddalia aculeata, T. lanceolata, T. natalensis, Citrus, Teclea swynnertoni, Fagara capensis [PBSA]

P. n. pseudonireus C. & R. Felder, 1865
N.Kenya, N.Uganda, S.Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea Papilio pseudo-nireus C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 94
Papilio donaldsoni Sharpe, 1896; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1896 : 537, TL: Darro Mts., Meo [Somalia]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus var. abyssinica Cannaviello, 1900; Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital. 32 : 292, TL: [Ethiopia] Adua
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus var. abyssinica Cannaviello, 1902; Misc. Ent. 10 (1) : 2, TL: Eritrea
Papilio nireus pseudonireus ab. pseudolyaeus Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 47, TL: [Ethiopia] Dorfu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus pseudonireus ab. anticemaculata Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 47, TL: [Ethiopia] Dorfu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus pseudonireus ab. minor Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 47, TL: [Ethiopia] Ascalena, presso Let Marefia, Scioa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus pseudonireus f. semivittata Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 47, TL: [Ethiopia] Dorfu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus pseudonireus ; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Princeps) nireus pseudonireus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus pseudonireus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. aristophontes Oberthür, 1897
Comoro Is. (Grand Comore) Papilio aristophontes Oberthür, 1897; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1897 : 188, TL: Grand Comore
Papilio (Princeps) aristophontes ; [AfrL]
Papilio aristophontes ; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus aristophontes ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. wilsoni Rothschild, 1926
Ethiopia Papilio wilsoni Rothschild, 1926; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 17 : 113, TL: Ethiopia, Nubar Hills, Taldi, 10° 39'N, 1625ft
Papilio (Princeps) wilsoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio nireus wilsoni ; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Druryia) nireus wilsoni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio charopus Westwood, 1843
-. See [About maps] Tailed green-banded swallowtail
Papilio charopus Westwood, 1843; Arcana entomologica, 1: 189, TL: "Gold Coast" [Error, = Cameroon]
Papilio charopus ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 24]
Papilio (Princeps) charopus ; [AfrL]
Druryia charopus ;
Papilio (Druryia) charopus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Island of Bioko) Papilio charopus charopus ; [BAFR, 20 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) charopus charopus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) charopus charopus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. c. montuosus Joicey & Talbot, 1927
Congo Republic (Ituri, Kivu), W.Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi Papilio charopus montuosus Joicey & Talbot, 1927; Encycl. Ent. (B III) 2 (1): 2, TL: [Congo Republic] N.W. Kivu, Upper Iowa Valley, near msisisi, 5000-6000ft, forest and long grass country
Papilio charopus juventus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 385, n. 42, pl. 4, f. 32, 35, TL: [Congo Republic] Semliki Valley
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio charopus montuosus ; [BAFR, 21]
Papilio charopus juventus ; [BAFR, 20 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) charopus montuosus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) charopus montuosus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio chrapkowskii Suffert, 1904
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania. See [About maps] Broad green-banded swallowtail Chrapkowski's green-banded swallowtail
Papilio chrapkowskii Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 98, pl. 2, f. 2, TL: Brit.-Ost.-Africa, Nairobi
Papilio bromius var. brontia Strand, 1911; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 25 (10/11): 120, TL: [Tanzania] Sigiund Amani
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius chrapkowskii ab. obliterata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 105, TL: [Kenya/Uganda] Afrique Orientale Britannique
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius chrapkowskii ab. addenda Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 76, TL: [Kenya] Forêt de Ngong
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius chrapkowskii ; [BK, 112]; [BAFR, 24]
Papilio (Princeps) chrapkowskii ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) chrapkowskii ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Teclea [AfrL, (Kielland, 1990)]


Papilio chrapkowskoides Storace, 1952
-. See [About maps] Broadly green-banded swallowtail
Papilio chrapkowskoides Storace, 1952; Lambillionea 52: 9, TL: Uganda
Papilio (Princeps) chrapkowskoides ; [AfrL]

Larva on Calodendrum capense, Teclea spp., Vepris spp., Citrus spp. [AfrL]

E.Congo Republic, SW.Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, W.Tanzania Papilio bromius chrapkowskoides ab. opposita Storace, 1952; Lambillionea 52: 11, TL: Uganda
= ; [AfrL]
interjacens Storace, 1961; Doriana 3 (115):2, TL: Rutschuru, Kivu orient; Altouelle, Faradje, Congo Republic di N.E., Uele-Itimbiri
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius interjacens ; [BAFR, 24 (text)]
Papilio bromius chrapkowskoides ; [BAFR, 24 (text)]
Papilio (Druryia) bromius chrapkowskoides ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio (Princeps) chrapkowskoides chrapkowskoides ; [AfrL]
P. c. nurettini Koçak, 1983
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, C.A.R, Congo Republic, W.Uganda Papilio nurettini Koçak, 1983; Priamus 2 : 165 (repl. Papilio bromius Doubleday, 1845), TL: Ghana
= Papilo bromius bromius ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio bromius Doubleday, 1845; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1) 16 (104): 176 (preocc. Papilio bromius Stoll, [1787]), TL: [Ghana] Ashanti
Papilio bromius ab. tessmanni Strand, 1913; Archiv Naturg. 79 A (2) : 23, TL: [Cameroon] Kamerun, Bassagebt b. Edea; Lolodorf Bipindi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius ab. incerta Strand, 1913; Archiv Naturg. 79 A (2) : 23, TL: [Equatorial Guinea] Span. Guinea, Makomo Ntumgebt
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius ab. impunctata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 105, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius chrapkowskii ab. ornata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 105, TL: [Ivory Coast] Côte d'Ivoire, route de Man à Danané, bac sur le Covally
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius ?f. macrops Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 55, TL: [Congo Republic] Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius f. latior Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 55, TL: [Congo] Congo Français, Etoumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius f. imitans Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 55, TL: Cameroon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius f. angustevittata Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 55, TL: [Congo] Etoumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius f. caerulea Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 56, TL: [Congo] Etoumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius var. tenuis Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 56, TL: [Ivory Coast] Côte d'Ivoire, Dimbroki; Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio bromius bromius var. septentrionicola Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 57, TL: [Ivory Coast] Côte d'Ivoire, Ashanti, septentrional
= ; [AfrL]
Druryia bromius ;
Papilio bromius ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 26]
Papilio (Druryia) bromius ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio bromius bromius ; [BAFR, 24]
Papilio (Druryia) bromius bromius ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio (Princeps) chrapkowskoides nurettini ; [AfrL]
P. c. nerminae Koçak, 1983
São Tomé and Principe Papilio bromius nerminae Koçak, 1983; Priamus 2 : 165 (repl. furvus), TL: Island of Sao Thomé, West Africa
Papilio bromius furvus Joicey & Talbot, 1926; Entomologist 59 : 220 (preocc. Papilio furvus Goeze, 1779), TL: Sao Thome
Papilio bromius furvus ; [BAFR, 24 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) nerminae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) bromius nerminae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio desmondi van Someren, 1939
-. See [About maps] Desmond's green-banded swallowtail
Papilio desmondi van Someren, 1939; J. E.Afr. Uganda nat. Hist. Soc. 14 : 132, TL: Kenya, Chyulu Range, 6800ft
Papilio desmondi ; [BK, 113]
Papilio (Princeps) desmondi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Vepris eugeniifolia, Teclea spp., Clausena sp., Zanthoxylum sp., Calodendrum sp., Citrus sp. [AfrL]

SE.Kenya (Chyulu Hills) Papilio desmondi desmondi ; [BAFR, 25]
Papilio (Princeps) desmondi desmondi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi desmondi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. magdae Gifford, 1961
N.Tanzania (Mt. Meru, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Ngorongoro Crater) Papilio magdae Gifford, 1961; Entomologist 94 : 287
Papilio brontes Godman, 1885; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1885 : 540 (preocc. Papilio brontes Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), TL: [Kenya/Tanzania] Kilimanjaro, in forest country at 5000 ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio brontes ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 26 (text)]
Papilio desmondi magdae ; [BAFR, 25 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) desmondi magdae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi magdae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. teita van Someren, 1960
SE.Kenya (Teita Hills) Papilio teita van Someren, 1960; Bol. Soc. Estud. Mocambique 29 (123) : 70, TL: [Kenya] Wandanyi-Mabida, Teita Range
Papilio desmondi teita ; [BAFR, 25 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) desmondi teita ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi teita ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. usambaraensis (Koçak, 1980)
Tanzania, N.Malawi, NE.Zambia Princeps desmondi usambaraensis Koçak, 1980; Nota lepid. 2 (4): 287 (repl. Papilio brontes australis van Someren, 1960), TL: [Tanzania] Tanganyika Territory, Usambara Range
Papilio brontes australis van Someren, 1960; Bol. Soc. Estud. Mocambique 29 (123) : 69, TL: [Tanzania] Tanganyika Territory, Usambara Range
Papilio desmondi australis ; [BAFR, 25 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) desmondi usambaraensis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) desmondi usambaraensis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio hornimani Distant, 1879
highland forests of (Kenya, Tanzania). See [About maps] Hornimans green-banded swallowtail Horniman's swallowtail
Papilio hornimani Distant, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 : 647, pl. 47, f. 1-3, TL: [Tanzania] Magila, East Africa
Papilio hornimani hornimani ; [BK, 112]
Papilio hornimani ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 11]; [BAFR, 21]
Papilio (Princeps) hornimani ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) hornimani ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Teclea [BK]

Kenya, Tanzania Papilio (Princeps) hornimani hornimani ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) hornimani hornimani ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. h. mwanihanae Kielland, 1987
Tanzania Papilio hornimani mwanihanae Kielland, 1987; Lambillionea 87 (9-10) : 122, TL: Tanzania, Kilombero, Sanje, 300m
Papilio (Princeps) hornimani mwanihanae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) hornimani mwanihanae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. h. mbulu Kielland, 1990
Tanzania Papilio hornimani mbulu Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 40, TL: Tanzania, Mbulu, Mamahisara, Hasama Forest, 2000m
Papilio (Princeps) hornimani mbulu ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) hornimani mbulu ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio interjectana Vane-Wright, 1995
Uganda, W.Kenya. See [About maps] Van Someren's green-banded swallowtail
Papilio (Princeps) interjectana Vane-Wright, 1995; in Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright, Carcasson's African Butterflies: 150, TL: Kenya, Kaimosi Forest
Papilio interjecta van Someren, 1960; Bol. Soc. Estud. Mocambique 29 (123) : 70 (preocc. Papilio leucothoe var. interjectus Honrath, 1892), TL: Kenya, Kaimosi Forest
Papilio interjecta ; [BK, 112]; [BAFR, 24]
Papilio (Princeps) interjectana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) interjectana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio sosia Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
-. See [About maps] Medium green-banded swallowtail
Papilio sosia Rothschild & Jordan, 1903; Novit. Zool. 10 (3) : 488, TL: Sierra Leone
Papilio (Princeps) sosia ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) sosia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Teclea sp.?, Toddalia sp.?, Zanthoxylum gillesi, Citrus sp.? [AfrL]

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, S.Nigeria, W.Cameroon Papilio sosia sosia ; [BAFR, 26]
Papilio (Princeps) sosia sosia ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) sosia sosia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. s. pulchra Berger, 1950
Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C.A.R, N.Angola, Congo Republic Papilio sosia pulchra Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 30, TL: Congo Republic, Stanleyville, Secteur de Basoka
Papilio sosia f. imitatrix Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 45, TL: [Congo] Etoumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio sosia ab. pristina Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 46, TL: [Congo] Etoumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio sosia ?ab. atlantica Birket-Smith, 1960; Bull. I.F.A.N. (A) 22 : 525, TL: French Cameroons, near the river Nyong just south of Makak station
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio sosia pulchra ; [BAFR, 26 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) sosia pulchra ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) sosia pulchra ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. s. debilis Storace, 1951
Uganda (forests up to 1200m), NW.Tanzania Papilio sosia debilis Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 47, TL: Bussa-Busoga, route Jinja-Iganga (Busoga), Kakindu, Butiaba (Lac Albert, Uganda), Forêt de Budongo, 1200m
Papilio sosia debilis ; [BAFR, 26 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) sosia debilis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) sosia debilis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio thuraui Karsch, 1900
-. See [About maps] Papilio thuraui Karsch, 1900; Ent. Nachr. 26 (8) : 126, TL: [Tanzania] Ostafrika, auf der Route von Ubena nach Langenburg
Papilio thuraui ; [BAFR, 23]
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Toddalia sp., T. asiatica [AfrL]

S.Tanzania, N.Malawi Papilio (Princeps) thuraui thuraui ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui thuraui ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. t. cyclopis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Malawi (Nyika Plateau), Zambia Papilio thuraui cyclopis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903; Novit. Zool. 10 (3) : 489, TL: [Malawi] Kasungu Mt., Nyika, Nyassaland, 7450ft
Papilio bromius cyclopis ; [BAFR, 24 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui cyclopis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui cyclopis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. t. occidua Storace, 1951
Congo Republic (Kasai), Malawi, NE.Zambia Papilio thuraui occidua Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 51, TL: Congo Belge, Kasai
Papilio brontes occidentale[sic] ; van Someren, 1960, Bol. Soc. Estud. Mocambique 29 (123) : 69 (missp.)
Papilio desmondi occidua ; [BAFR, 25 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui occidua ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui occidua ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. t. heathi (Hancock, 1984)
Malawi? Princeps (Druryia) thuraui occidua f. heathi Hancock, 1984; Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (12): 205, TL: [Malawi] Mlanje
Papilio thuraui heathi ; Hancock, 1993, 563
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui heathi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui heathi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. t. ngorongoro (Hancock, 1984)
N.Tanzania Princeps (Druryia) thuraui ngorongoro Hancock, 1984; Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (12): 204, TL: Tanzania, Ngorongoro Crater, 3° 15'S, 35° 30'E, NW of Lake Manyara
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui ngorongoro ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui ngorongoro ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. t. viphya (Hancock, 1984)
Malawi? Princeps (Druryia) thuraui f. viphya Hancock, 1984; Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (12): 206, TL: Malawi, Musamba, Viphya, 1570m
Papilio thuraui viphya ; Hancock, 1993, 557
Papilio (Princeps) thuraui viphya ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druruia) thuraui viphya ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio ufipa Carcasson, 1961
SW.Tanzania (Ufipa). See [About maps] Papilio bromius ufipa Carcasson, 1961; Occ. Pap. Coryndon meml Mus. (7): 3, TL: Mbisi forest, Sumbawanga, Ufipa, south-west Tangnayika
Papilio bromius ufipa Carcasson, 1960; J. E. Africa nat. Hist. Soc. (Suppl. 6): 16 (nom. nud.)
Papilio bromius ufipa ; [BAFR, 24 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ufipa ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) ufipa ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio microps Storace, 1951
Ethiopia, N.Somalia. See [About maps] Papilio aethiops microps Storace, 1951; Lambillionea 51: 52, TL: Shoa, Abyssinia centrale
Papilio aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1905; Novit. Zool. 12: 190 (preocc. Papilio aethiops Esper, 1777, Papilio aethiops Palisot de Beauvois, [1805]), TL: Wori to Gamitscha, Kaffa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio aethiops ab. elicola Strand, 1911; Ent. Rundsch. 28 : 140, TL: Abyssinien, Eli
Papilio aethieps f. oribazoides Carpenter, 1935; Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 83 : 331, TL: Abyssinia, Saki (Shaki) R., Mocha district, 7°26', 35°26', 5800ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio aethiops ab. ragazzii Storace, 1952; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 66 : 40, TL: Scioa, Scitalit, torrente Mantec
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio aethiopsis Hancock, 1983; Smithersia 2: 38 (repl. Papilio aethiops Rothschild & Jordan)
Papilio yildizae Koçak, 1983; Priamus 2 : 165 (repl. Papilio aetihops Rothschild & Jordan)
Papilio aethiops ; [BAFR, 23]
Papilio (Princeps) microps ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) microps ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio chitondensis Bivar de Sousa & Fernandes, 1966
Angola. See [About maps] Papilio nireus chitondensis Bivar de Sousa & Fernandes, 1966; Archivos do Museu Bocage (2) 1 : 163, TL: Roça Chitonde-Jungo-Novo Redondo
Papilio (Princeps) chitondensis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) chitondensis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The oribazus species-group
oribazus ; [AfrL]; [Berard Rond]

Papilio oribazus Boisduval, 1836
E.Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio oribazus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 223, TL: Madagascar
Druryia oribazus ;
Papilio oribazus ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 24 (text), pl. 90, f. 11 (text)]; [BAFR, 21]
Papilio (Princeps) oribazus ; [MadL]; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) oribazus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio epiphorbas Boisduval, 1833
-. See [About maps] Papilio epiphorbas Boisduval, 1833; Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (2) : 161, TL: Sainte-Marie and Madagascar
Druryia epiphorbas ;
Papilio epiphorbas ; [BAFR, 21]; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 8]
Papilio (Princeps) epiphorbas ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) epiphorbas ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Madagascar Papilio epiphorbas f.indiv. hova Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 386, TL: Tamatave
Papilio epiphorbas f.indiv. oriphorbas Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 386, TL: Tananarive
Papilio epiphorbas epiphorbas ; [AfrL]; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) epiphorbas epiphorbas ; [MadL]; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) epiphorbas epiphorbas ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. guyonnaudi Turlin & Guilbot, 1990
Comoro I. (Anjouan) Papilio epiphorbas guyonnaudi Turlin & Guilbot, 1990; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 94 (7-8) : 214, TL: Ajaho, 50, Ile d'Anjouan, Comores
Papilio (Princeps) epiphorbas guyonnaudi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) epiphorbas guyonnaudi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. praedicta Turlin & Guilbot, 1990
Comoro I. (Grand Comore) Papilio epiphorbas praedicta Turlin & Guilbot, 1990; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 94 (7-8) : 216, TL: Trou de Prophète, Mitsamiouli, Littoral nord de Grande Comore
Papilio (Princeps) epiphorbas praedicta ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) epiphorbas praedicta ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio phorbanta Linnaeus, 1771
Papilio phorbanta Linnaeus, 1771; Mantissa Plant. 2: 535, TL: [Reunion]
Papilio (Princeps) phorbanta ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) phorbanta ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Reunion Papilio disparilis Boisduval, 1833; Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (2) : 163, TL: Bourbon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorbanta phorbanta ; [BAFR, 21]
Papilio (Princeps) phorbanta phorbanta ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) phorbanta phorbanta ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. nana Oberthür, 1879
Seychelles Is. Papilio disparilis var. nana Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 54
Papilio phorbanta nana ; [BAFR, 21 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) phorbanta nana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) phorbanta nana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio manlius Fabricius, 1798
Mauritius Papilio manlius Fabricius, 1798; Ent. Syst. (Suppl.): 422, TL: Isle de France
Papilio manlius ; [BAFR, 22]
Papilio (Princeps) manlius ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) manlius ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The cynorta species-group
cynorta ; [AfrL]

Papilio cynorta Fabricius, 1793
Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, S.Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Angola, Congo Republic, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania. See [About maps] Mimetic swallowtail
Papilio cynorta Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 37
Papilio zeryntius Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 370, TL: Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio boisduvallianus Westwood, 1842; Arcana entomologica, 1: 151, TL: Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta norcyta Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 94, TL: Togo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio gallienus peculiaris Neave, 1904; Novit. Zool. 11 : 342, TL: [Uganda] Entebbe
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio triptolemus Ehrmann, 1918; Lepid. Forest Hills 2 : 21, TL: [Uganda] Bujaka
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta f. lavochrea Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 391, TL: Cameroon, Bitje, Ja River, 2,000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta f. ochrospila Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 392, TL: Congo Belge oriental, Forest between Epuru, E. side, and Ituri River
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta f. acraeamimus Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 15, TL: [Uganda] Mabira Forest
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta f. albofurculatus Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 15
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta ♀-f. parageoides Stoneham, 1944; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (48): [2], TL: Uganda Protectorate
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta cynorta f. agayana Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 20
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta cynorta f. bwambensis Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 20
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cynorta ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 25]
Druryia cynorta ;
Papilio cynorta cynorta ; [BAFR, 34]
Papilio (Princeps) cynorta ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) cynorta ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Female mimics Acraea epaea. [BK]

Larva on Clausena sp., Vepris sp., Calodendrum sp., Citrus sp., Fagara sp., Teclea sp. [AfrL]


Papilio arnoldiana Vane-Wright, 1995
SW.Ethiopia. See [About maps] Papilio arnoldiana Vane-Wright, 1995; in Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright, Carcasson's African Butterflies: 139 (repl. arnoldi Poulton, 1925)
Papilio cynorta arnoldi Poulton, 1925; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1925 : 49, pl. D, f. 8 (preocc. Papilio rex var. arnoldi Richelmann, 1909)
Papilio cynorta arnoldi ; [BAFR, 34 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) arnoldiana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) arnoldiana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio plagiatus Aurivillius, 1898
E.Nigeria, Cameroon, C.A.R, Congo Republic (Mongala, Uele, Ituri), S.Sudan, Uganda. See [About maps] Mountain mimetic swallowtail
Papilio plagiatus Aurivillius, 1898; Ent. Tidskr. 19 : 183, TL: Congogebiet, Sassa am oberen Ubangi
Papilio plagiatus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio plagiatus ; [BAFR, 36]; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 25 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) plagiatus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) plagiatus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio zenobia Fabricius, 1775
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, S.Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Congo, Congo Republic, W.Uganda. See [About maps] Zenobia swallowtail Volta swallowtail (for nobicea)
Papilio zenobia Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 503, TL: Sierra Leon
Papilio messalina Stoll, [1790]; Aanhangsel Werk, Uitl. Kapellen (2-5): 125, TL: "Land der Caffers" [error]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio odenatus Westwood, 1872; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 96, pl. 3, f. 3-4, TL: Old Calabar
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zenobia nobicea Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 94, TL: Togo
Papilio zenobia f. amygdaliferus Schultze, 1913; Ent. Rundsch. 30 (9) : 49, TL: [Equatorial Guinea] Sta Isabel, Basilé
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zenobia ab. infrapicta Strand, 1913; Archiv Naturg. 79 A (2) : 23, TL: [Equatorial Guinea] Span Guinea, Nkolentangen
= ; [AfrL]

Papilio (Princeps) nobicea ; [AfrL]
Papilio zenobia ab. nobicea ;
Papilio zenobia f. nobicea ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio zenobia ; [BAFR, 33]; [BOW: pl. 91, f. 3]
Druryia zenobia ;
Papilio (Princeps) zenobia ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) zenobia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Piper umbellatum, Piper sp. [AfrL]


Papilio cyproeofila Butler, 1868
-. See [About maps] Common white-banded swallowtail
Papilio cyproeofila Butler, 1868; Ent. mon. Mag. 5 : 60, TL: [Ghana] Ashantee
?Papilio zenobius Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 74 (?preocc. Papilio zenobia Fabricius)
Papilio cypraeofila[sic] ;
Papilio (Princeps) cyproeofila ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) cyproeofila ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Piper sp. [AfrL]

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, W.Nigeria Papilio cyproeofila cyproeofila ; [BAFR, 33]
Papilio (Princeps) cyproeofila cyproeofila ; [AfrL]

Papilio fernandus Fruhstorfer, 1903
-. See [About maps] Papilio cypraeafila[sic] fernandus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Stettin ent. Ztg 64 (2) : 360
Papilio cyproeofila fernandus f. fumigatus Canu, 1994; Lambillionea 94 (3) (I) : 317, TL: Equatorial Guinea - Bioko
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cyproeofila fernandus ; [BAFR, 33 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) fernandus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fernandus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. f. praecyola Suffert, 1904
E.Nigeria, Cameroon, C.A.R Papilio cypraeafila[sic] praecyola Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 94, TL: Camerun
Papilio (Princeps) cyproeofila praecyola ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fernandus praecyola ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio filaprae Suffert, 1904
-. See [About maps] Papilio cypraeafila[sic] filaprae Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 94, TL: Camerun, Barombi-Station
Papilio cyproeofila filaprae ; [BAFR, 33 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) filaprae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) filaprae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
SE.Cameroon, Congo, SW.Congo Republic, Angola Papilio cyraeofila[sic] f. lactifascia Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 390, TL: [Cameroon] Bitje, Ja River, 2000ft
Papilio filaprae filaprae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) filaprae filaprae ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) filaprae filaprae ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. f. musolanus (Hancock, 1988)
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), W.Cameroon Princeps filaprae musolanus Hancock, 1988; Papilio International 5 (1) : 302 (repl.?), TL: Fernando Po
Papilio cypraeofila[sic] f. insularis Schultze, 1913; Ent. Rundsch. 30 (9) : 49 (preocc. Papilio agetes insularis Staudinger, 1895), TL: Fernando Po
Papilio (Princeps) filaprae musolanus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) filaprae musolanus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio gallienus Distant, 1879
Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Congo, C.Congo Republic of Congo. See [About maps] Narrow-banded swallowtail
Papilio gallienus Distant, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 : 649, TL: [Nigeria] Isubu, Mongu-ma-lobah and Calabar district
Papilio gallienus gallienus ab. vreuricki Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: Congo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio gallienus gallienus ab. ochreata Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: sur les bords de la rivière Salonga, aux environs de Watzikengo, Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio gallienus ab. hulstaerti Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 46, TL: [Congo Republic] Flandria, Distr. Tshuapa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio gallienus ; [BAFR, 30]; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 9]
Papilio (Princeps) gallienus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) gallienus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio mechowi Dewitz, 1881
-. See [About maps] Papilio mechowi Dewitz, 1881; Berl. ent. Z. 25 : 286, TL: Westafrika, Quango
Druryia mechowi ;
Papilio (Princeps) mechowi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mechowi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Cameroon, Congo, C.A.R, S.Sudan (around Tambura), Uganda, Congo Republic, Angola Paplio mechowi mechowi ab. albomaculata Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 45, TL: Kapanga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mechowi mechowi ; [BAFR, 32]
Papilio (Princeps) mechowi mechowi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mechowi mechowi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. whitnalli Neave, 1904
C.Uganda, E.Uganda Papilio gallienus whitnalli Neave, 1904; Novit. Zool. 11 : 342, TL: Entebbe
Papilio mechowi whitnalli ; [BAFR, 32 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) mechowi whitnalli ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mechowi whitnalli ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio mechowianus Dewitz, 1885
N.Angola, Congo Republic, C.A.R, Sudan?. See [About maps] Papilio cypraeafila[sic] var. mechowianus Dewitz, 1885; Ent. Nachr. 11 (20) : 305, TL: Niam Niam Ländern
Papilio andoclides Grose-Smith, 1900; in Grose-Smith & Kirby, Rhop. Exot. [1] 3: (Papilio) 47, pl. 20, f. 1-2, TL: Upper Congo, Stanley Falls
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mechowianus ab. lagai Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: Congo Belge, sur les bords de la rivière Salonga, aux environs de Watzikengo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio mechowianus ; [BAFR, 34]; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 20]
Papilio (Princeps) mechowianus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) mechowianus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio andronicus Ward, 1871
Cameroon. See [About maps] Papilio andronicus Ward, 1871; Ent. mon. Mag. 8 : 121, TL: Cameroon
Papilio chionicus Karsch, 1893; Berl. ent. Z. 38 (4) : 370, TL: Barombi Station
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio andronicus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 20 (text)]; [BAFR, 33]
Papilio (Princeps) andronicus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) andronicus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio maesseni Berger, 1974
Ghana, Togo. See [About maps] Papilio (Druryia) maesseni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The echerioides species-group
echerioides ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio echerioides Trimen, 1868
-. See [About maps] White-Banded swallowtail
Papilio echerioides Trimen, 1868; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1868 (1) : 72, TL: Perie Bush, Sogana and Boolo forests near the river Tsomo, in Kaffraria; Tunjumbili, Tugela frontier of Natal
Papilio echerioides, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Druryia echerioides ;
Papilio echerioides ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 6, 7]; [BK, 115]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausena inaequalis, Toddalia lanceolata, Fagara capensis [PBSA], Toddalia asiatica, Zanthoxylum delagoense, Vepris lanceolata, Citrus sp. [AfrL]

South Africa, Swaziland Papilio echerioides echerioides ; [BAFR, 36]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides echerioides ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides echerioides ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. zoroastres Druce, 1878
Cameroun (highlands) Papilio zoroastres Druce, 1878; Ent. mon. Mag. 14 : 226, TL: [Cameroon] "Fernando Po" [error]
Papilio preussius Karsch, 1893; Berl. ent. Z. 38 (4) : 368, TL: Buea-Gebirge, 2100m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres ab. zoroastroides Strand, 1914; Arch. Naturgesch. 80 A (2) : 159, TL: Kamerun, Mussahe
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres ab. sapponis Strand, 1914; Arch. Naturgesch. 80 A (2) : 159, TL: Kamerun, Soppo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres barnsi Gabriel, 1945; Entomologist 78 : 152 (preocc. Papilio rex barnsi Le Cerf, 1924), TL: Fernando Po, 3-4000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio escherioides gabrieli Gauthier, 1984; Ent. Zs. 94 : 319, TL: Fernando Po, 3-4000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres gabrieli ; Canu, 1994, Lambillionea 94 (3) (I) : 316 (fem. descr.)
Papilio zoroastres ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 6 (text), f. 12 (text)]
Papilio zoroastres barnsi ; [BAFR, 38 (text)]
Papilio zoroastres zoroastres ; [BAFR, 38 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides zoroastres ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides zoroastres ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. homeyeri Plötz, 1880
Angola, Congo Republic (Lomami, Shaba, Lualaba, Tanganika), SW.Tanzania, N.Zambia Papilio homeyeri Plötz, 1880; Stettin ent. Ztg 41 (7-9): 306, TL: [Angola] Pungo-Adongo
Papilio neumanni Karsch, 1895; Ent. Nachr. 21 (15) : 226, TL: Geri (Ssubuso)
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio tanganikae Oberthür, 1897; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1897 : 190, TL: aux bords du lac Tanganikae
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres neumanni ab. zoroastrides Strand, 1916; Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 24, pl. 13, f. 14, TL: Deutsch Ost Afrika
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres neumanni ab. subtanganikae Strand, 1916; Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 24, pl. 13, f. 15, TL: Deutsch Ost Afrika
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres homeyeri ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 12 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides homeyeri ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides homeyeri ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. wertheri Karsch, 1898
E.Kenya, E.Tanzania, N.Tanzania Papilio echerioides var. wertheri Karsch, 1898; in Werther, Die mittleren Hochländer der nördlichen Deutsch-Ost-Afrika: 315, TL: Tanzania, Mangati
Papilio echerioides rideschi Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 93, TL: Modji an Fusse des Kilima-Ndjaro
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio echerioides rectofasciata Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 39, TL: Tanzania, Oldeani, 1900m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio echerioides wertheri ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides wertheri ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides wertheri ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. leucospilus Rothschild, 1902
Ethiopia (highlands SE of Rift Valley) Papilio echerioides leucospilus Rothschild, 1902; Novit. Zool. 9 : 598, TL: Ethiopia, Gara Mulata near Harar
Papilio echerioides leucospilus ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides leucospilus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides leucospilus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. oscari Rothschild, 1902
S.Ethiopia (highlands, W of Rift Valley) Papilio echerioides oscari Rothschild, 1902; Novit. Zool. 9 : 597, TL: Kaffa and Djima
Papilio echerioides oscari ; [BAFR, 36]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides oscari ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides oscari ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. joiceyi Gabriel, 1945
Sudan, Uganda, W.Kenya, W.Tanzania, Rwanda, Congo Republic(N.Kivu) Zoroaster Swallowtail
Papilio zoroastres joiceyi Gabriel, 1945; Entomologist 78 : 152, TL: S. Sudan, Opare Forest and Imatong Mts., 3-4000ft
Papilio zoroastres ♀-f. pallidochrea Stoneham, 1944; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (48): [2], TL: Western Kenya Colony, Mount Elgon
= Papilio escherioides joiceyi ; [AfrL]
Papilio zoroastres joiceyi ; [BAFR, 38]; [BK, 115]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides joiceyi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides joiceyi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Rutaceae [BK], Teclea sp. [AfrL, Kielland, 1990]

P. e. chirindanus van Son, 1956
Mozambique (Mt. Gorongosa), E.Zimbabwe Papilio echerioides chirindanus van Son, 1956; Ann. Transv. Mus. 22 (4) : 504, TL: S. Rhodesia, Mount Selinda
Papilio echerioides chirindanus ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides chirindanus ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides chirindanus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. nyiro Carcasson, 1962
NW.Kenya (Mt. Nyiru) Papilio echerioides nyiro Carcasson, 1962; J. E. Africa Nat. Hist. Soc. Coryndon Mus. 24 (105) : 62, TL: Northern Frontier District, Mt. Nyiro, 7000ft
Papilio echerioides nyiro ; [BAFR, 36]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides nyiro ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides nyiro ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. shirensis (Hancock, 1987)
Malawi Princeps echerioides shirensis Hancock, 1987; Papilio International 3 : 193, TL: Mlanje, 2000'
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides shirensis ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides shirensis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. nioka (Hancock, 1989)
Congo Republic (Ituri) Princeps echerioides nioka Hancock, 1989; Papilio International 5 (3) : 369, TL: Nioka, Ituri district
Papilio zoroastres joycei ?f. nioka Berger, 1974; Lambillionea 72-73 : 70, TL: Kibali-Ituri: Nioka
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides nioka ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides nioka ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. pseudowertheri Kielland, 1990
E.Tanzania, SE.Tanzania Papilio echerioides pseudowertheri Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 39, TL: Ulanga District, Muhulu Forest, 1500m
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides pseudowertheri ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides pseudowertheri ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. ambangulu Clifton & Collins, 1997
Tanzania Papilio echerioides ambangulu Clifton & Collins, 1997; in D'Abrera, Butts Afrotrop. Region (1): 44, TL: Tanzania, Ambagulu, West Usamabara
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides ambangulu ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides ambangulu ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. e. kiellandi Clifton & Collins, 1997
S.Kenya, N.Tanzania Papilio echerioides kiellandi Clifton & Collins, 1997; in D'Abrera, Butts Afrotrop. Region (1): 44, TL: Tanazania, Kingarama Forest Reserve, Loliondo
Papilio (Princeps) echerioides kiellandi ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) echerioides kiellandi ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio fuelleborni Karsch, 1900
-. See [About maps] Papilio fülleborni Karsch, 1900; Ent. Nachr. 26 (23) : 353, TL: zwischen Uhehe und Iringa; zwischen Idunda und Iringa in Uhehe
Papilio fuelleborni ; [BAFR, 36]
Papilio fulleborni[sic] ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 8 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) fuelleborni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausena sp. [AfrL, Kielland, 1990]

E.Tanzania, S.Tanzania, N.Malawi Papilio (Princeps) fuelleborni fuelleborni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni fuelleborni ; Smith, Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2008, J. Nat. Hist. 42 (19-20): 1357; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. f. rydoni Kielland, 1987
NE.Tanzania Papilio fülleborni rydoni Kielland, 1987; Lambillionea 87 (9-10) : 118, TL: Morogoro, Uluguru Mts, Bondwa Mt, 2100m
Papilio (Princeps) fuelleborni rydoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni rydoni ; Smith, Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2008, J. Nat. Hist. 42 (19-20): 1357; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio sjoestedti Aurivillius, 1908
-. See [About maps] Papilio sjöstedti Aurivillius, 1908; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 13 : 15, TL: German East Africa, Meruberg
Papilio sjostedti ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 8 (text)]
N.Tanzania Papilio sjostedti sjostedti ; [BAFR, 38]
Papilio (Princeps) fuelleborni sjoestedti ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni sjoestedti ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio (Druryia) sjoestedti sjoestedti ; Smith, Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2008, J. Nat. Hist. 42 (19-20): 1358
P. s. atavus Le Cerf, 1912
N.Tanzania Papilio sjöstedti var. atavus Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1912 : 336, TL: N.Tanzania (Mt. Kilimanjaro)
Papilio fuelleborni neocesa Kemal & Koçak, 2005; Centr. Ent. Stud. Misc. Pap. 91-92: 10 (nom. nov.)
= ; Smith, Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2008, J. Nat. Hist. 42 (19-20): 1359
Papilio sjostedti atavus ; [BAFR, 38]
Papilio (Princeps) fuelleborni neocesa ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) fuelleborni atavus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio (Druryia) schoestedti atavus ; Smith, Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2008, J. Nat. Hist. 42 (19-20): 1359
Papilio sjoestedti atavus ; Liseki & Vane-Wright, 2011, 2389

Papilio jacksoni Sharpe, 1891
-. See [About maps] Jackson's swallowtail
Papilio jacksoni Sharpe, 1891; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1891 : 188, pl. 17, f. 1-2, TL: [Kenya] Kikuyu
Druryia jacksoni ;
Papilio jacksoni ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 12]
Papilio jacksoni jacksoni ; [BK, 115]
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausena, Toddalia [BK], Clausena anisata [AfrL]

Female mimics Amauris echeria and relatives. [BK]

Kenya (highlands), E.Uganda Papilio jacksoni ♀-f. multimaculata Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 19
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio jacksoni jacksoni ; [BAFR, 36]
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni jacksoni ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni jacksoni ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. j. ruandana Le Cerf, 1924
Zaire (Kivu), E.Uganda (L. Mobutu Sese Soko), Rwanda, Burundi Papilio jacksoni ruandana Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 393, TL: Congo belge oriental, Masisi, N.W. Kivu, 5,000ft
Papilio jacksoni ruandana ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni ruandana ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni ruandana ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. j. hecqui Berger, 1954
NE.Zaire (NW shore of L. Mobutu Sese Soko) Papilio jacksoni hecqui Berger, 1954; Lambillionea 54 : 93, TL: Kibale-Ituri, Nioka
Papilio jacksoni hecqui ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio jacksoni hecki[sic] ; Kielland, 1978, Tijdschr. Ent. 121 (4) : 159 (missp.)
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni hecqui ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni hecqui ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. j. kungwe Cottrell, 1963
W.Tanzania (Kungwe-Mahale Mts.) Papilio jacksoni kungwe Cottrell, 1963; Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 32 (7-8) : 127, TL: Tanganyika, western Province, Mt. Kungwe
Papilio jacksoni kungwe ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni kungwe ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni kungwe ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. j. nyika Cottrell, 1963
N.Malawi (Nyika Plaetau), E.Zambia (Nyika plateau) Papilio jacksoni nyika Cottrell, 1963; Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 32 (7-8) : 127, TL: Nyassaland, Nyika Plateau, and Northern Rhodesia border
Papilio jacksoni nyika ; [BAFR, 36 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni nyika ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni nyika ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. j. imatonga Clifton & Collins, 1997
SW.Sudan (Imatong Mts.) Papilio jacksoni imatonga Clifton & Collins, 1997; in D'Abrera, Butts Afrotrop. Region (1): 44, TL: Sudan, Imagong Mountains
Papilio (Princeps) jacksoni imatonga ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Druryia) jacksoni imatonga ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Subgenus Princeps Hübner, [1807]
Princeps Hübner, [1807]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl. [116], TS: Papilio demodocus Esper
Menelaides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 84, TS: Papilio polytes Linnaeus
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Achillides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 85, TS: Papilio paris Linnaeus
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Orpheides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86 (suppr. ICZN Op. 178 to Princeps Hübner, [1807]), TS: Papilio demodocus Esper
Nestorides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86, TS: Papilio gambrisius Cramer
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Iliades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 88, TS: Papilio memnon Linnaeus
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Harimala Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 145, TS: Papilio crino Fabricius
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Charus Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 149, TS: Papilio helenus Linnaeus
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Sarbaria Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 258, TS: Papilio polyctor Boisduval
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Sainia Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 260, TS: Papilio protenor Cramer
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Araminta Moore, 1886; J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 21 (1) : 50, TS: Papilio demolion Cramer
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Pangeranopsis Wood-Mason & de Nicéville, 1886; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt.II (4) : 374, TS: Papilio elephenor Doubleday
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Tamera Moore, 1888; Descr. Indian lep. Atkinson (3): 284, TS: Papilio castor Westwood
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Sadengia Moore, [1902]; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 213, TS: Papilio nephelus Boisduval
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Mimbyasa Evans, 1912; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21 (3): 972, TS: Papilio janaka Moore
= Princeps ; [AfrL]
Princeps (Papilio) ; [AfrL]

The dardanus species-group
phorcas; (part)
dardanus ; AfrL
demodocus ; [AfrL]
demoleus ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 175-203
dardanus ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio dardanus Brown, 1776
-. See [About maps] Mocker Swallowtail Flying Handkerchief
Papilio dardanus Brown, 1776; New Illust. Zool.: 51, TL: [West Africa]
Princeps dardanus ;
Papilio dardanus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 1-3]; [BK, 109]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Females mimic various Danaids, Acraeids, chiefly Amauris niavius, Danaus chrysippus, Amauris echeria-group, Acraea poggei. [BK]

Larva on Vepris lanceolata, V. undulata, V. eugeniifolia, Toddalia asiatica, Oricia swynnertoni, O. bachmannii, Clausena anisata, Citrus sp., Teclea simplicifolia, T. nobilis, T. stuhlmanni, T. villosa, T. natalensis, Xymalos monospora, Calodendrum capense, Zanthoxylum sp. [AfrL]

Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Congo, C.A.R, Angola, Congo Republic, Uganda (excluding western shores of Lake Victoria), W.Kenya, N.Zambia Papilio merope Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 87 (preocc. Papilio merope Frabricius, 1775), TL: [West Africa] "Java and Amboina" [error]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio brutus Fabricius, 1781; Spec. Ins. 2 : 13 (preocc. Papilio brutus Cramer, 1779), TL: [West Africa] "in Africa aequinoctiali"
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hippocoon Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 38, TL: Sierra Leon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio westermannii Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 372, TL: Côté de Guinée
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio trophonius Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 38, TL: Tropical Western Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dionysos Doubleday, 1846; in Doubleday & Westwood, Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): pl. 4, (1): 20, TL: Western Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus f.ab. niobe Aurivillius, 1899; K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 31 (5) : 465
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus f.ab. nioboides Aurivillius, 1899; K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 31 (5) : 465
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus heimsi Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 90, TL: Cameroon, Victoria
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus benio Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 91, TL: Cameroon, Barombi station; Angola [Kabinda], Chinchoxo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus f.ab. trophonissa Aurivillius, 1907; Ark. Zool. 3 (23) : 2, TL: von der Gegend des Ituri-Flusses im östlichen Teil des Kongostaates
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanaus polytrophus ♀ f. alluaudi Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 141, TL: Uganda occidentale, province de Toro
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♂-f. latemarginatus Schultze, 1913; Ent. Rundsch. 30 (9) : 49, TL: San Carlos Süd
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. sirius Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 23
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ab. crocotus Poulton, 1923; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1923: xlvii, TL: Forêt du Poste de Borabo, Haut Sassandra, Côte d'Ivoire; "Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. ceneispila Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 374, TL: Uganda
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus f. fagerskioldi Bryk, 1928; Soc. Ent. 43 : 13, TL: Uganda, Mpolegoma
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ab. punctata Dufrane, 1933; Lambillionea 33: 165, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ab. divisa Dufrane, 1933; Lambillionea 33: 165, TL: Cameroon, Edéa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ab. bipunctata Dufrane, 1933; Lambillionea 33: 165, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ab. paradoxa Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Republic, Luébo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. completa Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. subpunctata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. dawanti Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. impunctata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. jottrandi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 102, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ♀-f. extrema Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 103, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus f. semimelas Basquin & Turlin, 1986; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. (49): 22, TL: C.A.R, Bangui
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ab. obscura McLeod & McLeod, 2004; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 116 (2): 60
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hippocoon ; Hewitson, 1869, Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio X-XII): [22], pl. [12]
Papilio dardanus dardanus ; [BAFR, 10 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus dardanus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. sulfurea Palisot de Beauvois, 1806
São Tome and Principe Papilio sulfurea Palisot de Beauvois, 1806; Ins. Afr. Amer.: 46, pl. 1, TL: Isle-du-Prince
Papilio dardanus storacei Gauthier, 1984; Ent. Zs. 94 : 314, TL: Central Bioko, 1500m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus sulphureus Bernardi, Pierre & Nguyen, 1985; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 90: 1109 (emend.?, lapsus?)
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus sulfurea ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. antinorii Oberthür, 1883
Ethiopia (highlands) Papilio antinorii Oberthür, 1883; Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova 18: 711, TL: Abissinia, Feleklek and Sciotalit
Papilio antinorii f.ab. niavioides Kheil, 1890; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 3 : 335, TL: Abessynien, Korata am Tana-See
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio antinorii f.ab. ruspinae Kheil, 1890; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 3 : 336, TL: Abessynien, Korata am Tana-See
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio merope antinorii var. niavina Haase, 1891; Bibl. zool. 4 (8): (2) (missp. for niavioides?), TL: Abessinien
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii var. alticola Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 141, TL: Abyssinie, Yumbo, province de Gaba, 1485m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus hodsoni Poulton, 1926; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1: 6, TL: S.W. Abyssinia, Got River, 1700 ft, Apeny River, 1700 ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus hodsoni ♀-f. weinholti Poulton, 1927; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 2 : 10, TL: Gore, 6600ft, W. Abyssinia
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. zaoditou Ungemach, 1932; Mém. Soc. Sci. nat. phys. Maroc 32 : 18, TL: Ethiopia, Oumbi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii ♀-f. alameitu Gabriel, 1949; Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 18 : 212, TL: Abyssinia, Wallega Valley, Ghedo, 7000 ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♂-f. conjunctiflava Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 12, TL: South-west Abyssinia
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii ab. seriata Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 93 : 28, TL: Etiopia centrale, Scioa (zona di Ancòber), Mantek
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. immaculata Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Awasa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. extensinigra Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Yabelo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. obsoleta Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Bonga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. ornata Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Arba Minch"
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. rufomaculata Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Arba Minch
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. aurantiaca Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Metu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. aperta Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Guebre Mengist
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. depuncta Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Bedele
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. obscura Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Arba Minch
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. parvicaudata Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Hossana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. cenaeoides Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Bedele
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. streckerioides Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Metu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. lambornieoides Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Hossana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. niobeoides Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Hossana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii f.m. salaamioides Mollet, 1975; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 80 (1-2) : 38, TL: Ethiopia, Bonga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii ; [BAFR, 10 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus antinorii ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. byatti Poulton, 1926
N.Somalia (highlands) Papilio dardanus byatti Poulton, 1926; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1: xlv [45]
Papilio dardanus byatti ; [BAFR, 10 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus byatti ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. cenea Stoll, [1790]
S.Mozambique, E.Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland Papilio cenea Stoll, [1790]; Aanhangsel Werk, Uitl. Kapellen (2-5): 134, TL: "Päis des Caffres"
Danais rechila Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 183, TL: "Cafrerie"
= ; [AfrL]
cephonius Hopffer, 1866; Stettin ent. Ztg 27 (1-3) : 132
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio merope tibullus var. hippocoonides Haase, 1891; Bibl. zool. 4 (8): 70, TL: "Cap."
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cenea acene Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 92, TL: Transvaal
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. leighi Poulton, 1911; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1911 : xxxviii [38], TL: Natal; [Kenya] Unyori, N.E. of Kisumu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. radiata Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 23
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus-cenea ♀-f. natalica Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 377, TL: Mozambique, Delagoa Bay
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus-cenea ♀-f. hypolimnides Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 377, TL: West Pondoland
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus-cenea ♂-f.indiv. extensiflava Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 378, TL: Natal
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea f. sylvicola van Son, 1949; Transv. Mus. Mem. 3: 11, TL: Malta Forest, Pietersburg district, Transvaal; King William's Town; Mozambique, Delegoa Bay
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. neocenea Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 10, TL: South Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. nigricans Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 124, TL: Africa australe
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. transiens Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 124, TL: Natal
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. aikeni van Son, 1956; Ann. Transv. Mus. 22 (4) : 503, TL: N. Transvaal, Woodbush, Pietersburg District
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. infuscata van Son, 1956; Ann. Transv. Mus. 22 (4) : 503, TL: Durban
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus cenea ; [BAFR, 10]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus cenea ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
?Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. trophonis Aurivillius?; [BAFR, 10, fig.]
Papilio dardanus cenea ♀-f. leighi ; [BAFR, 10, fig.]

Larva on Xymalos monospora, Teclea swynnertoni, Vepris lanceolata, Toddalia aculeata, T. natalensis, Clausena inaequalis, Citrus [PBSA]

P. d. figinii Storace, 1962
Eritrea (highlands) Papilio dardanus figinii Storace, 1962; Doriana 3 (129): 2, TL: Eritrea centrale, Dorfù, m. 1500 s.l.m. (Zona delle pendici orientali, presso Asmara)
Papilio dardanus antinorii ♀-f. vaccaroi Storace, 1947; Ann. Mus. Civ. Nat. Giacomo Doria 63 : 116, TL: Eritrea, Dorfù, m. 1500 s.m. (presso Asmara)
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus antinorii ♀-f. protoniavioides Storace, 1962; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 72, TL: Dorfù in Eritrea (zona delle pendici orientali, presso Asmara, m. 1500 s.l.m.)
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus figinii ♀-f. protomima Storace, 1962; Doriana 3 (120): 3, TL: orientale eritree presso Asmara (Dorfù) [Ethiopia]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus figinii ; [BAFR, 10 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus figinii ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. flavicornis Carpenter, 1947
N.Kenya (Mt. Kulal) Papilio dardanus flavicornis Carpenter, 1947; Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 16 : 55
Papilio dardanus flavicornis ; [BAFR, 11 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus flavicornis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. humbloti Oberthür, 1888
Comoro Is. Papilio dardanus humbloti Oberthür, 1888; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 8 : 40, TL: Grande-Comoro
Papilio dardanus humbloti ; [BAFR, 11]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus humbloti ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. meriones C. & R. Felder, 1865
Madagascar Papilio meriones C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 95, TL: [Madagascar] Region de Toamasina
Papilio dardanus-meriones ♂-f.indiv. palaeotypus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 379, TL: Madagascar, Maroansetra
Papilio dardanus meriones ; [AfrL]; [BAFR, 11]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus meriones ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. meseres Carpenter, 1948
Uganda, NW.Kenya, Tanzania (W, S, SE shores of Lake Victoria) Papilio dardanus meseres Carpenter, 1948; Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 17 : 14, TL: Kenya Colony, South Kavirondo, Suna
Papilio merope ♀-f. planemoides Trimen, 1904; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1903 : xli [41], TL: Kavirondo-Nandi district of the Uganda British Protectorate; Angola
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. dionysoides Aurivillius, 1907; Ark. Zool. 3 (23) : 1, TL: Kibara, von der Insel Ukerewe in Victoria Nyanza
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. pemtolipus Aurivillius, 1907; Ark. Zool. 3 (23) : 2, TL: Kibara
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. mixtus Aurivillius, 1907; Ark. Zool. 3 (23) : 4, TL: Ost-Afrika [N.E. of Nyanza]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. acenides Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 375, TL: Tanzania, Mabira Forest; Uganda
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. swynnertoni Poulton, 1929; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 77: 500, TL: Unyori (Nyangori), N.E. of Kisumu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. carpenteri Poulton, 1929; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 77: 500, TL: Kakindu Hill, Tang. Terr., in Lat. 1° 10'S., long. 31° 30'E, about 30 miles W. of the Victoria Nyanza; Uganda
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♂-f. xanthocaudatus Stoneham, 1932; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (13): 1, TL: Kitale
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. hippocoonatus Stoneham, 1933; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (15): [2], TL: Kenya Colony, Kitale
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. dominicanoides Stoneham, 1933; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (15): [2], TL: Kenya Colony, Soy
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. planematus Stoneham, 1934; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (19): [2], TL: Kenya Colony, Kakamega Forest
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. epiplanemoides Stoneham, 1934; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (19): [2], TL: Kenya Colony, Kakamega Forest
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus xanthocaudatus ♀-f. briani Stoneham, 1944; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (48): [2], TL: Kenya Colony, Kitale
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus meseres ; [BAFR, 11 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus meseres ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. ochraceana Vane-Wright 1995
N.Kenya (Mt. Marsabit, Mt. Nyiru) Papilio (Princeps) dardanus ochraceana Vane-Wright, 1995; in Ackery, Smith & Vane-Wright, Carcasson's African Butterflies: 144, TL: Marsabit
Papilio dardanus ochracea Carpenter, 1948; Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 17 : 16 (preocc. _Papilio woodfordi var. ochracea Ribbe, 1897), TL: Marsabit
Papilio dardanus cenea ochracea ♀-f. ochracea Poulton, 1924; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1924 : xxvii [27], TL: Marsabit, S.E. of Lake Rudolph
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ochracea ♀-f. atavica Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 123, TL: Marsabit, 4500 piedi, Northern Frontier District, Chenia
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ochracea ; [BAFR, 11]
Papilio dardanus ochracea f. ochracea ; [BAFR, 11, fig. (f.form)]
Papilio dardanus ochracea f. hippocoonides ; [BAFR, 11, fig. (f.form)]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus ochraceana ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. tibullus Kirby, 1880
E.Kenya, E.Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia Papilio tibullus Kirby, 1880; Proc. R. Dublin Soc. (2) 2: 339, TL: Zanzibar
Papilio cenea maculatus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 91, TL: Deutsch-Ost-Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cenea discopunctatus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 92, TL: Deutsch-Ost-Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio cenea salaami Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 92, TL: Dar-es-Salaam
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio boosi Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 89, TL: Dar-es-Salam
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. trimeni Poulton, 1906; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1906 (2) : 283, TL: Zanzibar; Kikuyu Escarpment, B.E. Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus var. tibullus ab. gomia Strand, 1911; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 25 (10/11): 121, TL: Gomja
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus tibullus ♀-f. lamborni Poulton, 1918; in Eltringham, Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1917 (2-4) : 335, TL: Ufiomi, 35° 50'E, 4° 16'S
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. mombasicus Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 3, TL: Protectorate of Kenya, Mombasa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. melanoleuca Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 8, TL: Bamburi, Kenya Coast
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus tibullus ; [BAFR, 11]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus tibullus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. polytrophus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Kenya (highlands, E of Rift Valley) Papilio dardanus polytrophus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903; Novit. Zool. 10 (3) : 488, TL: Kikuyu Escarpment, British East Africa
Papilio dardanus tibullus ♀-f. dorippoides Trimen, 1909; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1908 (3) : 554, TL: Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. speciosa Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1912 : 290, TL: Afrique orientale anglaise, Kijabé, 2100 m, dans le Kikuyu Escarpment
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. jeanneli Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1912 : 290, TL: Afrique orientale anglaise, Kijabé, 2100 m, dans le Kikuyu Escarpment
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus var. polytrophus f. punctimargo Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1912 : 336, TL: Afrique orientale allemande, Kijabé (Kikuyu Escarpment), 2100m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. hippocooninus Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 23
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. albescens Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 23
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. nigrescens Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 23
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. acenoides Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 24
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. trophonoides Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 24
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. mixtoides Reuss, 1921; Ent. Rundsch. 38 (5) : 24
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus var. polytrophus f. protocenea Bryk & Peebles, 1932; Mitt. Dt. Ent. Ges. 3 : 10, TL: Elmenteita, Kenya Colony
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus var. polytrophus f. astarte Bryk & Peebles, 1932; Mitt. Dt. Ent. Ges. 3 : 10, TL: Elmenteita, Kenya Colony
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♂-f. nairobianus Stoneham, 1932; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (13): 2, TL: Kenya Colony, Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. poultoni Ford, 1936; Trans. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. 85 : 465, TL: Kenya Colony, Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus nairobianus ♀-f. akechia Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 8, TL: Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus nairobianus ♀-f. neria Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 8
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. millari Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 9
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. babingtonia Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 9
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus nairobianus ♀-f. akechiana Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 10
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus nairobianus ♀-f. neriana Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 11
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. harmonia Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 11
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio dardanus ♀-f. ariadne Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 11
= ; [AfrL]

Papilio dardanus polytrophus ; [BAFR, 12]
Papilio (Princeps) dardanus polytrophus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. hippocoonides ; [BAFR, 11, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. protohippocoonides ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. prototrophonius ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. protosalaami ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. planemoides ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. protoplanemoides ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. swynnertoni ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]
Papilio dardanus polytrophus ♀-f. protocenea ; [BAFR, 12, fig.]

Papilio constantinus Ward, 1871
-. See [About maps] Constantine's swallowtail
Papilio constantinus Ward, 1871; Ent. mon. Mag. 8 : 34, TL: Ribé, East Africa
Princeps constantinus ;
Papilio constantinus ; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 22]; [BK, 111]
Papilio (Princeps) constantinus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausena spp., C. anisata, Vepris reflexa, V. undulata, V. lanceolata, Citrus sp., Teclea trifoliatum, T. nobilis, T. gerrardii

Natal, Transvaal, Rhodesia, Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya (coastal), S.Somalia, SE.Ethiopia Papilio constantinus f. chrysothemis Stoneham, 1931; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (3): 1, TL: Kibwezi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio constantinus constantinus ; [BAFR, 14]
Papilio (Princeps) constantinus constantinus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. c. lecerfi Koçak, 1996
Kenya (central highlands, Mau Escarpment) Papilio constantinus lecerfi Koçak, 1996; Centre Ent. Stud. Misc. Papers 27-28: (10-16), TL: Tanganyika Territ., Escarpment, 6,500-9,000ft
Papilio constantinus alticola Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 578 (preocc. Papilio antinorii var. alticola Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912), TL: Tanganyika Territ., Escarpment, 6,500-9,000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio constantinus monticolus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 387 (preocc. Papilio sarpedon monticolus Fruhstorfer, 1896), TL: Escarpment, B.E.A., 6,500-9,000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio constantinus monticolus ; [BAFR, 14 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) constantinus lecerfi ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. c. mweruanus Joicey & Talbot, 1927
Congo Republic (Lomami, Shaba), W.Tanzania, Zambia Papilio constantinus mweruana Joicey & Talbot, 1927; Encycl. Ent. (B III) 2 (1): 1, TL: S.E. Congo, Kasenga, west bank of Luapala River, S.W. Lake Mweru district
Papilio constantinus f. mathieui Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 104, TL: Congo Belge, Sankishia
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio constantinus mweruana f. wittei Berger, 1981; Les Papillons du Zaire: 47, TL: Mabwe, 585m, Parc national de l'Upemba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio constantinus mweruanus ; [BAFR, 14 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) constantinus mweruanus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio delalandei Godart, [1824]
Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio delalandei Godart, [1824]; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (2): 811, TL: Cafrerie, sur les bords de Groot Fisch Rivier [error, = Madagascar]
Papilio lalandei Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 326 (lapsus, emend.?)
Princeps delalandei ;
Papilio delalandii ; (missp.)
Papilio delalandei ; [BAFR, 28]
Papilio delelande[sic] ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 4]
Papilio (Princeps) delalandei ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio phorcas Cramer, [1775]
-. See [About maps] Apple-green swallowtail Green Banded Swallowtail
Papilio phorcas Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 4, TL: Sierra Leona
?Papilio phorcas casphor Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 97, TL: Tabora
Princeps phorcas ;
Papilio phorcas ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 14]; [BK, 110]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Vepris, Teclea [BK], Teclea nobilis, T. simplicifolia, Macrostylis villosa, Oriciopsis sp., Calodendrum species, Clausena species, Citrus sp., Fagara sp., Toddalia sp. [AfrL]

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria Papilio doreus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 457, TL: Sierra Leon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio thersander Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 32, TL: Sierra Leon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ♀ f. media Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 381, pl. 2, f. 14, TL: Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas phorcas ; [BAFR, 14]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas phorcas ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. ansorgei Rothschild, 1896
Kenya (highland forest, E of Rift Valley) Papilio phorcas ansorgei Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (3): 324, TL: Uganda Protectorate, Man
Papilio phorcas tippelskirchi Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 96, TL: Brit.-Ost.-Africa, Nairobi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ♀ f. thersandroides Aurivillius, 1908; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 13 : 17
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ansorgei ; [BAFR, 14 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas ansorgei ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. congoanus Rothschild, 1896
Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Congo, C.A.R, N.Angola, Congo Republic, W.Uganda, W.Tanzania, N.Zambia Papilio phorcas congoanus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (3): 325, TL: Upper Congo, Lukolele
Papilio phorcas caspor Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 97, TL: Tanzania, Tabora
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ab. kassaiensis Strand, 1916; Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 25, pl. 13, f. 7, TL: Kongo, Kassaifluss
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. bergeri Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 126, TL: Congo Republic, Lualaba; Kakakumba; Tshiboe; Kinda; Mutumba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. xera Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 127, TL: Kafakumba nel Catanga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. viridissima Basquin & Turlin, 1986; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. (49): 22, TL: Bangui (Centrafrique)
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas congoanus f. ponzonii Sala, 1992; Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 75-76 : 35, TL: Gabon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas congoanus ; [BAFR, 14 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas congoanus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. nyikanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
highland forest (NE.Zambia, Malawi, E.Tanzania) Papilio phorcas nyikanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903; Novit. Zool. 10 (3) : 489, TL: Nyassaland, Kasunga Mts., Nyika
Papilio phorcas leopoldi Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 97, TL: Deutsch-Ost-Africa, Walde zwischen Mori und Mangati
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ab. phorcadius Strand, 1911; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 25 (10/11): 121, TL: Tanzania, Amani I.
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas nyikanus ; [BAFR, 14 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas nyikanus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. ruscoei Krüger, 1928
E.Uganda, Kenya (highlands, W of Rift Valley) Papilio phorcas f. ruscoei Krüger, 1928; Int. ent. Zs. 22 : 230, TL: Brit. O. Africa, Mt. Elgon
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ♀ f. mutans Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 380, pl. 2, f. 2, TL: Mabera Forest, Kyagive, Mulanga, 4000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. furcula Bryk, 1927; Zool. Anz. 74 : 77, TL: Mount Elgon, Gebirgsbach Koptawelil, 2465m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. inexpectata Bryk, 1927; Zool. Anz. 74 : 78, TL: Mount Elgon, Gebirgsbach Koptawelil, 2465m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas pseudothersander Krüger, 1937; Ent. Rundsch. 55: 84, TL: Uganda
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. polyxena Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 14, TL: [? W. Kenya]
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas f. bayoni Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 128, TL: Uganda, Busoga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas nilotica Storace, 1961; Doriana 3 (115): 1, TL: Uganda occidentale e centrale; Kivu orientale
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio phorcas ruscoei ; [BAFR, 14]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas ruscoei ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. sudanicola Storace, 1965
S.Sudan (forested mountains) Papilio phorcas sudanicola Storace, 1965; J. E.Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Nat. Mus. 25 (1) : 71, TL: S.E. Sudan, Didinga, Nagichot
Papilio phorcas sudanicola ; [BAFR, 14]
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas sudanicola ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. tenuifasciatus Kielland, 1990
N.Tanzania (highlands in the north), Kenya (Chyulu Hills) Papilio phorcas tenuifasciatus Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 44, TL: Tanzania, Ngorongoro, 2200m
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas tenuifasciatus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. bardamu Canu, 1994
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko I.) Papilio phorcas bardamu Canu, 1994; Lambillionea 94 (3) (I) : 316, TL: Equatorial Guinea - Bioko
Papilio phorcas bardamu f. velledae Canu, 1994; Lambillionea 94 (3) (I) : 317, TL: Equatorial Guinea - Bioko
Papilio (Princeps) phorcas bardamu ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio × nandina Rothschild & Jordan, 1901
Kenya Escarpment Papilio nandina Rothschild & Jordan, 1901; Novit. Zool. 8 (4) : 403, pl. 9, f. 1, TL: British E. Africa, Escarpment, 6500-9000ft.
Papilio phorcas ansorgei × dardanus polytrophus ; Clark & Sheppard, 1975, Proc. R. ent Soc. Lond. (39): (?37-40)
Papilio nandina ; [BAFR, 14]

Papilio mangoura Hewitson, 1875
Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio mangoura Hewitson, 1875; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 226, TL: Madagascar
Papilio mangoura ; Hewitson, 1877, Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio XV): [27], pl. [15], f. 49-50; [BAFR, 28]
Princeps mangoura ;
Papilio mangoura ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 4 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) mangoura ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio morondavana Grose-Smith, 1891
Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio morondavana Grose-Smith, 1891; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 8 (43) : 78, TL: Mahobo, Morondava River, W.Madagascar
Papilio marondavana[sic, recte morondavana] ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1891, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 24, pl. 11, f. 1-2
Papilio morondavana ; [BAFR, 30]
Papilio (Princeps) morondavana ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio grosesmithi Rothschild, 1926
Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio grosesmithi Rothschild, 1926; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) 17 : 113, TL: NW.Madagascar
Papilio grose-smithi ?f. praeses Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 388, pl. 4, f. 34-35, TL: N.W. Madagascar
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio grosesmithi ; [BAFR, 30]
Princeps grosesmithi ;
Papilio (Princeps) grosesmithi ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio demodocus Esper, 1799
-. See [About maps] Citrus swallotail Citrus butterfly Orange Dog Christmas Butterfly
Papilio demodocus Esper, 1799; Die ausl. Schmett. : 205, pl. 51, f. 1
Princeps demodocus ;
Papilio demodocus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 5]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ; [BK, 114]
Papilio (Princeps) demodocus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
[demodocus-1m.jpg] 530x542 (~98Kb) male Ethiopia, Amhara, Lake Hayk. 7th August 2012, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Clausena inaequalis, Calodendron capense, Toddalia aculeata, T. lanceolata, Teclea natalensis, T. swynnertoni, Citrus, Fagara capensis, Ptaeroxylon utile, Foeniculum vulgare, Bubon galbanum, B. gummiferum, Hippodromus alata, Pituranthos burchelli [PBSA]

Larva on Phellodendron amurense, Ptelia trifoliata, Skimmia japonica, (oviposits and feeds to maturity) [Marc W. Schenck]

Larva on (more and some duplicates with alternate names) Archangelica officinalis Deverra burchelli, Fagaropsis angolensis, Haplophyllum sp., Hippobromus pauciflorus, Oricia bachmannii, O. swynnertoni, Pseudospondias microcarpa, Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Ruta sp., Vepris lanceolata, Zanthoxylum capense, Z. delagoense [AfrL]


Tropical Africa, Madagascar Papilio demoleus var. nubila Capronnier, 1881; Bull. Soc. ent. Belge 1881: 43, TL: Côte Occidentale d'Afrique, Golfe Benin, d'Agoué (Aghwey)
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus docusdemo Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 101, pl. 2, f. 1, TL: Tabora
= ; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio demodocus albicans Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 102, TL: [Cameroon] Barombi Station
= ; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio demodocus ab. karema Strand, 1911; Mitt. zool. Mus. Berl. 5 (2) : 294, TL: S. Tanganyika, Bismarckburg; Tanganyika, Karema; Kilwa, Maliwe; Mtanga, Ufipa; Sokosi, Ufipa; Kitungulu, Urungu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. cariei Le Cerf, 1913; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1913 : 406, TL: Ile Maurice, Curepipe
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. tessmanni Schultze, 1914; Archiv. Naturgesch. 79 A (8) : 2, TL: Süd Kamerun, Akoafim
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. conflua Strand, 1914; Arch. Naturgesch. 80 A (2) : 158, TL: Kamerun, Duala
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. epunctatus Le Cerf, 1927; Encycl. ent. (B.3 Lep.) 2: 58, TL: Ile Maurice, Moka
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus f. minor Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: Bamako, S.O. Soudan, sur les bords du Niger
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. juncta Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: Bamako, S.O. Soudan, sur les bords du Niger
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. semijuncta Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 40, TL: Côte d'Ivoire (ancienne Haute Volta), Bobo, Diolasso
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. mathieui Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 41, TL: Kalule Nord, Katanga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. houzeaui Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 41, TL: Bamako, S.O. Soudan, sur les bords du Niger
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. longsdoni Krüger, 1937; Ent. Rundsch. 55: 84, TL: Portug. Ostafrika
= ; [AfrL]
aurantiorum Fabricius, 1938
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio demodocus f. oblongula Berio, 1941; Boll. Soc. Ent. Italiana 73: 91, TL: S. Nicolau, Dominga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. viginta Berio, 1941; Boll. Soc. Ent. Italiana 73: 91, TL: [Ghana] Ascianti
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. adla Berio, 1941; Boll. Soc. Ent. Italiana 73: 92, TL: Congo Belga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. vreuricki Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 114, TL: Congo Belge
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. duboisi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 114, TL: Elisabethville, Katanga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. aurantiaca Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 114, TL: Congo Belge, Luébo
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ab. ochrea Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 114, TL: Congo Belge, Léopoldville
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. dufranei Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 41, TL: Uele, Doruma-Sili
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. overlaeti Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 42, TL: Uele, Doruma-Sili
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. confluens Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 102, TL: Madagascar, Tananarive
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. bennettoides Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 102, TL: Congo ex Belga, Kafakumba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. atromaculatus Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 102, TL: Eritrea, Dorfu presso Asmara, m. 1500 s.l.m
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. continua Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 103, TL: Eritrea, Himberti
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. deminuta Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 103, TL: Eritrea centrale, Himberti
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. flavocincta Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 103, TL: Abissinia sud-occidentale, Dalle
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. latevittata Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 103, TL: Guinea superiore, Accra
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus f. pseudopraeses Storace, 1963; Boll. Soc. ent. ital. 92: 104, TL: Somalia meridionale, Belet Amin sul basso Giuba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus ab. belonota Vári, 1976; Ann. Transv. Mus. 30 (13) : 125, TL: Pretoria
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio demodocus demodocus ; [BAFR, 30]
Papilio (Princeps) demodocus demodocus ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. d. bennetti Dixey, 1898
Yemen (Socotra I.) Papilio bennetti Dixey, 1898; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1898 : 381, TL: Jebel Dryet, 4900ft
Papilio demodocus bennetti ; [BAFR, 30]
Papilio (Princeps) demodocus bennetti ; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758
Ceylon, India, Burma, AU. See [About maps] Lime Butterfly
Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 464, TL: Canton
Papilio demoleus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio demoleus demoleus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio demoleus, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Princeps demoleus ;
Papilio demoleus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 279; [BIR, 395]; [BOR, 60]; [MRS, 156]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus ; [AfrL]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 90; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
[demoleus-1l.jpg] 272x310 (~14Kb) larva Estern Assam [Numarigarh], India, 05 November 2003 Afternoon [Indian name of the tree is Pupnus. It is from lime catagory. Fruits are similar but larger in size], Photo © Kedar Tokekar [demoleus-2.jpg] 769x513 (~108Kb) Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko [demoleus-3.jpg] 769x513 (~113Kb) Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko
[demoleus-4l.jpg] 600x400 (~29Kb) larva India: Melghat, 4.10.2008, Photo © Kedar Tokekar

Larva on (citrus trees) [BIR] Psoralea tenax, P. patens [BAUR]

Larva on Psoralea cinerea, P. leucantha, P. patens, P. pinnata, P. pustulata, P. tenax, Citrus aurantium, Microcitrus australis K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)

Larva on Cullen, Psoralea, Fagraea, Michelia, Ziziphus, Acronychia, Aegle, Atalantia, Chloroxylon, Citrus, Clausena, Flindersia, Fortunella, Glycosmis, Limonia, Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912;:REF#b: 247;Pnom-Penh


Papilio erithonius Cramer, [1779]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (17-21): 67, pl. 232, f. A, B
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio epius Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 35
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
demoleinus Oberthür, 1879
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
libanius Fruhstorfer, 1908
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
flavosignatus Heidemann, 1954
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Orpheides erithonius ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 147, pl. 61, f. 2a-b
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus libanius ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 90
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus demoleus ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190

Larva on (as Papilio demoleus libanius) Citrus spp., Glycosmis citrifolia, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. nitidum, Clausena excavata, Fortunella spp., Microcitrus australis, Atalantia buxifolia, Psoralea leucantha, P. patens [MRS]

P. d. sthenelus MacLeay, 1826
Australia Chequered Swallowtail
Papilio sthenelus MacLeay, [1826]; in King, Narr. Surv. Austr. 2: 457, TL: Australia
sumbanus de Nicéville & Elwes, 1897
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190 (nom. nud.)
Papilio demoleus pictus Fruhstorfer, 1898; Ent. Zs. 11 (24) : 189
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio demoleus sthenelus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 282; [BAUR: 88]
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus sthenelus ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190

Larva on Psoralea, Psoralea tenax, P. patens, P. cinerea, P. leucantha, P. pustulata, P. badocana, less Citrus spp.?

P. d. malayanus Wallace, 1865
Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, S.Vietnam, Peninsular Malaya Papilio erithonius loc. f. malayanus Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 59
Papilio demoleus annamiticus Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 271, TL: Xom-Gom, S.Annam
= ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
Papilio demoleus malayanus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus malayanus ; [BMP: 67, pl. 3, f. 16]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
[malayanus-1.jpg] 696x792 (~84Kb) Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Pattaya environs, Ko Lan island, ruderal vegeation at a roadside. 15th January 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Citrus, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Ziziphus jujuba [BMP]


P. d. sthenelinus Rothschild, 1895
?Sumba, Flores - Alor Papilio demoleus sthenelinus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 281, TL: Alor
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus sthenelinus ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190
P. d. novoguineensis Rothschild, 1908
S.Papua Papilio demoleus novoguineensis Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 170, TL: British New Guinea, Lower Aroa; Redscar Bay
Papilio demoleus novoguineensis ; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) demoleus novoguineensis ; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190

Larva on Salvia [BAUR]


Papilio erithonioides Grose-Smith, 1891
Madagascar. See [About maps] Papilio erithonioides Grose-Smith, 1891; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 7 (37) : 122, TL: North-west coast of Malagasy Republic
Papilio erithonioides ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1891, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 23, pl. 11, f. 3-4; [BAFR, 30]
Papilio demodocus erithonioides ; Storace, 1955, Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: (?120-137)
Papilio erithonioides ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 5 (text)]
Princeps erithonioides ;
Papilio (Princeps) erithonioides ; [MadL]; [AfrL]; Smith & Vane-Wright, 2008, Syst. Biodiv. 6 (2): 190; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The hesperus species-group
hesperus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio hesperus Westwood, 1843
-. See [About maps] Emperor swallotail
Papilio hesperus Westwood, 1843; Arcana entomologica, 1: 189, TL: Gold Coast [error, = Cameroon]
Papilio hesperus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Princeps hesperus ;
Papilio hesperus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 10]
Papilio (Princeps) hesperus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Beilschmiedia ugandensis, Beilschmiedia sp. [AfrL]

Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Congo, Congo Republic, Uganda, NW.Tanzania, N.Zambia Papilio horribilis var. calabaricus Distant, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 : 649, TL: Isubu, Mongo-ma-lobah
= Papilio hesperus ; Larsen, 2005
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus maculatissimus Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 95, TL: Nordwest Camerun, Ndian
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus f. additionis Strand, 1913; Archiv Naturg. 79 A (2) : 175, TL: Bukoba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus f. bukoba Richelmann, 1913; Int. ent. Z. 7 : 106, TL: Bei Bukoba am Viktoria-See
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus ?ab. dualana Strand, 1914; Arch. Naturgesch. 80 A (2) : 160, TL: Duala, Kamerun
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus var. kassaiensis Moreau, 1917; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1917 : 126, TL: Congo Belge, district de Kassai, entre les rivières Louébo et Loangué
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio embodinus Ehrmann, 1921; Lepid., Forest Hills 5 (2) : 18, TL: E. Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus f.indiv. insolitus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 384, pl. 3, f. 23, TL: Congo Belge, Luluabourg, Kassai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus ♂-f. rufopuncta Stoneham, 1944; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (48): [3], TL: Uganda Protectorate, Mabira Forest
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus ab. lagai Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 103, TL: Bord de la Lomela environs de Gombé
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus ab. blariauxi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 103, TL: Longatshimo, 85 km. de Tshikapa, Kasai
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus ab. cuvelieri Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 103, TL: Congo Belge, Punia, Kivu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus f. mariae Dufrane, 1953; Bull. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 89 : 43, TL: Kivu, rivière Muana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus f. punctata Dufrane, 1953; Bull. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 89 : 43, TL: Kivu, rivière Muana
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hesperus hesperus ; [BAFR, 16]
Papilio (Princeps) hesperus hesperus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. h. feae Storace, 1963
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko) Papilio hesperus feae Storace, 1963; Mem. Soc. Ent. Italiana 42 : 99, TL: Punta Frailes
Papilio hesperus feae ; [BAFR, 16 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) hesperus feae ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. h. sudana Gabriel, 1945
S.Sudan Papilio hesperus sudana Gabriel, 1945; Entomologist 78 : 151, TL: Sudan, Lotti Forest
Papilio hesperus sudana ; [BAFR, 16 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) hesperus sudana ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio euphranor Trimen, 1868
South Africa (Transkei - Natal - Transvaal), Swaziland. See [About maps] Papilio euphranor Trimen, 1868; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1868 (1) : 70, TL: Kaffraria Proper, Boolo Forest, near Tsomo, a tributary of the Kei
Papilio euphranor moratus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 381, TL: Natal, Alfred District, Impetenyeni Forest, 3000ft
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio euphranor ; [BAFR, 18]; [BOW: pl. 89, f. 22 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) euphranor ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Cryptocarya woodii [PBSA]


Papilio horribilis Butler, 1874
S.Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana. See [About maps] Papilio horribilis Butler, 1874; Lepid. Exotica (11): 88, TL: Cape Coast, Fantee
Papilio hermes Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 142, TL: Haut Cavally, hinterland franco-liberién, Mission franco-liberiénne; Sierra Leone
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio hermes var. pellax Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 142, TL: Haut Cavally, hinterland franco-liberién, Mission franco-liberiénne
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio horribilis ; [BAFR, 18]
Papilio (Princeps) horribilis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Beilschmiedia manni? [AfrL]


Papilio pelodurus Butler, 1896
-. See [About maps] Papilio pelodurus Butler, 1896; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1895 : 720, TL: Nyasaland, Zomba
Papilio pelodorus[sic] ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 10 (text) (missp.?)]
Papilio (Princeps) pelodurus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Cryptocarya liebertiana, Ocotea usambarensis [AfrL]

highland forest (Malawi) Papilio pelodurus pelodurus f.indiv. lyrus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 382, pl. 3, f. 30, TL: Nyasaland, Mlanje
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio pelodurus pelodurus f.indiv. extensus Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 382, pl. 3, f. 28, TL: Nyasaland, Zomba
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio pelodurus pelodurus ; [BAFR, 18]
Papilio (Princeps) pelodurus pelodurus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. p. vesper Le Cerf, 1924
E.Tanzania, S.Tanzania, NE.Zambia, N.Malawi Papilio pelodurus vesper Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 383, pl. 3, f. 25, TL: German East Africa
Papilio pelodurus ab. histricus Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 : 142, TL: Afrique orientale allemande, Tanga
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio pelodurus vesper f.indiv. excedens Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 383, TL: German east Africa
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio pelodurus vesper ; [BAFR, 18 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) pelodurus vesper ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The menestheus species-group
demolion; (part)
menestheus ; [AfrL]

Papilio menestheus Drury, 1773
-. See [About maps] Western emperor swallowtail
Papilio menestheus Drury, 1773; Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects 2 : 15, TL: Sierra Leon
Papilio menestheus ; [BAFR, 28]
Papilio mnestheus[sic?] ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 16]
Princeps menestheus ;
Papilio (Princeps) menestheus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, W.Cameroon Papilio menestheus ab. pygmaeus Aurivillius, 1899; K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 31 (5) : 478, TL: Kamerun
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio menestheus ab. unimaculatus Strand, 1914; Arch. Naturgesch. 80 A (2) : 158, TL: Duala
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio menestheus v. lormieri ab. latefasciatus Schultze, 1917; Archiv. Biontologie 4 (2) : 20, TL: Südkamerun, Bipindi
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio (Princeps) menestheus menestheus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. m. canui Gauthier, 1984
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko) Papilio menestheus canui Gauthier, 1984; Ent. Zs. 94 : 316, TL: Insel Bioko, Strand bei Ureca
Papilio (Princeps) menestheus canui ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio lormieri Distant, 1874
-. See [About maps] Central emperor swallowtail
Papilio lormieri Distant, 1874; Ent. mon. Mag. 11 : 129, TL: [French West Africa] Madagascar [error]
Papilio lormieri, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Princeps lormieri ;
Papilio lormieri ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 13]
Papilio (Princeps) lormieri ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausena anisata, Fagaropsis sp., Teclea spp., Fagara macrophylla [AfrL]

Cameroon, Congo Republic, N.Angola, SW.Sudan Papilio menestheus v. lormieri ab. bassana Strand, 1913; Archiv Naturg. 79 A (2) : 24, TL: Kamerun, Bassagebiet a. Lom.
Papilio menestheus var. aureus Moreau, 1917; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1917 : 126, TL: Congo belge, district de Kassaï comprise entre les rivières Louébo et Loangué
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio menestheus lormieri ab. cuvelieri Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 114, TL: Punia, Kivu
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio lormieri lormieri ; [BAFR, 29]
Papilio (Princeps) lormieri lormieri ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. l. semlikana Le Cerf, 1924
NE.Congo Republic (E.Kivu), W.Uganda, NW.Tanzania Papilio menestheus-lormieri semlikana Le Cerf, 1924; Bull. Hill. Mus. 1 (3) : 388, TL: Semliki River
Papilio lormieri semlikana ; [BAFR, 29 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) lormieri semlikana ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. l. neocrocea Koçak, 1983
E.Uganda, C.Uganda, W.Kenya Lormier's Swallowtail Central Emperor Swallowtail
Papilio lormieri neocrocea Koçak, 1983; Priamus 2 : 165 (repl. Papilio lormieri crocea Storace, 1955)
Papilio lormieri f. ophidicephaloides Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 18, TL: Uganda, Mabira Forest
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio lormieri f. rufopunctata Stoneham, 1951; Butterflies of Western Kenya: 18
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio lormieri crocea Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 132 (preocc. Papilio croceus Fourcroy, 1785), TL: Entebbe; Mabera Forest; Kibanga; Kyetume; Mubango
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio lormieri crocea ; [BAFR, 29 (text)]; [BK, 114]
Papilio (Princeps) lormieri neocrocea ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Rutaceaea, Clausema [BK]


Papilio ophidicephalus Oberthür, 1878
-. See [About maps] Emperor Swallowtail
Papilio ophidicephalus Oberthür, 1878; Étud. d'Ent. 3 : 13, TL: aux montagnes de Schimba, sur la Côte, en face de l'île de Zanzibar; Bashee River, Kaffraria
Papilio ophidicephalus ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 19]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Clausema inqequalis, Fagara capensis, Calodendron capense, Citrus [PBSA], Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum sp., Zanthoxylum delagoense, Z. davyi, Z. capense [AfrL]

E.Kenya, Tanzania, NE.Zambia, SE.Congo Republic Papilio ophidicephalus ophidicephalus ; [BAFR, 30]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus ophidicephalus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. phalusco Suffert, 1904
Natal Papilio ophidicephalus phalusco Suffert, 1904; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 103, TL: Natal
Papilio ophidicephalus phalusco ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus phalusco ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. chirinda van Son, 1939
W.Mozambique, Zimbabwe Papilio ophidicephalus chirinda van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 59, TL: SE.Rhodesia, Chirinda Forest
Papilio obidicephalus chirinda var. barnesi van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 60, TL: Southern Rhodesia, Vumba Mountains, Umtali District
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio ophidicephalus chirinda ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus chirinda ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. entabeni van Son, 1939
Transvaal Papilio ophidicephalus entabeni van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 60, TL: Northern Transvaal, Entabeni, Zoutpansberg range
Papilio ophidicephalus entabeni ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus entabeni ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. transvaalensis van Son, 1939
Transvaal Papilio ophidicephalus transvaalensis van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 61, TL: North Transvaal, Woodbush, Pietersburg District
Papilio ophidicephalus transvaalensis ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus transvaalensis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. ayresi van Son, 1939
Swaziland, Tranvaal Papilio ophidicephalus ayresi van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 62, TL: North-east Transvaal, Marieps Mountain, boundary of Lydenburg and Pietersburg Districts
Papilio ophidicephalus ayresi ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus ayresi ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. zuluensis van Son, 1939
Zululand Papilio ophidicephalus zuluensis van Son, 1939; Ann. Transv. Mus. 20: 63, TL: Zululand, Eshowe
Papilio ophidicephalus zuluensis ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus zuluensis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. cottrelli van Son, 1966
S.Zambia Papilio ophidicephalus cottrelli van Son, 1966; Ann. Transv. Mus. 25 (4) : 81, TL: N. Rhodesia, Kamaila Forest Reserve, Chisamba
Papilio ophidicephalus cottrelli ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus cottrelli ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. mkuwadzi Gifford, 1961
SW.Tanzania, N.Malawi, NE.Zambia Papilio ophidicephalus mkuwadzi Gifford, 1961; Entomologist 94 : 288, TL: Nyasaland, Mkuwadzi forest, Nkata Bay District
Papilio ophidicephalus mkuwadzi ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus mkuwadzi ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. o. niassicola Storace, 1955
C.Malawi, S.Malawi Papilio ophidicephalus niassicola Storace, 1955; Mem. Soc. ent. ital. 33: 130, TL: Niassa, Linderdale
Papilio ophidicephalus niassicola ; [BAFR, 30 (text)]
Papilio (Princeps) ophidicephalus niassicola ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The leucotaenia species-group
leucotaenia ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio leucotaenia Rothschild, 1908
SW.Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, E.Zaire (Kivu). See [About maps] Papilio leucotaenia Rothschild, 1908; Ent. mon. Mag. 44 : 249, TL: German East Africa, Rugoge Forest, east of the south end of Lake Kivu, 2100-2300m
Princeps leucotaenia ;
Papilio leucotaenia ; [BAFR, 18]
Papilio (Princeps) leucotaenia ; [AfrL]

The nobilis species-group
nobilis ; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Papilio nobilis Rogenhofer, 1891
-. See [About maps] Noble swallowtail
Papilio nobilis Rogenhofer, 1891; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 41 : 563, TL: Africa Orientalis, Pare
Princeps nobilis ;
Papilio nobilis ; [BOW: pl. 90, f. 18]; [BK, 111]
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

Larva on Warburgia ugandensis [AfrL, Van Someren, 1974]

Kenya (highlands), Lake Victoria (N and W shores), E.Uganda, NW.Tanzania Papilio pringlei Sharpe, 1894; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1894 (3) : 352, TL: Kikuyu to Victoria Nyanza via Sotik
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis f. mariabonaparte Bryk, 1929; Soc. Ent. 44 : 22, TL: Deutsch-Ostafrika
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis f. nobilissima Bryk, 1929; Soc. Ent. 44 : 22, TL: Zentral-Afrika
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis pallidus Stoneham, 1931; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (1): 1, TL: Kenya Colony, Tranz-Nzoia District
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis f.ab. josetta Smart, 1976; Illust. Encyp. Butt. World: 274, TL: Ugan.
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis nobilis ; [BAFR, 16]
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis nobilis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. didingensis Carpenter, 1928
S.Sudan Papilio nobilis didingensis Carpenter, 1928; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 76 : 30, TL: Sudan, Didinga
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis didingensis ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. crippsianus Stoneham, 1936
Congo Republic (Kivu), W.Uganda (Ruwenzori, Ankole, Kigezi), W.Kenya, NW.Tanzania? Papilio nobilis crippsianus Stoneham, 1936; Bull. Stoneham Mus. (30): 2, TL: Western Uganda Protectorate, Kalinzu Forest
Papilio nobilis leroyi Berger, 1950; Ann. Mus. Congo belge Zool. (3) 8 (1) : 20, TL: Kivu, Rutshuru
= ; [AfrL]
Papilio nobilis crippsianus ; [BAFR, 16]
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis crippsianus ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]
P. n. mpanda Kielland, 1990
W.Tanzania Papilio nobilis mpanda Kielland, 1990; Butterflies of Tanzania: 43, TL: Mpanda, Kampisa River, 1500m
Papilio (Princeps) nobilis mpanda ; [AfrL]; [Bernard Rond, 2011]

The demolion species-group
demolion; (part, include into menestheus group?)

Papilio demolion Cramer, [1776]
Burma, Siam, Malaysia, Sumatra. See [About maps] Banded Swallowtail
Papilio demolion Cramer, [1776]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (8): 140, pl. 89, f. A, B, TL: Java
?Papilio demolion messius Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 72, TL: Lombok
Papilio demolion demolion, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Menelaides demolion ;
Papilio demolion ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 282; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 16]; [BOR, 62]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9

Larva on Luvunga scandens, Citrus Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9

P. d. demolion Cramer, [1776]
S.Burma, Thailand - Singapore, Sumatra, Java - Lombok, N.Borneo Papilio cresphontes Fabricius, 1938; in Bryk, Systema Glossatorum: 48 (preocc.)
Papilio demolion demolion ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 106
Papilio (Princeps) demolion demolion ; [BMP: 68, pl. 4, f. 1]

Larva on Luvunga scandens [BMP]

P. d. energetes Fruhstorfer, 1908
Nias Papilio demolion energetes Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 72, TL: Nias
P. d. delostenus Rothschild, 1908
Philippines (Palawan) Papilio demolion delostenus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 168, TL: Palawan
Papilio demolion delostenus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 44, f. 1-2

Papilio liomedon Moore, [1875]
S.India (W.Ghats). See [About maps] Malabar Banded Swallowtail
Papilio liomedon Moore, [1875]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (4) : 575, TL: Calicut, Malabar Coast
Papilio demolion liomedon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 283
Papilio liomedon ; [BIR, 394]; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 16 (text)]; [BOR, 60]

Papilio gigon C. & R. Felder, 1864
Celebes. See [About maps] Sulawesi Banded Swallowtail
Papilio gigon C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 318, 366, TL: Celebes
Papilio gigon Gray, 1856; List Spec. lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 27 (nom. nud.)
Papilio gigon Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 59, pl. 7, f. 6, TL: Celebes, Sulla I.
Menelaides gigon ;
Papilio gigon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 283; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 16 (text)]; [BOR, 62]
Papilio (Menelaides) gigon ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Larva on Citrus, Euodia, Glycosmis Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Sulawesi Papilio (Menelaides) gigon gigon ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87
P. g. mangolinus Fruhstorfer, 1899
Sula Is. Papilio gigon mangolinus Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 422, TL: Sula-Mangoli
Papilio (Menelaides) gigon mangolinus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87
P. g. neriotes Rothschild, 1908
Talaud, Sangir Papilio gigon neriotes Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 169, TL: Talant; Sangir
Papilio (Menelaides) gigon neriotes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Papilio euchenor Guérin-Méneville, 1829
New Guinea. See [About maps] Papilio euchenor Guérin-Méneville, 1829; Voyage Coquille, 2 (2) : pl. 13, f. 3, TL: New Guinea
Papilio axion Boisduval, 1832; in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 41, TL: New Guinea
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 339
Papilio euchenor scribonius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: Waigiu
Papilio euchenor hippotas Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: New Guinea
Papilio euchenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 339; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 5]

Larva on Citrus?, Evodia [BAUR]

West Irian - Papua, Waigeu, Dampier Papilio euchenor euchenor ; [BAUR, 88]
P. e. godarti Montrouzier, 1856
D'Entrecasteaux, Woodlark Papilio godarti Montrouzier, 1856; Ann. Sci. Phys. Lyon (2) 8: 398, TL: Woodlark I.
Papilio euchenor godarti ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. eutropius Janson, 1886
Jobi Papilio eutropius Janson, 1886; Cruise of Marchesa 2: 376, TL: Jobie I.
Papilio euchenor ab. eutropius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 339
Papilio euchenor eutropius ; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
P. e. obsolescens Rothschild, 1895
Aru Papilio euchenor obsolescens Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 339, TL: Aru Islands
Papilio euchenor obsolescens ; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
P. e. depilis Rothschild, 1895
New Britain, Duke of York Group Papilio euchenor depilis Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 340, TL: New Britain
Papilio euchenor depilis Rothschild; [BAUR, 89]
P. e. naucles Rothschild, 1908
Kai Is. Papilio euchenor naucles Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 169, TL: Kei Is.
Papilio euchenor naucles Rothschild; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
P. e. misolensis Rothschild, 1908
Misool Is. Papilio euchenor misolensis Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 169, TL: Misol
Papilio euchenor misolensis ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 106; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
P. e. comma Joicey & Noakes, 1915
Biak Papilio euchenor comma Joicey & Noakes, 1915; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 (2) : 178, TL: Biak
Papilio euchenor comma ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. rosselanus Rothschild, 1908
Rossel Is. Papilio euchenor rosselanus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 169, TL: Rossel I., Louisiade Archipelago
Papilio euchenor rosselanus ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. sudestensis Rothschild, 1908
Sudest I. Papilio euchenor sudestensis Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 169, TL: Sudest I.
Papilio euchenor sudestensis ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. misimanus Rothschild, 1898
Misima I. Papilio euchenor misimanus Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 (2): 217, TL: St. Aignan (Misima), Louisiade Archipelago
Papilio euchenor misimanus ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. novohibernicus Rothschild, 1896
New Ireland Papilio euchenor novohibernicus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (4) : 422, TL: New Ireland
Papilio euchenor novohibernicus ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. neohannoveranus Rothschild, 1898
New Hanover I. Papilio euchenor neohannoveranus Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 (2): 217, TL: New Hanover, Bismarck Archipelageo
Papilio euchenor neohannoveranus ; [BAUR, 89 (text)]
P. e. subcoerulea Rothschild, 1915
Dampier I. Papilio euchenor subcoerulea Rothschild, 1915; Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 193, TL: Dampier Island

The ? species-group

Papilio luzviae Schröder & Treadaway, 1991
Philippines (Marinduque). See [About maps] Menelaides luzviae ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 10, pl. 57, f. 4-6 (uncert. status)

Papilio "pseudluzviae"
Philippnes (Mindoro). See [About maps] Menelaides "pseudluzviae"
Menelaides "pseudluzviae" ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 10, pl. 58, f. 3-5 (hybdrid?)

The anactus species-group

Papilio anactus MacLeay, [1826]
Australia (Queensland - New South Wales). See [About maps] Dingy Swallowtail
Papilio anactus MacLeay, [1826]; in King, Narr. Surv. Austr. 2: 458, TL: Austr. occ.
Papilio anactus, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Eleppone anactus ;
Papilio anactus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 338; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 12]; [BAUR, 106]

Larva on Citrus paradisi, Poncitrus trifoliata Dunn, 1995, Victorian Ent. 25 (5): -, Citrus limon, C. sinensis, C. spp., Eremocitrus glauca, Limonia acidissima, Microcitrus australasica, M. australis, M. garrawayae, M. inodora K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)


The aegeus species-group

Papilio aegeus Donovan, 1805
New Guinea - New South Wales. See [About maps] Papilio aegeus Donovan, 1805; Epitome nat. Hist. Ins. New Holland: pl. 14, TL: New South Wales
Papilio erectheus Donovan, 1805; Epitome nat. Hist. Ins. New Holland: pl. 15
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 304
Papilio oberon Grose-Smith, 1897; Ann. Mag. Nat. hist. (6) 19 : 172, TL: Santa Cruz
Papilio doddi Oberthür, 1916
?Papilio oritas f. albator Niepelt, 1916; in Strand, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 21, pl. 13
Papilio aegeus, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
erechtheus[sic, recte erectheus] ; Boisduval, 1832
Papilio oberon ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1899, Rhop. Exot. [1] 3: (Papilio) 43, pl. 18, f. 1-2
Menelaides aegeus ;
Papilio aegeus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 304; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 5, 6]

Larva on Citrus, Geijera salicifolia, G. parviflora, Flindersia [BAUR], Poncitrus trifoliata, Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata, C. paradisi Dunn, 1995, Victorian Ent. 25 (5): -, Cinnamomum camphora, Cryptocarya glaucescens, Aristolochia elegans, Capparis nobilis, Acronychia sp., Choisya ternata, Citrus aurantium, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. medica, C. paradisi, C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. spp., Clausena brevistyla, Eriostemon lanceolatus, E. myoporoides, Fagara sp., Flindersia australis, F. bennettiana, F. collina, F. ifflaiana, F. laevicarpa, F. oppositifolia, F. pimenteliana, F. schottiana, F. xanthoxyla, Fortunella spp., Geijera parviflora, G. salicifolia, Halfordia sp., Melicope erythrococca, M. melanophloia, Microcitrus australasica, M. australis, M. garrawayae, M. inodora, Micromelum minutum, Murraya koenigii, Phebalium ambiens, P. dentatum, P. sp., Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. brachyacanthum, Z. nitidum, Z. veneficum, Zieria laevigata, Z. smithii, Owenia venosa, Daucus carota, Petroselium crispum, Apium graveolens K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)

Cape York - E.Victoria, S.Australia Orchard Swallowtail
Papilio aegeus f. tullia Waterhouse, 1932; Aust. Zool. 7: 196
Papilio aegeus f. beatrix Waterhouse, 1908; Vict. Nat. 25: 118
Papilio aegeus aegeus ; [BAUR, 100]
P. a. adrastus C. & R. Felder, [1864]
Banda Group Papilio adrastus C. & R. Felder, [1864]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 110, n. 84, pl. 16, TL: Banda Is.
Papilio adrastus Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 57, pl. 4, f. 1, TL: Banda Is.
f. priasa Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 65
f. tellias Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 65
Papilio aegeus adrastus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 308; [BAUR, 100 (text)]
P. a. othello Grose-Smith, 1894
Biak Papilio othello Grose-Smith, 1894; Novit. zool. 1 (2): 332, TL: Biak
f. desdemona Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 66
f. thuria Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 66
Papilio othello ♀ f. obscurata Joicey & Noakes, 1915; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1915 (2) : 177, pl. 21, f. 1, TL: Biak
Papilio aegeus ormenus ♀-ab. othello ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307
Papilio aegeus othello ; [BAUR, 102]
Papilio aegeus othello f. desdemona ; [BAUR, 102, f.]
Papilio aegeus othello f. thuria ; [BAUR, 102, f.]
Papilio aegeus othello f. obscurata ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
P. a. ormenus Guérin-Méneville, [1831]
Aru, Missol, Salawari, Jobi, Waigen, W.Irian, Papua, New Guinea, Trobriand, D'Entrecastreaux, Woodlark, Lousiades, Torres Straits Is. Papilio ormenus Guérin-Méneville, [1831]; Voyage Coquille, 2 (2) : pl. 14, f. 3, TL: New Guinea
Papilio amanga Boisduval, 1832; in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 39, TL: New Guinea
Papilio onesimus Hewitson, 1858; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio III): [6], pl. [3], f. 8, TL: New Guinea
= Papilio amanga ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307
Papilio pandion Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 56
Papilio ormenus var. polydorina Haase, 1893; Unters. üb. Mimicry: 42
Papilio aegeus ormenus ♀-ab. inornatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307, TL: coast near Arfak
f. seleucis Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 66
f. leporina Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 67

Papilio aegeus ormenus f. ormenus ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus ormenus ♂-ab. pandion ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. pandion ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. inornatus ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. seleucis ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. leporina ; [BAUR, 103, f.]
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. onesimus ; [BAUR, 100, f. 103, f.]
Papilio aegeus ormenus ♀-ab. polydorinus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307
Papilio aegeus ormenus ♀-ab. amanga ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 307
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. amanga ; [BAUR, 103, f.]
Papilio aegeus ormenus f. ormenus ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus ormenus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 306; [BAUR]
P. a. oritas Godman & Salvin, 1879
New Ireland, New Hanover Papilio oritas Godman & Salvin, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 : 654, TL: New Ireland
f. ximene Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 67
Papilio oritas var. capsus Ribbe, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (20): 153
Papilio oritas ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio aegeus oritas f. ximene ; [BAUR, 103, f.]
Papilio aegeus oritas f. capsus ; [BAUR, 103, f.]
P. a. websteri Grose-Smith, 1894
New Britain Papilio websteri Grose-Smith, 1894; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 13 (78) : 496, TL: New Britain
Papilio aegeus bismarckianus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 308, TL: New Britain
f. sopaea Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 67
Papilio websteri ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1895, Rhop. Exot. [1] 2: (Papilio) 37, pl. 15, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 300
Papilio aegeus websteri ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
P. a. keianus Rothschild, 1896
Kai Is. Papilio aegeus keianus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (4) : 422, TL: Kei Toeal (Little Kei Island)
Papilio aegeus keianus ♀-f. amaranta Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (4) : 422
Papilio aegeus keianus ♀-f. blanca Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (4) : 422
Papilio aegeus keianus f. blanca ; [BAUR, 101, f.]
Papilio aegeus keianus ; [BAUR, 100 (text)]
P. a. ormenulus Fruhstorfer, 1902
Fergusson I. Papilio aegeus ormenulus Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (8): 57, TL: Fergusson I.
P. a. goramensis Rothschild, 1908
Goram Is. Papilio aegeus goramensis Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 172, TL: Goram-laut; Manovolka
Papilio aegeus goramensis ; [BAUR, 100 (text)]
P. a. kissuanus Rothschild, 1908
Watubela Is., Goram I. Papilio aegeus kissuanus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 172, TL: Kissoeei, Watoebela group
Papilio aegeus kissuanus ; [BAUR, 100 (text)]
P. a. aegatinus Rothschild, 1908
Noemfoor Is. Papilio aegeus aegatinus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 172, TL: Suer; Mefor I.; Geelvink Bay
Papilio aegeus aegatinus ♀-f. melia Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 173
Papilio aegeus aegatinus ♀-f. myrtis Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 173
Papilio aegeus aegatinus f. melia ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus aegatinus f. myrtis ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]
Papilio aegeus aegatinus ; [BAUR, 102 (text)]

Papilio tydeus C. & R. Felder, 1860
Moluccas Papilio tydeus C. & R. Felder, 1860; Wien. ent. Monats. 4 (8): 229, TL: Batjan
Papilio tydeus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 304
Menelaides tydeus ;
Bachan, Ternate, Halmahera, Morotai Papilio tydeus tydeus ; [BAUR, 102]
P. t. obiensis Rothschild, 1898
Obi Papilio tydeus obiensis Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 : 416, TL: Obi
Papilio tydeus obiensis ; [BAUR, 104]

Papilio bridgei Mathew, 1886
Bougain. See [About maps] Papilio bridgei Mathew, 1886; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1886 : 349, pl. 34, f. 2, TL: Treasury I.
?Papilio bridgei nobilior Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 425, TL: Bougainville, Alu. Tauro, Choiseul, Munia
rookiensis Strand, 1914; Int. Ent. Z. 8: 103
= ; [NHM]
pseudoprospero Strand, 1914; Int. Ent. Z. 8: 103
= ; [NHM]
Papilio ormenus ab. rookiensis ; Strand, 1916, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 22, pl. 13, f. 1
Papilio ormenus ab. pseudoprospero ; Strand, 1916, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 22
Papilio bridgei ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 309
Menelaides bridgei ;

Larva on Citrus [BAUR]

Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, Shortland, Treasury Is., Fauro Is. Papilio bridgei ab. gorei Ribbe, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (20): 154
Papilio bridgei bridgei ; [BAUR, 104]
Papilio bridgei bridgei f. gorei ; [BAUR, 105, f.]
P. b. ortegae Rothschild²
Florida Is. Papilio bridgei ortegae ; [BAUR, 104 (text)]
P. b. hecataeus Godman & Salvin, 1888
Guadalcanar Papilio hecataeus Godman & Salvin, 1888; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1 (3): 213, TL: Aola, Guadalcanar I.
Papilio hecataeus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 310
Papilio bridgei hecataeus ; [BAUR, 104 (text)]
P. b. tryoni Mathew, 1889
Ugi, San Cristobal Papilio tryoni Mathew, 1889; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1889 (2) : 315, TL: Ugi I., Solomon Is.
Papilio bridgei tryoni ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 310; [BAUR, 104 (text)]
P. b. prospero Grose-Smith, 1889
New Georgia Group Papilio prospero Grose-Smith, 1889; Ent. mon. Mag. 25 : 302, TL: Rubiana Lagoon
Papilio prospero ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1890, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 19, pl. 9, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 311
Papilio bridgei prospero ; [BAUR, 104 (text)]

Papilio weymeri Niepelt, 1914
Manus Island, Admiralty Is.. See [About maps] Papilio weymeri Niepelt, 1914; in Strand, Lepid. Niepeltiana (1) : 53, TL: Admiralty Islands
cartereti Oberthür²
Menelaides weymeri ;
Papilio weymeri ; [BAUR, 104]
Menelaides weymeri ;

Papilio gambrisius Cramer, [1777]
Serang, Moluccas, Amboina Papilio gambrisius Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 95, pl. 157, f. A, B, TL: Amboina
Papilio amphitrion Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 10, pl. 7, f. A, B (nom. nud.?)
Papilio fusconiger Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 88
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 303
Papilio drusius Cramer, [1779]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (17-21): 63, 64, pl. 229, f. A, pl. 230, f. A, TL: Amboina
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 303
Papilio drimachus Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 31, TL: Amboina
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 303
Papilio gambrisius ♂-ab. abbreviatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 303, TL: Celebes?
Menelaides gambrisius ;
Papilio amphitrion ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 302
Papilio gambrisius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 303; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 3]
Serang, Ambon Papilio gambrisius gambrisius ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 107; [BAUR, 106]
?P. g. colossus Fruhstorfer, 1899
Ceram Papilio gambrisius colossus Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 420, TL: Ceram
P. g. buruanus Rothschild, 1897
Buru Papilio gambrisius buruanus Rothschild, 1897; Novit. Zool. 4 (1): 181, TL: Tifu Bay, Buru
Papilio gambrisius buruanus ; [BAUR, 106]

Papilio inopinatus Butler, 1883
Romang, Babar, Damar, Tanimbar Papilio inopinatus Butler, 1883; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1883 : 370, TL: Maroe I., Tenimber I.
?Papilio inopinatus inauris Fruhstorfer, 1904; Ent. Zs. 18 (12) : 45, TL: Babber I.
?Papilio inopinatus inauris Fruhstorfer, 1904; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 142, TL: Babber I.
inopinatus kosmos Fruhstorfer²; (?komos)
Menelaides inopinatus ;
Papilio inopinatus ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1893, Rhop. Exot. [1] 2: (Papilio) 27, pl. 12, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 309; [BAUR, 106]

Papilio woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888
Bougain, Solomon Is.. See [About maps] Papilio woodfordi Godman & Salvin, 1888; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1 (2): 100, TL: Alu & Fauro, Solomon Is.
Menelaides woodfordi ;
Papilio woodfordi ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1891, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 21, pl. 10, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 301; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 9]

Larva on Citrus [BAUR]

Bougainville, Shortland Is. Papilio woodfordi woodfordi ; [BAUR, 98]
P. w. choiseuli Rothschild, 1908
Choiseul Papilio woodfordi choiseuli Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 172, TL: Choiseul, Salamons
Papilio woodfordi choiseuli ; [BAUR, 98 (text)]
P. w. laarchus Godman & Salvin, 1888
New Georgia Group Papilio laarchus Godman & Salvin, 1888; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1 (3): 214, TL: Rubiana I.
Papilio laarchus ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1890, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 17, pl. 8, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 300
Papilio woodfordi laarchus ; [BAUR, 98 (text)]
P. w. ariel Grose-Smith, 1889
Santa Isabel Papilio ariel Grose-Smith, 1889; Ent. mon. Mag. 25 : 303, TL: Isabel I.
Papilio ariel ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1890, Rhop. Exot.: 15, [1] 1: pl. 7, f. 1-2
Papilio laarchus ariel ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 301
Papilio woodfordi ariel ; [BAUR, 98 (text)]

?Papilio erskinei Mathew, 1886
Ugi Is. Papilio erskinei Mathew, 1886; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1886 : 348, pl. 34, f. 1, TL: Ugi I, Solomon Is.
Papilio erskinei ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 300; [BAUR, 98 (text)]
Papilio woodfordi erskinei ;

Papilio ptolychus Godman & Salvin, 1888
Guadalcanal, Florida Is.. See [About maps] Papilio ptolychus Godman & Salvin, 1888; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1 (2): 99, TL: Guadalcanar I.
Menelaides ptolychus ;
Papilio ptolychus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 301; [BAUR, 98]

?Papilio heringi Niepelt, 1924
heringi Niepelt, 1924; Int. Ent. Zs. 18: 69, TL: Halmaheira

The godeffroyi species-group

Papilio godeffroyi Semper, 1866
Samoa Papilio godeffroyi Semper, 1866; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) 2 : 469, pl. 24, f. 1-2, TL: Upolu
Papilio godeffroyi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 338; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 7]

Papilio amynthor Boisduval, 1859
New Caledonia, , Loyalty Is., Norfolk Is. Papilio amynthor Boisduval, 1859; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (3) 7 : clv, TL: New Caledonia
Papilio ilioneus Donovan, 1805; Epitome nat. Hist. Ins. New Holland: pl. 13 (?preocc.), TL: "New South Wales" [error]
Papilio amphiaraus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 321, 369 (repl. Papilio ilioneus Donovan, 1805)
Papilio abstrusus Butler, [1876]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1875 (4) : 618, TL: Maré, Loyalty Is.
Papilio ilioneus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 337
Menelaides amynthor ;
Papilio ilioneus ; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 9]
?Papilio amynthor ilioneus ; [BAUR, 100 (text)]
Papilio amynthor amynthor ; [BAUR, 100]
Papilio ilioneus ab. amynthor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 337

Papilio schmeltzi Herrich-Schäffer, 1869
Fiji Papilio schmeltzi Herrich-Schäffer, 1869; Stettin ent. Ztg 30 (1-3) : 78, pl. 1, f. 1, TL: Ovalau
Papilio schmeltzi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 338; [BAUR, 100]

The polytes species-group

Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758
NW.India, Ceylon, India, Burma, Himalayas, W.China, Riu-Kiu. See [About maps] Common Mormon
Papilio polytes Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 460, TL: S.China
Papilio walkeri Janson, 1879; Cistula ent. 2 (21) : 433, pl. 8, f. 2, TL: S.India
Papilio depicta Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Wochenbl. 25 (9): 38
Papilio ocha Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Wochenbl. 25 (9): 38
Papilio polytes passienus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: S.Celebes
Papilio polytes falcidius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Bangkai
?Papilio polytes(?) nicomachus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Buru
Papilio polytes ab. chrysos Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 (11) : 247, TL: Pnom-Penh, Cambodia
Papilio ab. inaequalis Murayama, 1958; New Ent. 7 (1): 27, TL: Formosa
Papilio ab. nubes Murayama, 1958; New Ent. 7 (1): 27, TL: Formosa
Papilio abdulasizia Tung, 1982; Tokurana (4): 58
Papilio astyanax Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 13 (preocc.)
Papilio hector de Haan, 1840; Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Overz. Bez. (Zool.): 39 (preocc.)
Papilio chalcas Fabricius, 1938; in Bryk, Systema Glossatorum: 24. (preocc.)
Papilio polytes ♂-ab. magicus Murayama, 1959; Tyô to Ga 10 (4): 67, f. 6, 9, TL: Koshun, Formosa
Papilio polytes polytes, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio walkeri ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 338
Menelaides polytes ;
Papilio polytes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 343; [BIR, 392]; [BOR, 72]; [MRS, 134]
Menelaides polytes ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9
Papilio (Menelaides) polytes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
[polytes-1v.jpg] 769x513 (~72Kb) underside Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko [polytes-2.jpg] 769x513 (~72Kb) Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko [polytes-3l.jpg] 600x400 (~43Kb) larva India: Pune, 15.8.2008 © Kedar Tokekar
[polytes-3la.jpg] 600x400 (~40Kb) larva India: Pune, 23.8.2008 © Kedar Tokekar [polytes-3lb.jpg] 600x400 (~31Kb) larva India: Pune, 23.8.2008 © Kedar Tokekar [polytes-3lx.jpg] 600x400 (~33Kb) larva India: Pune, 23.8.2008 © Kedar Tokekar
[polytes-3u.jpg] 600x400 (~40Kb) upperside India: Pune, 13.9.2008 © Kedar Tokekar [polytes.jpg] 1024x768 (~79Kb) Oppadake, Okinawa, Ryukyu, Japan, 7-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Citrus spp., Clausena lansium, Fortunella japonica, Glycosmis citricola, Zanthoxylum avicennae, Z. nitidum, Toddalia asiatica [MRS], Murraya, Triphasia, Aegle, Euodia, Clausena, Atalantia, Poncirus [BMP], Aegle, Atalantia, Citrus, Clausena, Euodia, Fortunella, Glycosmis, Micromelum, Murraya, Paramignya, Poncirus, Toddalia, Triphasia, Zanthoxylum Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88


polytes f. pammon; (female form)
Papilio pammon Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 460, TL: Asia
Papilio polytes ♀-f. pammon ab. scintillans Murayama, 1959; Tyô to Ga 10 (4): 67, f. 4, 7, TL: Koshun, Formosa
[pammon-1f.jpg] 1049x776 (~102Kb) female Oppadake, Okinawa, Ryukyus, Japan, 8-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Mimics Pachliopta aristolochiae.


Princeps heroicus stichius Hübner, [1808]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 11808, TL: pl. [112]
polytes f. stichius ; [BIR, 393]
Papilio polytes ♀-ab. stichius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 347
Indo-China, China, Taiwan Papilio pammon var. borealis C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (1): 22, TL: Ning-Po
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45
Papilio pammon var. thibetanus Oberthür, 1886; Étud. d'Ent. 11 : 14, TL: Chapa
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45
Papilio polytes yunnana Mell, 1938; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 1938 (2) : 313 (preocc. Papilio yunnana Oberthür, 1907)
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45
Papilio polytes flavolineatus Chou, Yuan & Wang, 2000; , TL: Jiangsu, E. China
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45
Papilio obscuras Chou, Yuan & Wang, 2000; Sichuan
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45
Papilio polytes borealis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 348
Papilio polytes borealis ab. thibetanus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 348
Papilio polytes thibetanus ; [MRS, 134]
Papilio polytes polytes ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45 (note)
P. p. romulus Cramer, [1775]
India - Burma, Ceylon Papilio romulus Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 67, pl. 43, f. A, TL: S. India, Coromandel Coast
Papilio cyrus Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 7, no. 19
Papilio mutius Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 3, TL: Tranquebar
Papilio polytes var. ceylanicus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 319, TL: Rambodde, Ceylon
Papilio sakontala Moore, 1903; 232, pl. 465, f. 1, TL: Sylhet
Papilio polytes polycles Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 309, TL: Okinawa; Ishigaki
Papilio polytes ♀ f. rubida Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 179, TL: Malabar
Papilio polytes romulus ab. astreans Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 61, TL: S.India
Papilio polytes pammon(?) f. cyroides Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Sikkim
Papili ab. coomani Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 116
Papilio f. joannisi Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 116
Papiliio ab. obliterata Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 116
Papilio polytes ♀-f. cyrus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 347
Papilio polytes ♀-f. loc. romulus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 347
Papilio polytes neomelanides Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Perak; Singapore
Papilio polytes romulus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]

Papilio polytes romulus ♀-f. cyrus ;
polytes romulus ♀-f. polytes ;
polytes romulus ♀-f. theseus ;
Laertias romulus ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 150, pl. 59, f. 1a-c
?polytes ♀-f. romulus ; [BIR, 393]
?polytes ♀-f. cyrus ; [BIR, 393]
Papilio (Princeps) polytes romulus ; [BMP: 69, pl. 3, f. 14]
Papilio (Princeps) polytes romulus f. polytes ; [BMP: 69, pl. 3, f. 13]
Papilio polytes romulus ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45 (note)
[romulus-1.jpg] 1034x910 (~198Kb) Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Si Racha environs, the Chan-ta-Then River valley at lower reaches, 12th January 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [romulus-1u.jpg] 1094x883 (~157Kb) upperside Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Si Racha environs, the Chan-ta-Then River valley at lower reaches, 12th January 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [romulus-1v.jpg] 1200x918 (~157Kb) underside Thailand, Chon Buri Province, Si Racha environs, the Chan-ta-Then River valley at lower reaches, 12th January 2006, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

P. p. alphenor Cramer, [1776]
Philippine Mormon
Papilio alphenor Cramer, [1776]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (8): 141, pl. 90, f. B, TL: "China" [?error]
Papilio gronovii Scopoli, 1772; Annus, Historico-Naturalis, 5: 112
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 351
Papilio polytes alphenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 351
Papilio (Menelaides) alphenor ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. p. theseus Cramer, [1777]
Sumatra, Borneo Papilio theseus Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 128, pl. 180, f. B, TL: Sumatra occ.
Papilio numa Weber, 1801; Obs. Ent.: 106, TL: Sumatra
Papilio melanides de Haan, 1840; Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Overz. Bez. (Zool.): 40, pl. 8, f. 3, TL: Banjermassin, S. Borneo
?valeria Jordan
polytes theseus ♀-f. nonia ;
polytes theseus ♀-f. numa ;
polytes theseus ♀-f. theseus ;
Papilio polytes theseus ♀-ab. melanides ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 350
P. p. ledebouria Eschscholtz, 1821
Philippines Papilio ledebouria Eschscholtz, 1821; in Kotzebue, Entdeck. Reise Süd-See 3 (App. 5): 206, pl. 3, f. 7, TL: Philipp.
= Papilio polytes alphenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 351
Papilio elyros Gray, 1856; List Spec. lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 26 (nom. nud.?), TL: Philippine Is.
= Papilio polytes alphenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 351
Papilio horsfieldii Reakirt, [1865]; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 3 : 476, TL: Philippine Is.
= Papilio polytes alphenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 351
Papilio polytes alphenor ♀-f. horsfieldi Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 352
Papilio polytes alphenor ♀-f. alphenor Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 352
Papilio polytes alphenor ♀-f. loc. ledebourius Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 352
Papilio polytes alphenor ♀-f. loc. elyros Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 352
polytes ledebourdia f. praxilla ;
polytes ledebourdia f. elyros ;
polytes ledebourdia f. horsfieldi ;
Menelaides polytes ledebouria ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 54, f. 4-8, pl. 55, f. 1-3
P. p. nikobarus C. Felder, 1862
Nicobar Is. Papilio pammon var. nikobarus C. Felder, 1862; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 483, TL: Nankauri, Nicobar Is.
P. p. javanus Felder, 1862
S.Sumatra, Java, Biliton, Bangka, Bali Papilio polytes var. javanus Felder, 1862; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 486, TL: Java
Papilio antiphus de Haan, 1840; Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Overz. Bez. (Zool.): 40, pl. 8, f. 2, TL: Pontianak, Banjermassin, Padang
Papilio polytes theseus ♀-f. javanus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 349
Papilio polytes javanus ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 107
P. p. alcindor Oberthür, 1879
Sulawesi, Salayer, Buton Papilio pammon var. alcindor Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 48, 113, pl. 6, f. 4, TL: Celebes
Papilio alphenor var. thesalphenor Staudinger, 1895; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (2) : 343, TL: Saleyer
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 350
Papilio polytes alcindor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 350
Papilio (Menelaides) polytes alcindor ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. p. timorensis C. & R. Felder, 1864
Wetar, Leti, Timor(?), Babar Is. Papilio polytes var. timorensis C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 319 (repl. Papilio polyphontes de Haan, 1840), TL: Timor
Papilio polyphontes de Haan, 1840; Verh. Nat. Gesch. Ned. Overz. Bez. (Zool.): 39, pl. 8, f. 4, TL: Timor
Papilio polytes ab. virilis Röber, 1891; Tijdschr. Ent. 34: 272, TL: Banka I.
Papilio polytes theseus ♀-f. virilis Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 349
Papilio polytes theseus ♀-f. loc. polyphontes Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 350
♀-f. timorensis ;
Papilio polytes timorensis ; [BAUR, 92]
P. p. nicanor C. & R. Felder, 1865
Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Bachan, Obi Papilio nicanor C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 319 (nom. nud.?), TL: Batjan, Halmahera
Papilio nicanor C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 102, pl. 10, f. c, d, TL: Batjan, Halmahera
Papilio polytes nicanor ♀-f. manzer Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (1) : 65, TL: Batjan
Papilio polytes nicanor ♀-f. typicus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (1) : 65, TL: Batjan
Papilio polytes nicanor ♀-f. manzer ; [BAUR, 93, f.]
Papilio polytes nicanor ♀-f. typicus ; [BAUR, 93, f.]
Papilio polytes nicanor ; [BAUR, 92]
P. p. mandane Rothschild, 1895
W.China Papilio polytes ♀-f. mandane Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 348, TL: W.China.
Papilio polytes mandane ; [MRS, 134]
P. p. perversus Rothschild, 1895
Talaud, Sangir Papilio polytes perversus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 353, TL: Sangir; Talaut
Papilio polytes ♀-f. martius Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 353
Papilio polytes ♀-f. atavus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 353
Papilio polytes alcindor ♀-f. alpheios Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 343
= ; Moonen, 1998, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 49 (3) : 225
Papilio polytes alpheios ; Fruhstorfer, 1909, Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178
Papilio (Menelaides) alphenor perversus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. p. polycritos Fruhstorfer, 1902
Banggai, Sula Is. Papilio polytes polycritos Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 343, TL: Sula-Besi; Sula-Mangoli
Papilio (Menelaides) alphenor polycritos ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. p. messius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Lombok Papilio polytes messius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178 (?preocc. Papilio demolion messius Fruhstorfer, 1908)
P. p. vigellius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Bawean Papilio polytes vigellius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Bawean
P. p. pasikrates Fruhstorfer, 1908
Taiwan, Philippines (Batanes) Papilio polytes pasikrates ♂ ab. gynaiensis Murayama & Shimonoya, 1963; Tyô to Ga 13 (3): 58, f. 29-30, TL: Gynai, Formosa
Papilio polytes pasikrates ♀ ab. baikeiensis Murayama & Shimonoya, 1963; Tyô to Ga 13 (3): 58, f. 37, TL: Baikei, Formosa
polytes pasikrates f. fulvifasciatus Shirozu
Papilio polytes pasikrates ; [MRS, 134]
Menelaides polytes pasikrates ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 54, f. 1-3

Larva on Citrus spp., Zanthoxylum nitidum, Clausena excavata, Toddalia asiatica [MRS]

P. p. sotira Jordan, 1909
Sumbawa polytes sotira Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 61, TL: Sumbawa
P. p. tucanus Jordan, 1909
Tukangbesi Is. polytes tucanus Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 62
Papilio (Menelaides) polytes tucanus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. p. stichioides Evans, 1927
S.Andaman Papilio stichioides Evans, 1927; Indian Butterflies (ed. 1): 32
P. p. steffi (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Bongao, Sibutu, Tawitawi) Menelaides polytes steffi Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides polytes steffi ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 55, f. 3-5
P. p. liujidongi Huang, 2003
Yunnan Papilio polytes liujidongi Huang, 2003; Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 45, pl. 4, f. 7-10, TL: Nidadan, Nujian valley, NW.Yunnan
Misidentified/misapplied:
Papilio polytes romulus; Huang, 2001

Papilio ambrax Boisduval, 1832
New Guinea - Queensland. See [About maps] Ambrax Butterfly
Papilio ambrax Boisduval, 1832; in d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe (Faune ent. Pacif.) 1 : 40, TL: New Guinea
Papilio orophanes Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 275, TL: "Pris au pays des Papous ou aux Moluques"
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 354
Papilio ambrax decebalus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: New Guinea
Papilio ambrax decebalus f. ambracina Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: New Guinea
Papilio ambrax mazaios Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: New Guinea, Milne Bay
Papilio ambrax akames Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Fergusson I.
Papilio ambrax, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Menelaides ambrax ;
Papilio ambrax ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 354; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 15]

Larva on Citrus, Morinda citrifola [BAUR], Citrus spp., Clausena brevistyla, Limonia acidissima, Microcitrus garrawayae, M. inodora, Murraya koenigii, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. brachyacanthum, Z. nitidum, Z. ovalifolium K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)

W.Irian - Papua Papilio ambracia Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 54, TL: Waigeu
Papilio ambrax ♂-ab. conspectus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 355, TL: Waigeu
Papilio ambrax ambrax ♀-f. lutosa Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178
Papilio ambrax ab. ambracius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 355
Papilio ambrax ambrax ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 107; [BAUR, 93 (text)]
P. a. dunali Montrouzier, 1856
Woodlark I. Papilio dunali Montrouzier, 1856; Ann. Sci. Phys. Lyon (2) 8: 396, TL: Woodlark I.
Papilio dunali ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 357
Papilio ambrax dunali ; [BAUR, 93 (text)]
P. a. epirus Wallace, 1865
Aru Papilio epirus Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 54, TL: Aru Is.
Papilio ambrax epirus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 356; [BAUR, 93 (text)]
P. a. egipius Miskin, 1876
Queensland Papilio egipius Miskin, 1876; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1876 (3) : 451, TL: Rockingham Bay
Papilio ambrax egipius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 356; [BAUR, 93]
P. a. artanus Rothschild, 1908
Mefor, Geelvink Bay Papilio ambrax artanus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 173, TL: Suer, Mefor I., Geelvink Bay
Papilio ambrax artanus ; [BAUR, 93 (text)]

Papilio phestus Guérin-Méneville, 1830
Solomon Is., New Britain. See [About maps] Papilio phestus Guérin-Méneville, 1830; Voyage Coquille, 2 (2) : pl. 14, f. 2
Menelaides phestus ;
Papilio phestus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 356; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 6]

Larva on Citrus [BAUR]

New Ireland, New Hanover Papilio phestus phestus ; [BAUR, 94 (text)]
P. p. parkinsoni Honrath, 1886
New Britain Papilio parkinsoni Honrath, 1886; Berl. ent. Z. 30 (1): 129, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: New Britain
Papilio parkinsoni var. minor Honrath, 1886; Berl. ent. Z. 30 (1): 130, pl. 5, f. 2, TL: New Britain
Papilio phestus ab. minor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 357
Papilio phestus parkinsoni ; [BAUR, 94]
P. p. reductus Rothschild, 1915
Admiralty Is. Papilio phestus reductus Rothschild, 1915; Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 193, TL: Manus, Admiralty Islands
Papilio phestus reductus ; [BAUR, 94 (text)]
P. p. minusculus Ribbe, 1898
Solomon Is. - New Georgia Group Papilio parkinsoni var. minusculus Ribbe, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (21): 161
Papilio phestus minusculus ; [BAUR, 94 (text)]

The castor species-group

Papilio castor Westwood, 1842
Sikkim, Assam, Burma. See [About maps] Common Raven
Papilio castor Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 37, TL: Sylhet
Papilio pollux Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 37, TL: Sylhet
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 357
Menelaides castor ;
?Tamera castor ;
Papilio castor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 357; [BIR, 291]; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 14]; [BOR, 88]; [MRS, 142]
Assam, Sikkim
P. c. dioscurus Jordan, 1909
N.Vietnam Papilio castor dioscurus Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 45, TL: Than Moi, N.Vietnam
Papilio castor dioscurus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
P. c. phanrangensis Fruhstorfer, 1901
S.Vietnam Papilio mahadeva phanrangensis Fruhstorfer, 1901; Soc. Ent. 16 (13): 98, TL: S. Annam
P. c. khmer Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912
Cambodia Papilio castor var. khmer Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 (11) : 246, TL: Pnom-Penh, Cambodia
Papilio castor khmer, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
P. c. hamela Crowley, 1900
Hainan Papilio hamela Crowley, 1900; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1900 (3) : 509, pl. 35, f. 3, TL: Hainan
Papilio castor hamelus ; [MRS, 142]
P. c. formosanus Rothschild, 1896
Taiwan Papilio castor formosanus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (4) : 423, TL: N.Formosa, hills near Kelung
?Papilio gotonis Matsumura, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (13) : 54, TL: Formosa
Papilio castor formosanus ; [MRS, 142]

Larva on Toddalia asiatica, Murraya paniculata, M. crenulata, Clycosmis citrifolia [MRS]


Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880
W.Ghats. See [About maps] Malabar Raven
Papilio dravidarum Wood-Mason, 1880; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 1880: 144, pl. 8, f. 1
Papilio dravidarum ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 359; [BIR, 390]; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 14]; [BOR, 88]

Mimic of Euploea core. [BIR]


Papilio mahadeva Moore, [1879]
-. See [About maps] Burmese Raven
Papilio mahadeva Moore, [1879]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (4) : 840, pl. 51, f. 1, TL: Upper Tenasserim, Moolai to Moolat, 4500ft
Papilio mahadeva maheswara Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 45
Papilio castor mahadeva, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Menelaides mahadeva ;
Papilio mahadeva ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 359; [BOR, 88]
Papilio mahadevus ; [MRS, 143]
Papilio (Princeps) mahadeva ; [BMP: 70, pl. 3, f. 10]
Papilio castor mahadeva ;
Thailand
P. m. mehala Grose-Smith, 1886
Burma Papilio mehala Grose-Smith, 1886; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18 (104) : 150, TL: Tungu, Burma
Papilio castor mehala, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio mehala ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1888, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 3, pl. 2, f. 1-2
Papilio castor mehala ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 358
P. m. selangoranus Fruhstorfer, 1901
N.Peninsular Malaya Papilio selangoranus Fruhstorfer, 1901; Soc. Ent. 16 (7) : 51, TL: Selangore, Malaysia
P. m. choui Li, 1994
Guangxi Papilio mahadevus choui Li, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 750, 143, f. 4, TL: Longzhou (Nonggang 240m), Guanxi

The fuscus species-group

Papilio fuscus Goeze, 1779
Timor, N.Australia, New Guinea. See [About maps] Papilio fuscus Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 87
Papilio canopus sumbanus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (2) : 231, TL: Patadala, Sumba
Papilio capaneus f. yorkeanus Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 60, TL: Cape York
?Papilio yorkiana Fruhstorfer, 1900
Papilio fuscus offakus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Ent. Zs. 18 (12) : 45, TL: Waigiu
Papilio fuscus offakus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 17 (1) : 143, TL: Waigiu
Papilio fuscus dayacus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 171, TL: N.Borneo
Papilio oitylus Fruhstorfer, 1916; Archiv Naturgesch. 81 A (11) : 74
Papilio pyrgoteles Fruhstorfer, 1916; Archiv Naturgesch. 81 A (11) : 74
Papilio fuscus f. lamponiides Strand, 1916; Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 23, pl. 13, f. 2, TL: Rook I.
Papilio fuscus, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Menelaides fuscus ;
Papilio fuscus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 292; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 10]
Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Larva on Citrus, Glycosmis, (Papua) Micromelum minutum, (Bougainville) [BAUR] Bosistoa brassii, Citrus aurantium, C. aurantifolia, C. limon, C. reticulata, C. sinensis, C. spp., Clausena brevistyla, Fagara sp., Glycosmis pentaphylla, Halfordia scleroxyla, Microcitrus australasica, M. garrawayae, M. inodora, Micromelum minutum, Murraya koenigii, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. brachyacanthum, Z. nitidum K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140), Morinda, Bosistoa, Citrus, Clausena, Euodia, Fagara, Geijera, Glycosmis, Halfordia, Microcitrus, Micromelum, Murraya, Zanthoxylum Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Buru, Ambon, Serang Papilio cinereomaculatus Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 88
Papilio severus Cramer, [1780]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (23-24): 153, pl. 277, f. A, B, TL: Amboina
Papilio castaneus Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 88
f. madanus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 (24): 188
Papilio fuscus castaneus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 294
Papilio fuscus fuscus ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 106; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. canopus Westwood, 1842
NW.Australia, Northern Territory, Melville Papilio canopus Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 38, TL: Melville I.
Papilio canopus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 341; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 13]; [BAUR, 97]
Papilio canopus canopus ; [BAUR, 97]
P. f. capaneus Westwood, 1843
Cape York - Northern N.S.W, N.Queensland Capaneus Butterfly
Papilio capaneus Westwood, 1843; Arcana entomologica, 2: 15, pl. 52, f. 1-2, TL: Australia
Papilio fuscus capaneus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 296; [BAUR, 95]
P. f. vollenhovii C. & R. Felder, 1865
Timor Papilio vollenhovii C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 318 (nom. nud.?), TL: Arch. mal.
Papilio vollenhovii C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 97, pl. 10, f. f
Papilio canopus vollenhovii ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342; [BAUR, 97 (text)]
P. f. pertinax Wallace, 1865
Sulawesi, Tukangbesi, Salaya, Sula Is. Papilio pertinax Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 49, pl. 5, f. 4, TL: Celebes
= Papilio fuscus castaneus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 294
Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus pertinax ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. hypsicles Hewitson, 1868
New Hebrides Papilio hypsicles Hewitson, 1868; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio IX): [18], pl. [9], f. 29, TL: New Hebrides
Papilio canopus hypsicles ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 341; [BAUR, 97]
P. f. indicatus Butler, 1876
S.New Guinea, Papua, D'Entrecasteaux, Woodlark, Lousiades, Torres Straits Is. Papilio indicatus Butler, 1876; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 18 (105) : 248, TL: Pt. Moresby
Papilio indicatus ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1888, Rhop. Exot.: 7, [1] 3: pl. 3, f. 1-2
Papilio fuscus indicatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 296; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. cilix Godman & Salvin, 1879
New Hanover, New Ireland Papilio cilix Godman & Salvin, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 : 653, TL: New Ireland
Papilio cilix ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 297
Papilio fuscus cilix ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. minor Oberthür, 1879²
N.Sulawesi, Sangihe Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus minor ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. beccarii Oberthür, 1880
W.Irian, NW.New Guinea Papilio beccarii Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 46 (nom. nud), TL: Dorey
Papilio beccarii Oberthür, 1880; Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova 15 : 461, pl. 3, f. 1, TL: Waigeu, Andai
Papilio fuscus beccarii ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 295; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. thomsoni Butler, 1884
Kai Is. Papilio thomsoni Butler, 1884; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 13 (75) : 197, TL: Key Dulan
Papilio langeni Druce, 1888; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 2 (9) : 234, TL: Key Is.
= Papilio albinus thomsoni ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio albinus thomsoni ab. mordingtoni Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (3): 322, TL: Little Kei I.
Papilio albinus thomsoni ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio fuscus thomsoni ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. xenophilus Mathew, 1886
Guadalcanal, Santa Isabel, New Georgia Group Papilio xenophilus Mathew, 1886; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1886 : 348, TL: Ugi, Solomon Is.
Papilio fuscus xenophilus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 297; [BAUR, 96]
P. f. rotalita (Swinhoe, 1893)
Aru, Key Charus rotalita Swinhoe, 1893; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 12 (70) : 257, TL: Key Is.
Papilio septimius Staudinger, 1895; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (2) : 345, TL: Aru I.
= ; [NHM]
Papilio fuscus rotalita ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 295; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. hypsiclides Rothschild, 1894
Wetar Papilio vollenhovii hypsiclides Rothschild, 1894; Novit. Zool. 1 (5): 685:Wetter I.
Papilio canopus hypsiclides ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342; [BAUR, 97 (text)]
P. f. alorensis Rothschild, 1894
Alor Papilio vollenhovii alorensis Rothschild, 1894; Novit. Zool. 1 (5): 686, TL: Alor
Papilio canopus alorensis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342
P. f. umbrosus Rothschild, 1894
Sambawa Papilio vollenhovii umbrosus Rothschild, 1894; Novit. Zool. 1 (5): 686, TL: Sambawa
Papilio canopus umbrosus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342
P. f. lunifer Rothschild, 1895
Talaud, Sangie Is. Papilio hipponous lunifer Rothschild, 1894; Novit. Zool. 1 (5): 687, TL: Sangir I. (Sangi, Sanghi, Sanghir)
Papilio hipponous lunifer ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 343
Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus lunifer ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. canopinus Rothschild, 1895
Romang, Leti Is. Papilio canopus canopinus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342, TL: Moa Island
Papilio canopus canopinus ; [BAUR, 97 (text)]
P. f. tenimberensis Rothschild, 1896
Tanimbar, Babar Papilio canopus tenimberensis Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (1) : 65, TL: Timorlaut
Papilio canopus babberensis Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 311, TL: Babber
= Papilio canopus tenimberensis ; [NHM]
Papilio canopus tenimberensis ; [BAUR, 97]
P. f. hasterti Ribbe, 1907
Bougainville, Choiseul Papilio xenophilus hasterti Ribbe, 1907; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 20 (1,2) : 62, pl. 4, f. 1-2, TL: Bougainville
Papilio fuscus hasterti ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. porrothenus Jordan, 1909
Tanadjampea, Kalao, SW.Sulawesi fuscus porrothenus Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 56
Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus porrothenus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. lapathus Fruhstorfer, 1904
Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Bachan fuscus lapathus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 (24): 189
Papilio fuscus lapathus ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. ombiranus Rothschild, 1898
Obi Papilio fuscus ombiranus Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 : 417, TL: Obi
Papilio fuscus ombiranus ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. lamponius Fruhstorfer, 1904
New Britain fuscus lamponius Fruhstorfer, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 (24): 189
Papilio fuscus lamponius ; [BAUR, 96 (text)]
P. f. metagenes Fruhstorfer, 1904
Tukangbesi (Binongko) Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus metagenes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. croton Fruhstorfer, 1904
Damar fuscus croton Fruhstorfer, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 (23): 180
Papilio canopus croton ; [BAUR, 97 (text)]
P. f. talyabona Joicey & Talbot, 1932²
Sula Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus talyabona ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88
P. f. wasiensis Hanafusa, 1991²
Tukangbesi (Wangiwangi) Papilio (Menelaides) fuscus wasiensis ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 88

Papilio prexaspes C. & R. Felder, 1865
Peninsular Malaya, Sumatra. See [About maps] Papilio prexaspes C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 107, pl. 15, f. d, TL: Malacca
Papilio prexaspes C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 320 (nom. nud), TL: Malacca
Papilio prexaspes prexaspes, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio fuscus prexaspes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 297; [BOR]
Papilio (Princeps) prexaspes prexaspes ; [BMP: 69, pl. 4, f. 2]

Perhaps some other taxa from fusca need to be moved under prexaspes?

P. p. andamanicus Rothschild, 1908
Andaman Is. Papilio fuscus andamanicus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 171, TL: Andaman I.
Papilio prexaspes andamanicus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]

Papilio albinus Wallace, 1865
-. See [About maps] Papilio albinus Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 49, pl. 5, f. 5, TL: Dutch New Guinea
Papilio albinus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 298
Menelaides albinus ;
West Irian Papilio leucophanes Grose-Smith, 1894; Novit. zool. 1 (3): 584, TL: Humboldt Bay, New Guinea
Papilio albinus ab. leucophanes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio albinus albinus ; [BAUR, 98]
P. a. lesches Godman & Salvin, 1880
New Guinea Papilio lesches Godman & Salvin, 1880; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1880 : 614, TL: N. of Pt. Moresby, N. Guinea
Papilio bicolor Kirby, 1887; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 19 (113) : 361, TL: New Guinea
= Papilio lesches ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio bicolor ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1888, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 7, pl. 3, f. 3-4, [3]: (Additions-Corrections) vii
Papilio albinus ab. lesches ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 299
Papilio albinus lesches ; [BAUR, 98 (text)]

Papilio pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, [1887]
S.Burma, Thailand. See [About maps] Papilio pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, [1887]; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 55 Pt. II (5) : 434, pl. 20, f. 1, TL: Tavoy, S.Myanmar
Papilio hipponous siamensis Godfrey, 1916; J. nat. Hist. Soc. Siam 2 (2): 110, TL: E.Thailand
Papilio hipponous pitmani ;
Papilio pitmani ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 343
P. p. duboisi Vitalis de Salvaza, 1921
C.Vietnam Papilio pitmani duboisi Vitalis de Salvaza, 1921; Faune ent. Indo-Chine fr. 3: 12

Papilio hipponous C. & R. Felder, 1862
-. See [About maps] Papilio hipponous C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (9) : 283, TL: Luzon, Mindanao
Menelaides hipponous ;
Papilio hipponous ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 342; [BOR, 70]
Papilio (Menelaides) hipponous ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Larva on Citrus Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9

Philippines (Camiguin de Luzon, Luzon) Menelaides hipponous hipponous
Menelaides hipponous hipponous ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 44, f. 7-8
P. h. bazilanus Fruhstorfer, 1899
Philippines (Basilan, Mindanao) Papilio hipponous bazilanus Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 420, TL: Bazilan
Menelaides hipponous bazilanus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 46, f. 3
P. h. leptosephus Fruhstorfer, 1909
?Assam Papilio pitmani leptopsephus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Tonkin?
P. h. gamay (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Balabac, Palawan) Menelaides hipponous gamay Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous gamay ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 45, f. 1-2
P. h. madil (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Busuanga) Menelaides hipponous madil Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous madil ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 45, f. 3-4
P. h. daku (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Marinduque, Mindoro) Menelaides hipponous daku Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous daku ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 45, f. 5-6
P. h. rolandi (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Panay, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros) Menelaides hipponous rolandi Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous rolandi ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 45, f. 7-8, pl. 46, f. 1
P. h. palpag (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Sanga Sanga, Sibuti, Tawitawi) Menelaides hipponous palpag Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous palpag ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 46, f. 2
P. h. lynn (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Cuyo Is.) Menelaides hipponous lynn Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Menelaides hipponous lynn ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 46, f. 4

Papilio diophantus Grose-Smith, 1883
Sumatra. See [About maps] Papilio diophantus Grose-Smith, 1883; Ent. mon. Mag. 19 : 234, TL: Sumatra
Menelaides diophantus ;
Papilio diophanthus ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1887, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 1, pl. 1, f. 3-4
Papilio diophantus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 292; [BOR, 68]

Papilio antonio Hewitson, 1875
Philippines. See [About maps] Papilio antonio Hewitson, 1875; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio XIV): [25], pl. [14], f. 46
Papilio antonio ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 284; [BOR, 62]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9
Philippines (Basilan, Leyte, Mindanao) Papilio antonio antonia ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 44, f. 3-4
P. a. negrosiana Schröder & Treadaway, 1991
Philippines (S.Negros) Papilio antonio negrosiana ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 44, f. 5-6

Papilio noblei de Nicéville, [1889]
Burma. See [About maps] Papilio noblei de Nicéville, [1889]; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 57 Pt.II (4) : 287, TL: Karen Hills
Papilio henricus Oberthür, 1893; Étud. d'Ent. 17 : 3, pl. 4, f. 39, TL: Muang-Mou, Tonkin
Papilio noblei haynei Tytler, 1926; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 31 : 249, TL: Myitkyina, N.Burma
Papilio f. anteratra Rousseau-Decelle, 1947; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51: 129, TL: Tonkin
Papilio noblei, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio noblei ; [BOR, 62]; [MRS, 142]
Burma - Tavoy - N.Laos
P. n. hoa Gabriel, 1945
N.Vietnam Papilio noblei hoa Gabriel, 1945; Entomologist 78 : 152, TL: Chiem Hoa, C. Tonkin
Papilio noblei hoa ?Fruhstorfer

Papilio sakontala Hewitson, 1852
N.India - Assam, Naga Hills. See [About maps] Papilio sakontala Hewitson, 1852; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (2) 2 (1) : 24, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: Sylhet
Papilio sakontala ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 343; [BOR, 72]
?Papilio polytes ab. sakontala ; [Torben B. Larsen]

Papilio jordani Fruhstorfer, 1902
N.Celebes. See [About maps] Jordan's Mormon
Papilio jordani Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (10) : 74, TL: SE.Celebes
Papilio jordani ; Fruhstorfer, 1906, Ent. Zs. 20 (10) : 65, f. 1; [BOR, 70]
Papilio (Menelaides) jordani ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89

The helenus species-group

Papilio helenus Linnaeus, 1758
W.China, Ceylon, W.Ghats, Nilgiris, Palnis, Shevaroys, Coorg, Bangalore, Mussoorie - Assam, Burma, Japan, Riu-Kiu. See [About maps] Red Helen
Papilio helenus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 459, TL: Canton, China
Papilio helenus helenus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Charus helenus ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 149, pl. 58, f. 3
Menelaides helenus ;
Papilio helenus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 284; [BIR, 392]; [BOR, 64]; [MRS, 138]
Menelaides helenus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9
[helenus.jpg] 1024x768 (~149Kb) Yona, Okinawa, Japan, 7-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Zanthoxylum, Citrus, Toddalia Page & Treadaway, 2003, [BW]


N.India - China, Indo-China - Peninsular Malaya, Pulau Tioman Papilio helenus ab. rufatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 286, TL: Sikkim
Papilio helenus ab. aurea Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 (11) : 247, TL: Pnom-Penh, Cambodia
Papilio aspadantus Fruhstorfer, 1916; Archiv Naturgesch. 81 A (11) : 75
Papilio (Princeps) helenus helenus ; [BMP: 69, pl. 4, f. 6-7]

Larva on Zanthoxylum, Citrus [BMP]

P. h. hystaspes C. & R. Felder, 1862
Philippines Papilio hystaspes C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (9) : 283
Papilio varasi Reakirt, [1865]; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 3 : 465, TL: Philippines
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 288
Papilio helenus hystaspes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 288
Menelaides helenus hystaspes ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 55, f. 6-8, pl. 56, f. 1-4
P. h. nicconicolens Butler, 1881
Papilio nicconicolens Butler, 1881; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 7 (38) : 139, TL: Nikko
Papilio helenus nicconicolens ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 287
P. h. daksha Hampson, 1888
S.India Papilio (Charus) daksha Hampson, 1888; J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 57 (4) : 363
Papilio helenus daksha ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 286
P. h. palawanicus Staudinger, 1888
Philippines (Palawan, Balabac) Papilio helenus var. palawanicus Staudinger, 1888; Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (5) : 278, TL: Palawan
Papilio helenus palawanicus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 287
Menelaides helenus palawanicus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 56, f. 5-8
P. h. enganius Doherty, 1891
Sumatra, Java - Lombok, Borneo Papilio (Charus) helenus var. enganius Doherty, 1891; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 60 Pt.II (1) : 31, TL: Engano
?Papilio helenus neohelenus Fruhstorfer, 1904; Berl. ent. Zs. 49 (1/2) : 198, TL: Borneo
= ; [NHM]
Papilio helenus enganius ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (1): 106
P. h. mooreanus Rothschild, 1895
Ceylon Papilio helenus mooreanus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 286, TL: Ceylon
P. h. biseriatus Rothschild, 1895
Timor Papilio helenus biseriatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 287, TL: Dili
Papilio helenus biseriatus ; [BAUR, 92]
P. h. tambora Rothschild, 1908
Sumbawa Papilio helenus tambora Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 170, TL: Sumbawa
P. h. mangarinus Rothschild, 1908
Flores Papilio helenus mangarinus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 170, TL: S.Flores
P. h. jindanus Rothschild, 1908
Sumba Papilio helenus jindanus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 170, TL: Sumba
P. h. fortunius Fruhstorfer, 1908
Taiwan helenus fortunius Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Wochenbl. 25 (9): 38, TL: Formosa
Papilio helenus fortunius ab. opacus Murayama & Shimonoya, 1966; Tyô to Ga 15 (3/4) : 58, f. 4, TL: Poli
Papilio helenus fortunius ; [MRS, 138]

Larva on Citrus spp., Zanthoxylum nitidum, Z. ailanthoides, Toddalia asiatica, Euodia meliifolia, Fagara nitida [MRS]

P. h. boloboca Page & Treadaway, 1996
Philippines (Sanga Sanga, Tawitawi) Menelaides helenus boloboca ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 10, pl. 57, f. 1-3

Papilio sataspes C. & R. Felder, 1865
Celebes. See [About maps] Papilio sataspes C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 106, pl. 15, f. e, TL: Celebes
Papilio sataspes C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 320 (nom. nud.)
Papilio hecuba Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 51, pl. 5, f. 3, TL: Macassar, Celebes
= ; [NHM]
Papilio iswara sataspes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 289
Papilio helenus sataspes ;
Menelaides sataspes ;
Papilio sataspes ; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 6 (text)]
Papilio (Menelaides) sataspes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87
Sulawesi Papilio (Menelaides) sataspes sataspes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87
P. s. artaphernes Honrath, 1886
Bangkai I. Papilio helenus var. artaphernes Honrath, 1886; Berl. ent. Z. 30 (2): 295, TL: Bangkai I.
Papilio iswara artaphernes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 289
Papilio (Menelaides) sataspes artaphernes ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87
P. s. ahasverus Staudinger, 1895
Sula I. Papilio artaphernes var.(?) ahasverus Staudinger, 1895; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (2) : 347, TL: Mangola, Sulla Is.
= Papilio iswara artaphernes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 289
Papilio (Menelaides) sataspes ahasverus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 87

Papilio iswaroides Fruhstorfer, 1898
Malaysia, Sumatra. See [About maps] Papilio helenus iswaroides Fruhstorfer, 1898; Berl. Ent. Zs. 42 (3/4) : 304, TL: Mt. Battak
Papilio iswaroides ; [BOR, 66]
Sumatra
P. i. curtisi Jordan, 1909
Peninsular Malaya Papilio curtisi Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 55
Papilio (Princeps) iswaroides curtisi ; [BMP: 69, pl. 4, f. 8]

Papilio iswara White, 1842
-. See [About maps] Papilio iswara White, 1842; Entomologist 1 : 280, TL: Penang, Malaysia
Papilio iswara iswara, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Menelaides iswara ;
Papilio iswara ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 288; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 6]; [BOR, 68]
S.Burma - Singapore, Sumatra, Bangka Papilio (Princeps) iswara iswara ; [BMP: 69, pl. 4, f. 5]
P. i. araspes C. & R. Felder, 1859
N.Borneo, Natuna Is. Papilio araspes C. & R. Felder, 1859; Wien. ent. Monats. 3 (11): 321, TL: "Luzon" [error]
Papilio iswara araspes ; Fruhstorfer, 1899, Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 421

Papilio nephelus Boisduval, 1836
-. See [About maps] Papilio nephelus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 210, TL: Java
Menelaides nephelus ;
Papilio nephelus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 290; [BOR, 64]; [BOW: p. 135, f. 1]; [MRS, 140]
Java
P. n. annulus Pendlebury, 1936
Peninsular Malaya Papilio annulus Pendlebury, 1936; J. Fed. Malay St. Mus., 18 (1): 180
Papilio nephelus raya Corbet, 1937; Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 6 (3): 46, TL: Langkawi
Papilio nephelus annulus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio (Princeps) nephelus annulus Pendlebury, 1936; [BMP: 68, pl. 4, f. 3]
P. n. chaon Westwood, 1845
Orissa, Nepal - Assam, N.Burma, S.Yunnan Yellow Helen
Papilio chaon Westwood, 1845; Arcana entomologica, 2: 97, TL: Assam
Papilio chaon dispensator Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 73, TL: Tonkin
Papilio chaon duketius Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 73, TL: Thailand
Papilio chaon chaon f. leucacantha Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 73, TL: Sikkim
Papilio chaon ab. paryphanta Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 53, TL: Cherra Punji, Assam
Papilio chaon ab. xanthia Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1912 (11) : 247, TL: Pnom-Penh, Cambodia
Papilio ab. pseudochaonulus Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 42
Papilio ab. tripunctata Dufrane, 1936; Lambillionea 36 : 42
Papilio nephelus chaon, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio chaon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 291; [BIR, 392]
Menelaides chaon ;
Papilio nephelus chaon ; [MRS, 140]
P. n. albolineatus Forbes, 1885
Sumatra, Borneo Papilio albolineatus Forbes, 1885; Natur. Wand. E. Arch.: 275, TL: Borneo
Papilio nephelus saturnus ♀-ab. albolineatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 291
P. n. uranus Weymer, 1885
Nias Papilio uranus Weymer, 1885; Stettin ent. Ztg. 46 (4-6) : 271, TL: I. of Nias
Papilio nephelus uranus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 291
P. n. ducenarius Fruhstorfer, 1908
S.Burma Papilio chaon ducenarius Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (18) : 73, TL: Tenasserim
P. n. chaonulus Fruhstorfer, 1902
S.China, Haina, Taiwan Papilio chaon chaonulus Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (10) : 73, TL: Hainan, Five Finger Mts
?♂-ab. horina Tanaka
?♂-ab. iucomptus Murayama
Papilio nephelus chaonulus ; [MRS, 140]

Larva on Toddalia asiatica, Euodia meliifolia, Fagra rhetsa, Citrus spp. [MRS]

P. n. siporanus Hagen, 1898
Mentawai Is. Papilio siporanus Hagen, 1898; Ent. Nachr. 24 (13) : 193, TL: Mentawej Island
Papilio siporanus Hagen, 1902; Abh. Senckenb. Nat. Ges. 20 : 320, pl. 1, f. 1, TL: Mentawej
P. n. tellonus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Batu Is. Papilio nephelus tellonus Fruhstorfer, 1906; Ent Zs. 20 (15): 99, (16): 105, TL: Batu I.
P. n. sunatus Corbet, 1940
Peninsular Malaya Back and White Helen
Papilio nephelus sunatus Corbet, 1940; Entomologist 73 (2): 39
Papilio saturnus Guérin-Méneville, 1840; Rev. zool. (Soc. Cuvièr) 3 (2): 43 (preocc.), TL: "Côte Malaye"
Papilio neptunus Guérin-Méneville, 1843; in Delessert, Souvenirs Voy. Inde 2: pl. 18 (preocc.)
Papilio nephelus sunatus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio nephelus saturnus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 290
Papilio (Princeps) nephelus sunatus ; [BMP: 68, pl. 4, f. 4]

Larva on Zanthoxylum rhetsa [BMP]


Papilio nubilus Staudinger, 1895
Borneo. See [About maps] Papilio nubilus Staudinger, 1895; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (2) : 344, TL: Brunei, N. Borneo
Papilio nubilus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 291; [BOR, 70]
N.Borneo
P. n. musianus Rothschild, 1899
Papilio nubilus musianus Rothschild, 1899; Novit. Zool. 6 (1) : 67, TL: Upper Palembang district

The memnon species-group

Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758
China, Sikkim - Assam, Burma, Japan. See [About maps] Great Mormon
Papilio memnon Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 460, TL: Asia
?Papilio memnon ab. sitolensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 44 (1/2) : 59, TL: Nias
?Papilio memnon ab. sericatus Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 427
Papilio memnon f. taihokuana Matsumura, 1929; Insecta Matsumurana 3 (2/3) : 87, TL: Formosa
Papilio memnon memnoides Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 308, TL: Borneo
Menelaides memnon ;
Papilio memnon ; [BIR, 384]; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 15]; [BOR, 78]; [MRS, 124]
Menelaides memnon ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9
Papilio (Menelaides) memnon ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89
[memnon-1m.jpg] 640x480 (~66Kb) male Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, 16 June 2000), Photo © Erich Mangl [memnon-2f.jpg] 640x480 (~73Kb) female Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, 16 June 2000), Photo © Erich Mangl [memnon-3f.jpg] 1024x768 (~162Kb) female Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, 16 June 2000), Photo © Erich Mangl
[memnon-4m.jpg] 1600x1200 (~140Kb) male Butterfly House (Gran Canary, near Ingles, Autumn 2000), Photo © Aarno Junkkari [memnon-5.jpg] 769x513 (~119Kb) Thailand, Krabi 24.12.2003-7.1.2004, Photo © Olli Vesikko [memnon-f.jpg] 1024x768 (~123Kb) female Kayauchibanta, Okinawa, Ryukyu, Japan, 7-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt
[memnon-m.jpg] 1049x776 (~60Kb) male Kayauchibanta, Okinawa, Ryukyus, Japan, 8-93, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Citrus spp., Fortunella japonica [MRS], Aristolochia, Magnolia, Michelia, Atalantia, Citrus, Fortunella, Paramignya, Poncirus, Severenia, Toddalia, Zanthoxylum Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89


Java, Bawean, Natuna, Bangka, Borneo, Bali, Philippines (Mapun, Sanga Sanga) Papilio achates Sulzer, 1776; Gesch. Ins. nach linn. Syst.: 141, pl. 12, f. 2
Papilio atrovenatus Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 44
Papilio laomedon Cramer, [1776]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 78, pl. 50, f. A, B
Papilio achatiades Esper, 1790; Die ausl. Schmett. : 118, pl. 28, f. 2, pl. 29, f. 1
Papilio arbates Zinken, 1831; Nova Acta physico-med. [Leop. Carol.] 15 (1) : 151, TL: Java
Papilio memnon var. javanus Haase, 1893; Unters. üb. Mimicry: 57
Papilio memnon var. erebinus Haase, 1893; Unters. üb. Mimicry: 57
memnon memnon f. amura; (female form)
Papilio memnon ♀-f. laomedon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 314
Papilio memnon ♀-ab. erebinus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 314
Papilio memnon ♀-ab. javanus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 314
Papilio memnon ♀-f. achates ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 315
Menelaides memnon memnon ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 46, f. 5-8
P. m. agenor Linnaeus, 1768
Sikkim - Assam - Burma - Peninsular Malaya, S.Yunnan Papilio agenor Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 460, TL: Canton, China
Papilio androgeos Cramer, [1776]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (8): 142, pl. 91, f. A, B, TL: China
Papilio alcanor Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 107, pl. 166, f. A, TL: China
Papilio protenor Esper, 1792; Die ausl. Schmett. : 120, pl. 29, f. 2 (preocc.)
Iliades menstor Hübner, 1816; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 89
Papilio esperi Butler, 1879; Trans. linn. Soc. Lond. (2) 1 (8) : 553, pl. 68, f. 7, TL: Malacca
Papilio androgeus de Nicéville, 1881
Papilio phoenix Distant, 1885; Rhopalocera Malayana : 340, pl. 27, f. 7, TL: Malay Peninsula
Papilio cilix Distant, 1885; Rhopalocera Malayana : 340, pl. 29, f. 4, 5 (preocc.), TL: Malay Peninsula
Papilio androgeos depelchini Robbe, 1892; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 36 : 125, TL: Kurseong, Sikkim
Papilio memnon agenor ♂-ab. primigenius Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 319, TL: Sikkim, Khasia Hills
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-ab. butlerianus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 320 (nom. nov.)
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-ab. distantianus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 320 (nom. nov.)
Iliades polymnestoroides Moore, 1902; Lepidoptera Indica, 5 : 202, pl. 451, f. 1-2, TL: India
Papilio memnon agenor ab. vinius Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 307, TL: Malay Peninsula
Papilio memnon agenor f. rhetenorina Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 72, TL: N.India
Papilio memnon agenor f. ityla Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 98
Papilio memnon f. phoeniciana Strand, 1916; Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 25, pl. 13, f. 8, TL: Sikkim
Papilio memnon f. aphrodite Röber, 1927; Int. ent. Zs. 21 (13): 97, TL: Naga Hills
?Papilio memnon-agenor ♀ alcanor f. ensifer Rousseau-Decelle, 1933; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 37 : 302, TL: Khasia Hills, Assam
Papilio ab. pohli Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 116
Papilio f. subvenusia Dufrane, 1946; Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 82 : 116
Papilio aurantiaca Rousseau-Decelle, 1933; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 38 (17) : 273 (preocc.)
Papilio memnon agenor, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]

Papilio memnon agenor ab. depelchini ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 319
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-f. agenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 319
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-ab. phoenix ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 319
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-ab. loc. esperi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 320
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-ab. cilix ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 320
Papilio memnon agenor ♀-f. alcanor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 320
Papilio memnon f. butlerianus ; [BIR, 384]; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 16]
Papilio memnon f. alcanor ; [BIR, 384]
Papilio memnon f. distantianus ; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 17]
?Papilio memnon f. polymnestoroides ; [BIR, 384]
Papilio (Princeps) memnon agenor f. agenor ; [BMP: 70, pl. 5, f. 4]
Papilio (Princeps) memnon agenor f. esperi ; [BMP: 70, pl. 5, f. 3]
Papilio (Princeps) memnon agenor f. butlerianus ; [BMP: 70, pl. 5, f. 2]
Papilio (Princeps) memnon agenor f. distantianus ; [BMP: 70, pl. 5, f. 5]
Papilio memnon agenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 216; [MRS, 124]
Papilio (Princeps) memnon agenor ; [BMP: 70, pl. 5, f. 1]
[agenor-1mu.jpg] 1223x992 (~226Kb) upperside male Thailand, Phuket, Kathu Waterfalls, 25th February 2010, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Citrus spp. [MRS]


P. m. anceus Cramer, [1779]
Sumatra, Nias, Batu Papilio anceus Cramer, [1779]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (17-21): 44, pl. 222, f. A, B, TL: W.Sumatra
memnon f. butis Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 73
Papilio memnon ♀-ab. anceus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 314
memnon anceus ♀ f. erebinus ;
memnon anceus ♀ f. trochila ;
memnon anceus ♀ f. anceus ;
memnon anceus ♀ f. gerania ;
memnon anceus ♀ f. butis ;
P. m. thunbergi Siebold, 1824
Japan Papilio thunbergi Siebold, 1824; Hist. Nat. Jap.: 16, TL: Japan
Papilio memnon thunbergi f.temp. mela Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 306, TL: Nagasaki, Kiu-Shin
Papilio memnon thunbergi ab. takamukui Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 114, pl. 3, f. 1, TL: Kiushu
Papilio memnon thunbergi ab. shikokuana Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 114, pl. 3, f. 6, TL: Shikoku
P. m. lowii Druce, 1873
N.Borneo, Philippines (Balabac, Palawan) Papilio lowii Druce, 1873; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1873 (2) : 358, pl. 33, f. 6, TL: "Borneo" [?error]
Menelaides lowii ;
Papilio lowi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 321; [BOR, 76]
Menelaides memnon lowii ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 47, f. 1-4, pl. 48, f. 1-4
P. m. oceani Doherty, 1891
Enggano Papilio (Iliades) oceani Doherty, 1891; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 60 Pt.II (1) : 31, TL: Engano I.
Papilio memnon oceani ab. afer Fruhstorfer, 1904; Berl. ent. Zs. 49 (1/2) : 195, TL: Engano I.
Papilio memnon oceani ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 315
P. m. merapu Doherty, 1891
Sumba Papilio (Iliades) merapu Doherty, 1891; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 60 Pt.II (2) : 191, TL: Koloki, Pada Dalung, Sumba, 2-3000ft
Papiliio memnon merapu ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 315
P. m. pryeri Rothschild, 1895
Loo Choo I. Papilio memnon pryeri Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 321, TL: Loo Choo Islands
P. m. clathratus Rothschild, 1896
Sumbawa Papilio memnon clathratus Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (3): 322, TL: Sambawa
P. m. caeruleus van Eecke, 1914
Simalur Papilio memnon caeruleus van Eecke, 1914; Notes Leyden Mus. 36 : 202, pl. 4, f. 4, TL: Udjung Laukè, Mata-n-Amurèn; Sianabang
P. m. heronus Fruhstorfer, 1902
Taiwan Papilio memnon heronus Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (10) : 73, TL: Formosa
Papilio memnon heronus ; [MRS, 124]

Larva on Zanthoxylum nitidum, Z. ailanthoides, Poncirus trifoliata, Citrus spp. [MRS]

P. m. perlucidus Fruhstorfer, 1903
Lombok Papilio memnon perlucidus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 308, TL: Lombok, Sapit, 2000
P. m. subclathratus Fruhstorfer, 1903
Flores Papilio memnon subclathratus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 309, TL: Flores
P. m. tanahsahi Eliot, 1982
Malaysia Papilio memnon agenor ♀-f. tanahsahi Eliot, 1982; Malayan Nat. J. 35 (1/2): 179, TL: Malaysia, Perak, Gopeng, Ulu Groh
Papilio memnon tanahsahi ; [BMP]
P. m. kalaomemnon Hachitani, 1987²
Kalao Papilio (Menelaides) memnon kalaomemnon ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89

Papilio ascalaphus Boisduval, 1836
Philippines. See [About maps] Sulawesi Blue Mormon
Papilio ascalaphus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 200, TL: "Ternate" [error?]
Papilio ascalaphus ab. nubiger Fruhstorfer, 1899; Berl. ent. Zs. 43 (3/4) : 428
Menelaides ascalaphus ;
Papilio ascalaphus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 328; [BOR, 74]; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 8]
Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89

Larva on Citrus Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89

Sulawesi, Salayar, Buton Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus ascalaphus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89
P. a. ascalon Staudinger, 1895
Sula Is. Papilio ascalaphus var. ascalon Staudinger, 1895; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (2) : 348, TL: Mangola, Sulla Is.
Papilio ascalaphus ascalon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 328
Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus ascalon ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89
P. a. fukuyamai Detani, 1983²
Banggai Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus fukuyamai ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89
P. a. munascalaphus Hachitani, 1988²
Muna Papilio (Menelaides) ascalaphus munascalaphus ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89

Papilio polymnestor Cramer, [1775]
Ceylon, S.India, Madhya Pradesh, S.Bihar, Bengal, W.Ghats - Bombay, Sikkim. See [About maps] Blue Mormon
Papilio polymnestor Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 83, TL: [Cochin], Kerala, India
Menelaides polymnestor ;
Papilio polymnestor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 329; [BIR, 383]; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 4]; [BOR, 74]
S.India, East coast of India - Bengal
P. p. parinda (Moore, [1881])
Ceylon Iliades parinda Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 148, pl. 60, f. 1, TL: Ceylon
Papilio polymnestor parinda ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 330

Papilio mayo Atkinson, [1874]
Andaman Is. Papilio mayo Atkinson, [1874]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1873 : 736, pl. 63, f. 1, TL: Andaman Is.
Papilio charicles Hewitson, 1874; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 14 (83) : 356, TL: Andaman Is.
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 322
Papilio charicles ; Hewitson, 1875, Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio XIV): [25], pl. [14], f. 45
Menelaides mayo ;
Papilio mayo ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 322; [BOR, 76]

Papilio deiphobus Linnaeus, 1758
Moluccas. See [About maps] Papilio deiphobus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 459, TL: Asia
Papilio alcandor Cramer, [1776]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 64, pl. 40, f. A, B
Papilio deiphobus ab. hypoxanthus Röber, 1891; Tijdschr. Ent. 34: 275, TL: Key
aristartus Fruhstorfer, 1916
efbensis Talbot, 1932
Papilio deiphobus ab. hypoxanthus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 325
Papilio deiphobus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 324; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 7, 9]
Menelaides deiphobus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9

Larva on Citrus Page & Treadaway, 2003, [BW]

Serang, Ambon, Buru, Obi Papilio deiphobus deiphobus ; [BAUR, 90]
P. d. deiphontes C. & R. Felder, 1864
Sumatra?, Morotai, Ternate, Halmahera, Bachan Papilio deiphontes C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 323, TL: Ternate, Halmahera
Papilio deiphontes Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 48, TL: Batchian, Gilolo, Ternate, Morty I.
Papilio deiphontes ab. flava Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 38, TL: Ternate
Papilio deiphontes ab. flavus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 326
Papilio deiphontes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 326
Papilio deiphobus deiphontes ; [BAUR, 90]; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 4]
P. d. rumanzovia Eschscholtz, 1821
Philippines, Celebes Red Mormon
Papilio rumanzovia Eschscholtz, 1821; in Kotzebue, Entdeck. Reise Süd-See 3 (App. 5): 204, pl. 2, f. 4a-b, TL: Manila
Papilio krusensternia Eschscholtz, 1821; in Kotzebue, Entdeck. Reise Süd-See 3 (App. 5): 205, pl. 3, f. 5a-b, TL: Manila
Iliades emalthion Hübner, [1821]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. 117
Papilio descombii Roger, 1826; Bull. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 1: ?
Papilio emalthion var. semperinus Haase, 1893; Unters. üb. Mimicry: 55
?Papilio rumanzowius[sic] ciris Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Bazilan; Mindoro
?Papilio rumanzowius[sic] spinturnix Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 178, TL: Talaut (Jolo?)

Papilio rumanzovius ♀-f. rumanzovius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 323
Papilio rumanzovius ♀-f. loc. semperinus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 324
Menelaides rumanzovius ;
Papilio rumanzovia ; [BOW: pl. 136, f. 2]; [BOR, 84]
Papilio rumanzovius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 322; [MRS, 129]
Menelaides dephobus rumanzovia ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 50, f. 1-6, pl. 51, f. 1-6, pl. 52, f. 1-5, pl. 53, f. 1, 3, 5
Papilio (Menelaides) rumanzovia ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89
[rumanzovia-1fu.jpg] 760x637 (~105Kb) upperside female Philippines, Photo © D. Smirnov [rumanzovia-1fv.jpg] 760x631 (~120Kb) underside female Philippines, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Atalantia, Citrus Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 89


P. d. deipylus C. & R. Felder, 1864
Weigeu Papilio deipylus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 323, TL: Nova Guinea
Papilio deipylus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 325
Papilio deiphobus deipylus ; [BAUR, 90]
P. d. tarawakana Page & Treadaway, 1993
Philippines (Tawitawi) Menelaides deiphobus tarawakana ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 9, pl. 53, f. 2, 4, 6

Papilio oenomaus Godart, 1819
-. See [About maps] Papilio oenomaus Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 72, TL: Timor
Menelaides oenomaus ;
Papilio oenomaus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 328
Timor, Leti, Moa, Kissar, Romang Is. Papilio oenomaus oenomaus ; [BAUR, 90]
P. o. subfasciatus Rothschild, 1895
Wetar Papilio oenomaus subfasciatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 329, TL: Wetter
Papilio oenomaus subfasciatus ; [BAUR, 90 (text)]

Papilio forbesi Grose-Smith, 1883
Sumatra. See [About maps] Papilio forbesi Grose-Smith, 1883; Ent. mon. Mag. 19 : 234, TL: Sumatra
Menelaides forbesi ;
Papilio forbesi ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1887, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 1, pl. 1, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 331; [BOR, 76]

Papilio lampsacus Boisduval, 1836
W.Java. See [About maps] Papilio lampsacus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 190, TL: "Pegu" [error]
Menelaides lampsacus ;
Papilio lampsacus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 330; [BOR, 74]

Papilio acheron Grose-Smith, 1887
Sarawak, Sabah Papilio acheron Grose-Smith, 1887; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 20 : 432, TL: N.Borneo
Papilio forbesi goetheanus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 306 (repl. Papilio acheron Grose-Smith, 1887), TL: N.Borneo
Papilio acheron ; Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1888, Rhop. Exot. [1] 1: (Papilio) 11, pl. 5, f. 1-2; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 331; [BOR, 76]

The protenor species-group

Papilio protenor Cramer, [1775]
NW.India, Kashmir - Sikkim, Assam, Burma, China, S.Korea, Japan, Riu-Kiu. See [About maps] Spangle
Papilio protenor Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 77, pl. 49, f. A, B, TL: China
Menelaides protenor ;
Papilio protenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 331; [BIR, 386]; [BOR, 84]; [MRS, 126]
[protenor-1f.jpg] 1049x776 (~50Kb) female Katsuudake, Okinawa, Ryukyus, Japan, 8-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

P. p. demetrius Stoll, [1782]
Japan Papilio demetrius Stoll, [1782]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (32-32): 196, pl. 385, f. E, F, TL: Japan
Papilio carpenteri Butler, 1882; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 10 : 318, TL: Yedo
= Papilio demetrius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 332
?Papilio demetrius sitalkes Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46, TL: Okinawa
?Papilio demetrius lenocinius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 175, TL: Kiushiu, Nagasaki
?Papilio demetrius m.v. okabei Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 14, TL: Kagoshima; Jokohama, Japan
Papilio demetrius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 332
P. p. liukiuensis Fruhstorfer, 1899
Papilio demetrius liukiuensis Fruhstorfer, 1899; Stettin ent. Ztg 59 (10-12) : 407, TL: Liu-Kiu
P. p. euprotenor Fruhstorfer, 1908
N.India, Assam, Burma - S.China Papilio protenor euprotenor Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46, TL: Sikkim
Papilio protenus euanthes Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46, TL: Hainan
?Papilio protenor sulpitius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 175, TL: Tonkin; Annam
Papilio sulpitius Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 75
Papilio protenor euprotenor, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio protenor euprotenor ; [MRS, 126]; Huang, 2001
Taiwan ?♂-ab. kagaribi Nakahara
?♂-ab. tokionis Wakabayashi
Papilio protenor amaurus ; [MRS, 126]

Larva on Zanthoxylum nitidum, Z. piperitum, Citrus spp. [MRS]


Papilio alcmenor C. & R. Felder, [1864]
Kumaon - Assam, Burma, China. See [About maps] Papilio alcmenor C. & R. Felder, [1864]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 129, pl. 20, f. d, TL: Khasi Hills
Papilio alcmenor alcmenor, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Menelaides alcmenor ;
Papilio alcmenor ; [MRS, 130]

Female mimics Atrophaneura dasarada, Atrophaneura philoxenus. [BIR, (about P. rhetenor, Westwood)]

Redbreast
Papilio rhetenor Westwood, 1841; Arcana entomologica, 1: 59, pl. 16, f. 1, 1a (preocc. Papilio rhetenor Cramer, [1775])
Papilio icarius Westwood, 1847; Cabinet Orient. Ent.: 5, pl. 2 (preocc. Papilio icarius Esper, [1793])
Papilio rhetenor turificator Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 175, TL: Sikkim
Papilio rhetenor publilius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 175, TL: Lower Burma
Papilio rhetenor f. albolunata Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 175
Papilio rhetenor f. leucocelis Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 76
Papilio rhetenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 333; [BIR, 385]; [BOR, 86]
P. a. platenius Fruhstorfer
Papilio alcmenor platenius ; [MRS, 130]
Papilio alcmenor nausithous ; [MRS, 130]
P. a. irene Joicey & Talbot, 1921
Hainan Papilio rhetenor irene Joicey & Talbot, 1921; Bull. Hill Mus. 1 (1) : 168, pl. 20, f. 3-4, TL: Hainan
Papilio alcmenor irene ; [MRS, 130]

Papilio macilentus Janson, 1877
E.China, E.Siberia, Japan. See [About maps] Papilio macilentus Janson, 1877; Cistula ent. 2 : 158, TL: Oyama
Papilio scaevola Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 37, pl. 6, f. 1, TL: China?
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 333
Papilio tractipennis Butler, 1881; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 7 (38) : 139, TL: Nikko
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 333
Papilio macilentus m.v. minima Sheljuzhko, 1913; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 27 (1) : 15, TL: Sendai; Kagoshima
Menelaides macilentus ;
Papilio macilentus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 333; [MRS, 134]

Larva on Citrus spp., Ruta graveolens, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Fagara manstchurica, F. ailanthoides, Poncirus trifoliata, Orixa japonica, Lobelia chinensis [MRS]


Papilio thaiwanus Rothschild, 1898
Taiwan Papilio protenor thaiwanus Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 (3): 602, TL: Formosa
Papilio thaiwanus ab. watanabei Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 115, pl. 3, f. 2, TL: Formosa
Menelaides thaiwanus ;
Papilio thaiwanus ; [BOR, 86]
Papilio taiwanus[sic?] ; [MRS, 128]

Larva on Toddalia asiatica, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Cinnamomum camphora [MRS]


The bootes species-group

Papilio bootes Westwood, 1842
N.Burma, .... See [About maps] Tailed Redbreast
Papilio bootes Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 36, TL: Sylhet
Papilio bootes Westwood, 1842; Arcana entomologica, 1: 123, pl. 31
Menelaides bootes ;
Papilio bootes ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 335; [BIR, 385]; [BOR, 86]; [MRS, 133]
Assam, ...
P. b. nigricans Rothschild, 1895
W.China Papilio bootes nigricans Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 335, TL: W.China
Papilio echo Ehrmann, 1909; Can. Ent. 41 (3) : 85, TL: Burma
Papilio bootes rubicundus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Tsekou
Papilio mixta Tytler, 1915; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 23 (3): 514, TL: Yakama, Naga Hills
Papilio bootes nigricans ; [MRS, 133]
P. b. janaka Moore, 1857
India Papilio janaka Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 97, TL: Darjeeling
Papilio sikkimensis Wood-Mason, 1882; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 9 (50) : 103, TL: Sikkim Hills
= Papilio janaka ; [NHM]
Papilio janaka ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 336; [BOR, 86]
?P. b. dealbatus Rothschild, 1895
W.China Papilio janaka dealbatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 336, TL: Western China
Yunnan, ...?

Papilio elwesi Leech, 1889
China. See [About maps] Papilio elwesi Leech, 1889; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1889 (1) : 113, pl. 7, f. 1, TL: Kiu-Kiang
Papilio elwesi, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio elwesi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 335; [BOR, 86]
Agehana elwesi ; [MRS, 161]

Larva on Umbelliferae [MRS]

P. e. cavalerei Le Cerf, 1923
elwesi cavalerei Le Cerf, 1923; Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris 29 : 362
Agehana cavalerei ; [MRS, 161]

Papilio maraho Shiraki & Sonan, 1934
Taiwan Papilio maraho Shiraki & Sonan, 1934; Zephyrus 5 (4): 177
Papilio elwesi maraho ; [BOR, 86]
Agehana maraho ; [MRS, 161]

Larva on Sassafran randaiense [MRS]


Subgenus Chilasa Moore, [1881]
Chilasa Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 153, TS: Papilio dissimilis Linnaeus

The agestor species-group

Papilio agestor Gray, 1831
W.China, Tibet, W.Kashmir - Sikkim, Assam, Burma. See [About maps] Tawny Mime
Papilio agestor Gray, 1831; Zool. Miscell. (1): 32, TL: "Sumatra" [error]
Papilio agestor agestorides Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (45) : 190, TL: Tibet(?); SW.China
Papilio agestor agestor, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio agestor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 360
Chilasa agestor ; [BIR, 379]; [BOR, 90]; [MRS, 121]
Nepal - Indo-China, Burma, Thailand - Peninsular Malaya Chilasa agestor agestor
Papilio agestor senchalus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (45) : 190, TL: Sikkim; Bhutan
Papilio agestor cresconius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (45) : 190, TL: Burma; Assam
Chilasa agestor agestor ; [BOR, 90]
P. a. shirozui (Igarashi, 1979)
Chilasa shirozui Igarashi, 1979; Papilionidae and their early stages: 100, pl. 106, f. 6-7
Chilasa agestor shirozui ; [BMP, 66, pl. 3, f. 12]

Resembles Parantica sita. [BMP]

Larva on Cinnamomum, Persea [BMP]

P. a. govindra Moore, 1864
N.India Papilio govindra Moore, 1864; in Lang, Ent. mon. Mag. 1 : 101, TL: NW.India
Papilio agestor govindra ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 361
Chilasa agestor govindra ; [BOR, 90]
P. a. restricta Leech, 1893
S.China Papilio agestor var. restricta Leech, [1893]; Butts China Japan Corea (2): 557, pl. 35, f. 5
Papilio agestor restrictus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 361
Chilasa agestor restricta ; [MRS, 121]
P. a. matsumurae Fruhstorfer, 1909
Taiwan Papilio agestor matsumurae Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (49) : 209, TL: Formosa, Horisha
Chilasa agestor matsumurae ; [MRS, 121]

Larva on Cinnamomum camphora, Cinnamomum micranthum, Persea japonica, P. thunbergii, P. zuihoensis [MRS]

China (Guangxi, Guandong, Fujian, Zhejiang) Papilio agestor kuangtungensis Mell, 1935; Mitt. Dtsch. Ent. Ges. 6 : 36, TL: N.Guangdong, Linping, Shuiyunshan, Manzishan
Chilasa agestor moritai Shinkai, 1996; Wallace 2: 43, f. 5-6, TL: Guanxi, Mt. Dayao Shan
= ; Yoshino, 2001, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 52 (3) : 136
Chilasa agestor kuangtungensis ; Yoshino, 2001, Trans. lepid. Soc. Japan 52 (3) : 136
P. a. teruyoae (Shinkai, 1996)
N.Vietnam Chilasa agestor teruyoae Shinkai, 1996; Futao (23) : 16, pl. 4, f. 1-6 (spell. teruyonae?), TL: Mt. Pia Oac., N. Vietnam
Chilasa agestor teruyoae ;

Papilio epycides Hewitson, 1864
W.China, Nepal - Assam, N.Burma. See [About maps] Lesser Mime
Papilio epycides Hewitson, 1864; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio VI): [11], pl. [6], f. 16, TL: N.India
Papilio epycides f. uwakurona Matsumura, 1929; Insecta Matsumurana 3 (2/3) : 89, pl. 4, f. 6:, TL: Formosa
Papilio epycides f. shitakurona Matsumura, 1929; Insecta Matsumurana 3 (2/3) : 89, TL: Formosa
Papilio epycides ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 361
Chilasa epycides ; [BIR, 379]; [BOR, 90]; [MRS, 121]
Sikkim, Assam
P. e. curiatius Fruhstorfer, 1902
N.Burma, ... Papilio epycides curiatius Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 349, TL: N.Burma
Chilasa epycides curiatius ; [BOR, 90]; Yoshino, 2008, Futao (54): 7, pl. 1, f. 15-16
P. e. horatius Blanchard, 1871
W.Sichuan, ... Papilio horatius Blanchard, 1871; C. R. hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci., 72: 809, TL: W.China
Papilio epycides horatius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 362
Chilasa epycides horatius ; Yoshino, 2008, Futao (54): 7, pl. 1, f. 21-22
P. e. hypochra Jordan, 1909
S.Burma, N.Vietnam, S.Yunnan Papilio epycides hypochra Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 41, TL: Shan State, S. Burma
Papilio epycides camilla Rousseau-Decelle, 1947; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 51: 128, TL: Tonkin, N. Vietnam
= ; Yoshino, 2008, Futao (54): 7
Papilio epycides hypochra, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Chilasa epycides hypochroa[sic?] ; [BOR, 90]
Papilio epycides hypochra ; Yoshino, 2008, Futao (54): 7, pl. 1, f. 17-20
Taiwan Papilio epycides var. melanoleucus Ney, 1911; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 25 : 5, TL: Formosa
Chilasa epycides melanoleucus ; [BOR, 90]
Chilasa epycides melanoleuca ; [MRS, 121]

Larva on Lindera megaphylla, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Cinnamomum micranthum [MRS]

P. e. yamabuki (Yoshino, 2008)
N.Yunnan Chilasa epycides yamabuki Yoshino, 2008; Futao (54): 7, pl. 1, f. 13-14, TL: Zhondian County, 2000m, N.Yunnan

Papilio slateri Hewitson, 1859
N.India - Malaysia, Sumatra. See [About maps] Blue-striped Mime
Papilio slateri Hewitson, 1859; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio IV): [7], pl. [4] f. 9, TL: "Borneo" [?]
?Papilio slateri ab. persoides Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (8): 58, TL: Perak
Papilio slateri slateri, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Chilasa slateri ; [BIR, 380]; [BOW: pl. 131, f. 3]; [BOR, 91]; [MRS, 122]

A mimic of Euploea? [BIR]

Sikkim - N.Vietnam Papilio clarae Marshall, 1882; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 51 Pt.II (2-3) : 42, TL: Upper Tenasserim
= Papilio slateri tavoyanus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
Chilasa slateri slateri ; [BOR, 91]
P. s. hewitsoni Westwood, 1864
N.Borneo Papilio camma Gray, 1856; List Spec. lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 85 (nom. nud.), TL: Borneo
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
Papilio hewitsonii Westwood, 1864; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. (3) 2 : 10
Papilio slateri hewitsoni ab. persoides Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (8): 58, TL: Kina-Balu
Papilio slateri hewitsoni ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
Chilasa slateri hewitsoni ; [BOR, 92]
P. s. tavoyanus Butler, 1882
S.Burma Papilio tavoyanus Butler, 1882; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 10 : 373, TL: Tenasserim
Papilio slateri tavoyanus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
Chilasa slateri tavoyanus ; [BOR, 91]
P. s. marginata Oberthür, 1893
C.Burma, S.Burma, C.Thailand Papilio slateri f.geogr. marginata Oberthür, 1893
Chilasa slateri marginata ; [BOR, 91]
P. s. perses de Nicéville, 1894
Peninsular Malaya, Sumatra Papilio (Menamopsis) perses de Nicéville, 1894; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 63 Pt.II (1) : 46, pl. 4, f. 7, TL: N.E. Sumatra
Papilio hewitsonii var. sumatrana Hagen, 1894; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 7 (1) : 20, TL: Sumatra
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
ab. petra de Nicéville, 1894; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 63 Pt.II (1) : 47, pl. 4, f. 5
Papilio sticheli Tetens, 1900; Ent. Nachr. 26 (19) : 296
Papilio slateri perses, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio slateri perses ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 363
Chilasa slateri perses ; [BOR, 91]; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 11]

Larva on Cinnamomum [BMP]

P. s. hainanensis (Chou, 1994)
Hainan Chilasa slateri hainanensis Chou, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 756, 122, f. 3, TL: Hainan

The clytia species-group

Papilio clytia Linnaeus, 1758
China, Kangra - Sikkim, Assam, Burma, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, S.India, Ceylon. See [About maps] Common Mime
Papilio clytia Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 479, TL: "Indiis" [India]
Papilio janus Fruhstorfer, 1901; Insekten-Börse 18 (52): 413
Papilio similis Grote, 1899; Proc. amer. phil. Soc. 38 : 30, 42, pl. 4, f. 11
Papilio saturatior Fruhstorfer, 1903; Berl. ent. Zs. 47 (3/4) : 179
lanata Fruhstorfer, 1907; Ent Zs. 20 (37): 269
Papilio ab. nigra Dufrane, 1933; Lambillionea 33: 165, TL: Tonkin
Papilio ab. pallida Dufrane, 1933; Lambillionea 33: 165, TL: Tonkin
?dissimilina Evans, 1923; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 29: 245
?dissimillima Evans, 1923; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 29: 245
Papilio clytia clytia, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]

?dissimila ; [NHM]
?dissimillima ; [NHM]
?Chilasa clytia f. dissimilina ; [MRS, 120]
Papilio clytia ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 364
Chilasa clytia ; [BIR, 381]; [BOR, 92]; [MRS, 120]
Chilasa clytia clytia f. janus ; [BMP: 64 (note)]
Chilasa clytia ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
[clytia-1l.jpg] 478x542 (~39Kb) larva Guwahati [Assam], 26 October 2003, Photo © Kedar Tokekar

Mimics Euploea core. [BIR]

Larva on Cinnamomum, Litsea Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8


India - Thailand, Indo-China, Peninsular Malaya, S.Yunnan Papilio dissimilis Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 479
Papilio casyapa Moore, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 (1) : 143, TL: Calcutta
Papilio papone Westwood, 1872; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 94, pl. 3, f. 2, TL: Ind. or.
Papilio clytia ab. commixtus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 367, TL: Khasia Hills

Papilio clytia ab. casyapa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 367
Papilio clytia ab. papone ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 367
Chilasa dissimilis ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 153, pl. 57, f. 1a-b
Papilio clytia ab. dissimilis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 367
Chilasa clytia f. dissimilis ; [MRS, 120]; [BIR, 381]
Chilasa clytia clytia f. dissimilis ; [BMP: 64, pl. 3, f. 1]
Chilasa clytia clytia f. papone ; [BMP: 64, pl. 4, f. 3]
Chilasa clytia clytia ; [BOR, 92]; [BMP: 64, pl. 3, f. 1-3]

Larva on Cinnamomum, Litsea [BMP]

Larva on Alseodaphne, Litsea glutinosa, Cinnamomum spp. [MRS]

f. dissimilis Mimics Danais limniace. [BIR]

P. c. panope Linnaeus, 1758
Papilio panope Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 479
Papilio onpape Moore, [1879]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (4) : 840, TL: Upper Tenasserim
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 369
Papilio saturata Moore, 1878; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1878 (3) : 697, TL: Hainan
Papilio clytia panope ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 369
Papilio clytia panope ab. loc. saturatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 369
Papilio clytia panope ab. dissimilis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 369
Chilasa clytia clytia f. onpape ; [BMP: 64, pl. 3, f. 2]
P. c. lacedemon Fabricius, 1793
Papilio lacedemon Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 36, TL: Malabaria
Papilio lacedemon ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 371
P. c. palephates Westwood, 1845
Philippines (Catanduanes, Luzon, Marinduque, Mindoro) Papilio palephates Westwood, 1845; Arcana entomologica, 2: 127, pl. 79, f. 1, TL: Manila
Papilio palephatides Fruhstorfer, 1911; Ent. Rundschau 28 (23): 177
Papilio clytia palephates ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 370
Chilasa clytia palephatides ; [BOR, 92]
Chilasa clytia palephates ; [BOR, 92]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 36, f. 1-4, pl. 58, f. 1-2
P. c. lankeswara Moore, 1879
Ceylon Papilio lankeswara Moore, 1879; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1879 (1) : 143, TL: Ceylon
Chilasa clytioides Moore, [1881]; Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 154, pl. 56, f. 1, TL: Ceylon
Chilasa lankeswara ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 154, pl. 56, f. 2a-b
Papilio clytia lankeswara ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 368
Papilio clytia lankeswara ab. clytioides ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 368
Papilio clytia lankeswara ab. dissimilis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 368
Chilasa clytia lankeswara ; [BOR, 92]
P. c. flavolimbatus Oberthür, 1879
Andamans Papilio dissimilis var. flavolimbatus Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 101, TL: Andaman Is., Pt. Blair
Papilio clytia flavolimbatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 370
Chilasa clytia flavolimbatus ; [BOR, 92]
P. c. panopinus Staudinger, 1889
Philippines (Balabac, Busuanga, Cuyo group, Dumaran, Palawan) Papilio panope var. panopinus Staudinger, 1889; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 2 (1) : 9, TL: Palawan
cuyo Medicielo & Hanafusa, 1994
= ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Papilio clytia panopinus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 369
Chilasa clytia panopinus ; [BOR, 92]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 36, f. 7-8
P. c. takizawai (Miyashita, 1980)
Flores clytia takizawai (Miyashita, 1980) (Chilasa); Mem. Tsukada Coll. (2): 1, 10
Chilasa clytia takizawai ; [BOR, 92]
P. c. echidna Boisduval, 1836
Timor, Wetar, Kissar, Leti Group Papilio dissimilis var. echidna Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 378, TL: Timor
echidnedes Fruhstorfer, 1904; Insekten-Börse 21 (18): 141
Papilio clytia echidna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 370; [BAUR, 108]
P. c. visayensis (Okano & Okano, 1987)
Philippines (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay, Samar, Siquior) Chilasa clytia visayensis Okano & Okano, 1987
Chilasa clytia visayensis ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 37, f. 1-2
P. c. duboisi (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Babuyanes) Chilasa clytia duboisi Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Chilasa clytia duboisi ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 36, f. 5-6
P. c. anuus (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Sibuyan) Chilasa clytia anuus Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Chilasa clytia anuus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 37, f. 3-5
P. c. gulam (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Mindanao) Chilasa clytia gulam Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Chilasa clytia gulam ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 37, f. 6-7
P. c. partidu (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (Jolo) Chilasa clytia partidu Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Chilasa clytia partidu ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 37, f. 8

Papilio paradoxa (Zinken, 1831)
Assam - Burma - Malaysia. See [About maps] Great Mime
Zelima paradoxa Zinken, 1831; Nova Acta physico-med. [Leop. Carol.] 15 (1) : 162, pl. 15, f. 9-10, TL: Java
Papilio zanoa Butler, 1869; Ent. mon. Mag. 6 : 56, TL: Sarawak
Papilio juda Butler, 1869; Ent. mon. Mag. 6 : 56, TL: Sarawak
Papilio caunus Westwood, 1848; Cabinet Orient. Ent.: pl. 9, f. 2, 2*, TL: Java?
Papilio caunus mendax Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 376, TL: Borneo
Papilio paradoxus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 371
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. juda ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 373
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. zanoa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 373
Papilio caunus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 376
Chilasa paradoxa ; [BIR, 380]; [BOR, 94]; [BOR: pl 131, f. 1-2]; [MRS, 122]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

Mimics Euploea mulciber, [BIR]Euploea dicoletianus, Euploea eyhdhovii. [BOR]

Larva on Cinnamomum, Litsea Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

Java Chilasa paradoxa paradoxa ; [BOR, 94]
P. p. telearchus (Hewitson, 1852)
Assam - N.Vietnam, S.Burma, S.Yunnan Papilio telearchus Hewitson, 1852; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (2) 2 (1) : 22, pl. 6, f. 3, TL: Sylhet
Papilio danisepa Butler, 1885; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16 : 343, TL: Assam
Papilio paradoxa telearchus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio (Euploeopsis) telearchus ; de Nicéville, 1889, J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 4 (3) : 169, pl. A, f. 5 ♀
Papilio paradoxus telearchus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 375
Papilio caunus danisepa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 377
Chilasa paradoxa telearchus f. danisepa ; [BOR, 95]
Chilasa paradoxa telearchus ; [BOR, 94]; [MRS, 122]
Chilasa paradoxa f. danisepa ; [BIR, 380 (mimics Euploea diocletiana)]
P. p. telesicles C. & R. Felder, 1864
Borneo Papilio telesicles C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 308, 355
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. daja Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 374, TL: Sarawak
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. russus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 374, TL: Borneo
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 372
Chilasa paradoxa telesicles f. kerosa ; [BOR, 94]
Chilasa paradoxa telesicles f. daja ; [BOR, 94]
Chilasa paradoxa telesicles f. mendex ; [BOR, 94, 95]
P. p. aenigma Wallace, 1865
Peninsular Malaya, Singapore, Sumatra, Bangka Great Blue Mime
Papilio aenigma Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 60, pl. 7, f. 3
Papilio butleri Janson, 1879; Cistula ent. 2 (21) : 433, pl. 8, f. 3, TL: "Malacca"
Papilio velutinus Butler, 1885; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16 : 343, TL: Sumatra
= Papilio caunus aegialus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 376
Papilio penomimus Martin, 1895; Einige neue Tagschmetterlinge von Nordost Sumatra [1]: 2
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♂-ab. distanti Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 373 (nom. nov.), TL: Malacca
Papilio paradoxa aenigma, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma Wallace, 1865; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 4-9, pl. 62, f. 2]
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma ; [BOR, 94]
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. aenigma ; [BMP, 65]
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♂-ab. butleri ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 374
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♂-ab. aenigma ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 374

Mimics male Euploea mulciber. [BMP]

Papilio kerosa Butler, 1869; Ent. mon. Mag. 6 : 55-57
Chilasa paradoxa ♂-f. eucyanoides Eliot, 1980; Malayan Nat. J. 33 (3/4): 140, f. 3, TL: Malaysia, Selangor, Ampang Reservoir
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♂-ab. kerosa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 373
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. kerosa ; [BMP, 65]
Papilio eucyana Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 44
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. eucyana ; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 6]
P. p. aenigma f. haasei Rothschild, 1895
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. haasei Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 375, TL: Malacca
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. haasei ; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 5]

Mimics female Euploea mulciber. [BMP]

Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. nepticula Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 374, TL: Malacca
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. nepticula ; [BMP, 65]

Possible mimic of Euploea crameri bremeri. [BMP]

Chilasa paradoxa ♀-f. andromina Eliot, 1980; Malayan Nat. J. 33 (3/4): 139, f. 1-2, TL: Malaysia, Selangor, Rantau Panjang forest
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. andromima ; [BMP: 65, pl. 62, f. 2 (f holotype)]

Mimics male Euploea mulciber. [BMP]

Papilio paradoxus var. leucothoides Honrath, [1893]; Berl. ent. Z. 37 (1892) (4) : 490
Papilio schönbergianus Honrath, 1888; Berl. ent. Z. 32 (1) : 250, pl. 5, f. 5, TL: Borneo
Papilio schönbergianus ; Honrath, 1892, Berl. ent. Z. 36 (2) : 441
Papilio paradoxus telesicles ♀-ab. leucothoides ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 375
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma ♀ f. leucothoides ; Eliot, 1959, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 7 (8) : 372
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. leucothoides ; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 9]

Mimic of Euploea eyndhovii and Eupoloea doubledayi. [BMP]

Papilio caunus r. aegialus Distant, 1883; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 12 (71) : 352, TL: Malay Pen.
Papilio caunus aegialus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 376
Chilasa paradoxa aenigma f. aegialus ; [BOR, 95]; [BMP: 65, pl. 3, f. 7-8]
P. p. niasicus Rothschild, 1895
Nias Papilio paradoxus niasicus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 372, TL: Nias Island
Chilasa paradoxa niasicus ; [BOR, 94]
P. p. melanostoma Jordan, 1909
Philippines (Palawan) Papilio paradoxa melanostoma Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 44, TL: Palawan
Chilasa paradoxa melanostoma ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 38, f. 1-3

The veiovis species-group

Papilio veiovis Hewitson, 1865
Celebes. See [About maps] Papilio veiovis Hewitson, 1865; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio VII-VIII): [13], pl. [7], f. 20, TL: Menado
Papilio veiovis aristyllos Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (45) : 190, TL: E.Celebes, Tombugu
Papilio veiovis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (4): 503
Chilasa veiovis ; [BOW: pl. 131, f. 5]; [BOR, 92]
Chilasa (Chilasa) veiovis ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 85

The laglaizei species-group

Papilio laglaizei Depuiset, 1877
New Guinea, Papua, Waigen, W.Irian, . See [About maps] Papilio laglaizei Depuiset, 1877; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) 7 :171, TL: New Guinea
Papilio alcidinus Butler, 1883; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 11 (66) : 423, TL: Aru Is.
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 364
?kumiokae Okano, 1988
Papilio laglaizei ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 364; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 12, 13]; [BAUR, 106]

Mimics Alcidis agathyrsus moth. [BAUR]

Larva on Litsea [BAUR]


Papilio toboroi Ribbe, 1907
Bougainville, Solomon Islands. See [About maps] Papilio laglaizei toboroi Ribbe, 1907; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 20 (1,2) : 59, pl. 5, f. 1
Chilasa toboroi ;
Papilio toboroi ; [BOW, pl. 135, f. 13]; [BAUR, 108]

Papilio moerneri Aurivillius, 1919
-. See [About maps] Papilio mörneri Aurivillius, 1919; Ent. Tidskr. 40 : 177
New Ireland Papilio moerneri moerneri ; [BAUR, 108]
P. m. mayrhoferi Bang-Haas, 1939
New Britain moerneri mayrhoferi Bang-Haas, 1939; Ent. Zeit. Frankf. 52: 301, TL: New Britain
Papilio moerneri mayrhoferi ; [BAUR, 108 (text)]

The ? species-group

Papilio osmana Jumalon, 1967
-. See [About maps] Papilio osmana Jumalon, 1967; Philip. Sci. (F) 4 : 117
Chilasa osmana ; [BOR, 94]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Philippines (Leyte) Chilasa osmana osmana
Chilasa osmana osmana ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 38, f. 4-6
P. o. cabale (Page & Treadaway, 2003)
Philippines (NE.Mindanao) Chilasa osmana cabale Page & Treadaway, 2003; in Bauer & Frankenbach, Butterflies of the world, Suppl. 8: (1-6)
Chilasa osmana cabale ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 38, f. 7

Papilio carolinensis Jumalon, 1967
Philippines (E.Mindanao). See [About maps] Papilio carolinensis Jumalon, 1967; Philip. Sci. (F) 4 : 115
Chilasa carolinensis ; [BOR, 94]; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 38, f. 8

Subgenus Achillides Hübner, [1819]
Achillides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 85, TS: Papilio paris Linnaeus
Achillides ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]

The paris species-group

Papilio paris Linnaeus, 1758
China, S.India (W.Ghats, Nilgiris), Orissa, Kumaon - Sikkim, Assam, Burma. See [About maps] Paris Peacock
Papilio paris Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 459, TL: Canton, China
Papilio paris tissaphernes Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 171, TL: Hainan
Papilio paris paris, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Princeps paris ;
Papilio paris ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 384; [BIR, 388]; [BOR, 52]; [MRS, 145]
Papilio (Achillides) paris ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
[paris-1au.jpg] 730x641 (~109Kb) upperside Indonesia, Photo © D. Smirnov [paris-1av.jpg] 732x640 (~104Kb) underside Indonesia, Photo © D. Smirnov [paris-1bu.jpg] 800x600 (~119Kb) upperside Indonesia, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Euodia lepta, Toddalia asiatica, Citrus spp. [MRS]


NW.India - SW.China, N.Thailand, Vietnam, S.Burma Papilio paris paris f. decorosa Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 171, TL: Sikkim
Papilio paris majestatis Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 171, TL: Tonkin; Annam; Tenasserim
Papilio paris splendorifer Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 171, TL: Siam
Papilio angelicae Bryk, 1939; Ent. Tidsckr. 60: 262
Papilio reductomaculata Bryk, 1939; Ent. Tidsckr. 60: 263
Papilio sumbingensis Toxopeus, 1937; Ent. Meded. Ned.-Ind. 3: 46, TL: Soemburg
Papilio paris decorosa ; Fujioka, 1970, Spec. Bull. Lepid. Soc. Japan (4) : 3
P. p. tamilana Moore, 1881
S.India Papilio tamilana Moore, 1881; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1881 (3) : 313, TL: Malabar
Papilio paris tamilana ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 385
Papilio (Achillides) paris tamilana ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 3, f. 1
P. p. battacorum Rothschild, 1908
NE.Sumatra Papilio arjuna battacorum Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 173, TL: NE.Sumatra
P. p. gedeensis Fruhstorfer, 1893
W.Java (Mt. Gedé) Papilio arjuna var. gedeensis Fruhstorfer, 1893; Ent. Nachr. 19 (17/18) : 285, TL: Java, M. Gede, 4000-5000ft
Papilio arjuna karna ab. gedeensis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 386
P. p. arjuna Horsfield, 1828
C.Java Papilio arjuna Horsfield, [1828]; Descr. Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy (1): pl. 1, f. 14, 14a, pl. 4, f. 11, 11a, TL: Java
Papilio arjuna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 386
P. p. tenggerensis Fruhstorfer, 1893
E.Java Papilio arjuna var. tenggerensis Fruhstorfer, 1893; Ent. Nachr. 19 (17/18) : 286, TL: Mt. Tengger, Java, 5000ft
= Papilio arjuna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 386
Papilio (Achillides) paris tenggerensis ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 3, f. 3
P. p. chinensis Rothschild, 1895
W.China Papilio paris chinensis Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 385, TL: W.China; Thibet?
Papilio paris chinensis f. gemmifera Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 170, TL: Szetchuan
Papilio paris chinensis ; [MRS, 145]
?P. p. neoparis Fruhstorfer, 1908
Formosa Papilio paris neoparis Fruhstorfer, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (11): 46, TL: Formosa, Kagi
P. p. nakaharai Shirôzu, 1960
N.Taiwan paris nakaharai Shirôzu, 1960; Butterflies of Formosa in Colour: 54
Papilio paris nakaharai ; [MRS, 145]
P. p. hermosanus Rebel, 1906
C.Taiwan, S.Taiwan Papilio polyctor hermosanus Rebel, 1906; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 56 : 223, TL: Formosa
Papilio paris hermosanus ab. divinitus Murayama, 1961; Tyô to Ga 11 (4): 54, f. 1, 11, TL: Poli?, Formosa
Papilio paris hermosanus ab. subdivinitus Murayama, 1961; Tyô to Ga 11 (4): 55, f. 27, TL: Poli, Formosa
Papilio paris hermosanus ; [MRS, 145]

Larva on Euodia lepta, Toddalia asiatica, Zanthoxylum nitidum [MRS]


Papilio karna C. & R. Felder, 1864
Java. See [About maps] Papilio karna C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 323 (nom. nud.?), TL: Java
Papilio karna C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 125, TL: Java
Papilio arjuna karna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 386
Princeps karna ;
Papilio (Achillides) karna ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
Achillides karna ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

Larva on Euodia, Citrus Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

W.Java (Mt. Gedé)
P. k. discordia de Nicéville, [1893]
NE.Sumatra Papilio discordia de Nicéville, [1893]; J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 7 (3) : 343, pl. I, f. 2, TL: Sumatra
= Papilio arjuna karna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 386
P. k. carnatus Rothschild, 1895
N.Borneo Papilio arjuna carnatus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 387, TL: Borneo, Mt. Kinabalu
Papilio (Achillides) karna carnatus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 3, f. 2
P. k. irauana Jumalon, 1975
Philippines (Palawan) Papilio karna irauana Jumalon, 1975; Tyô to Ga 26 (2) : 45, f. 1, TL: Irauan, Puerto Princesa, Palawan
Achillides karna irauana ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 39, f. 1-4, pl. 41, f. 1

Papilio bianor Cramer, [1777]
SE.China, S.Korea, Japan, Sakhalin, Riu-Kiu. See [About maps] Papilio bianor Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 10, TL: Kanton, China
Papilio bianor, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]
Princeps bianor ;
Papilio bianor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 378; [BOR, 50]; [BRU, 151]; [MRS, 147]
Papilio (Achillides) bianor ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]
[bianor-1f.jpg] 1049x776 (~77Kb) female Funaura, Iriomote, Ryukyus, Japan, 5-95, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Phellodendron sachalinese [BRU], Phellodendron spp. [MRS]


S.China, NE.Burma, Shan States, N.Laos, N.Vietnam
P. b. nakaharae Matsumura, 1929
Sakhalin bianor nakaharae Matsumura, 1929; Ill. comm. Ins. Japan 1: 3 (repl. paradoxa Nakahara, 1924)
bianor paradoxa Nakahara, 1924; Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 19: 38 (preocc. Zinken)
bianor sachaliensis Matsumura, 1924
P. b. doii Matsumura, 1928
Kurile Islands Papilio bianor japonica f. doii Matsumura, 1928; Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 201, TL: Kuriles
P. b. mandschurica Matsumura, 1927
S.Ussuri ?Papilio maackii mandschurica Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 115, TL: Manchuria
P. b. dehaani C. & R. Felder, 1864
Japan Papilio dehaani C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 323, 371
Papilio lorquini Reakirt, [1865]; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 3 : 462, TL: "Philippines" [error]
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 379
Papilio bianor var. japonica Butler, 1866; J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 9 (34) : 50, TL: Japan
Papilio alliacmon d'Orza, 1869; Lep. Jap.: 9, TL: Japan
= Papilio bianor dehaani ab. gen. vern. japonicus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 379
Papilio bianor dehaani ab. gen. vern. japonicus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 379
Papilio bianor dehaani ab. gen. aest. dehaani ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Papilio bianor dehaani ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 379
Papilio (Achillides) bianor dehaani ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 3
P. b. hachijonis Matsumura, 1919
bianor hachijonis Matsumura, 1919; Thous. Ins. Japan. Addit. 3 : 477, pl. 27, f. 3-4
P. b. tokaraensis Fujioka, 1975²
P. b. junia Jordan, 1909
bianor junia Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 78
P. b. takasago Nakahara & Esaki, 1930
Taiwan Papilio bianor takasago Nakahara & Esaki, 1930; Zephyrus 2 (4) : 210
Papilio bianor formosanus Rebel, 1906; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 56 : 222, TL: Formosa
Papilio bianor takasago ; [MRS, 147]

Larva on Euodia meliifolia, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Z. nitidum, Citrus spp., Rhus succedanea [MRS, (for takasago)]

P. b. kotoensis Sonan, 1927
Taiwan Papilio bianor kotoensis ; [MRS, 147]
Papilio (Achillides) bianor kotoensis ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 5

Larva on Toddalia asiatica, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Euodia meliifolia, Orixa japonica, Phellodendron amurense, Poncirus trifoliata [MRS]

P. b. ganesa Doubleday, 1842
Sikkim, Assam, N.Vietnam, Yunnan Papilio ganesa Doubleday, 1842; in Gray, Zool. Misc.: 73, TL: Nepal, Assam
Papilio bianor gladiator Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 270, TL: N.Vietnam
Papilio polyctor triumphator Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (9): 65, TL: Sikkim
Papilio polyctor ganesa ab. porphyria Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 79, pl. 48a, TL: Kashia Hills
Papilio polyctor titus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 167, TL: N.Vietnam
Papilio triumphator ab. mai Tytler, 1912; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 21 (2): 590, TL: Naga Hills
Papilio polyctor connectens Mell, 1938; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 1938 (2) : 320 (preocc.)
Papilio polyctor kingtungensis Lee, 1962; Acta ent. sin. 11 (1) : 139, 144, pl. 2, f. 3,5, TL: Yunnan
Papilio bianor gladiator, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio polyctor triumphator ;
Papilio polyctor ganesa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 383
Papilio bianor ganesa ; Huang, 2001
P. b. stockleyi Gabriel, 1936
Myanmar, W.Thailand Papilio polyctor stockleyi Gabriel, 1936; Entomologist 69: 282, TL: Melamoung, W.Siam, Dawna Range
Papilio bianor stockleyi, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
P. b. pinratanai Racheli & Cotton, 1983
SE.Thailand Papilio polyctor pinratanai Racheli & Cotton, 1983; Papilio Internat. 1 (1): 2, TL: Chanthaburi, Thailand
Papilio bianor pinratanai, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]

Papilio maackii Ménétriés, 1859
E.China, Amur, Ussuri, N.Korea, Japan. See [About maps] Papilio maackii Ménétriés, 1859; Bull. phys-math. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. 17 (14) : 212, TL: [Khingan Mts. in the Amur region to Khangar]
Papilio maacki Pryer, 1882; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882 (3) : 487
Papilio raddei Bremer, 1864; Mém. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersb. (7) 8 (1) : 3, pl. 1, f. 1, TL: Bureja
Papilio maackii raddei ab. paki Murayama, 1963; Tyô to Ga 14 (2): 43, f. 1-2
Papilio maackii, Extracts from [BRU] by [Ilya Osipov]

Papilio bianor maacki ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Papilio bianor maacki ab. gen. vern. raddei ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Papilio bianor maacki ab. gen. aest. maacki ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Princeps maackii ;
Papilio maackii ; [BRU, 150]
Papilio maacki ; [MRS, 154]
Papilio (Achillides) maacki ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]
[maackii-1um.jpg] 800x697 (~151Kb) upperside male Russia, Chabarovsk, Oblutchie, 10.7.1995 S.N. Vashchenko leg., Photo © D. Smirnov [maackii-1vm.jpg] 810x683 (~116Kb) underside male Russia, Chabarovsk, Oblutchie, 10.7.1995 S.N. Vashchenko leg., Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Phellodendron amurensis [BRU], Citrus spp., Phellodendron amurense, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, Euodia meliifolia [MRS]


Papilio (Achillides) maacki maacki ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 4
P. m. tutanus Fenton, [1882]
Sakhalin, Kurile Islands Papilio dehaani var.(?) tutanus Fenton, [1882]; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1881 (4) : 855, TL: Yesso
= Papilio bianor maacki ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Papilio maacki kurilensis Matsumura, 1928; Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 192, TL: Kuriles
P. m. jezoensis Matsumura, 1927
Japan (Hokkaido) Papilio maackii jezoensis Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 115, TL: Hokkaido
Papilio maackii jezoensis ab. isshikii Matsumura, 1927; Ins. Matsumurana 2 (2) : 115, TL: Hokkaido
P. m. han (Yoshino, 1997)
Fujian, Zhejiang, Sichuan Achillides maackii han Yoshino, 1997; Neo Lepidoptera 2-2: 1, f. 5-10, 54, 70, TL: Mt. Wuyishan, Fujiang

Papilio maacki maacki × machaon hippocrates
Papilio maacki maacki × machaon hippocrates; (artificial pairing)
Papilio (Achillides) maacki maacki × machaon hippocrates ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 6

Papilio dialis Leech, 1893
W.China. See [About maps] Papilio dialis Leech, 1893; Entomologist 26 (Suppl.) : 104, TL: W.China
Papilio bianor syfanius ♂-ab. dialis ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 381
Papilio dialis ; [BOR, 51]; [MRS, 152]
Papilio (Achillides) dialis ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
P. d. cataleucas Rothschild, 1908
Hainan Papilio dialis cataleucas Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 173, TL: Five-Finger Mts., Hainan
Papilio dialis cateleucas ; [BOR, 51]
Papilio dialis cataleucas ; [MRS, 152]
P. d. andronicus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Taiwan Papilio dialis andronicus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 167 (preocc. Ward, 1871), TL: Chip-Chip, Formosa
Papilio dialis andronicus ab. neotatsuta Murayama & Shimonoya, 1963; Tyô to Ga 13 (3): 53, f. 23, 25, TL: Poli, Formosa
Papilio dialis andronicus ; [MRS, 152]
Papilio (Achillides) dialis andronicus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 4, f. 6

Larva on Euodia meliifolia, Toddalia asiatica, Rhus verniciflua [MRS]

P. d. schanus Jordan, 1909
Burma Papilio dialis schanus Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 77, TL: S.Shan States

Papilio doddsi Janet, 1896
N.Vietnam. See [About maps] Papilio doddsi Janet, 1896; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1896 : 215, TL: N.Vietnam
Papilio megei Oberthür, 1899; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1899 (14) : 268, TL: Haut-Tonkin
Papilio dialis doddsi, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio dialis doddsi ; Shimogori, 1997
Papilio (Achillides) doddsi ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1], pl. 4, f. 4

Papilio hoppo Matsumura, 1908
Taiwan Papilio hoppo Matsumura, 1908; Ent. Zs. 22 (13) : 54, TL: Formosa
Princeps hoppo ;
Papilio hoppo ; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 8]; [MRS, 151]
Papilio (Achillides) hoppo ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1], pl. 3, f. 4

Larva on Citrus spp. [MRS]


Papilio krishna Moore, 1857
SW.China, Sikkim, Bhutan, Darjeeling, Naga Hills, Manipur (hills), Burma. See [About maps] Krishna Peacock
Papilio krishna Moore, 1857; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 1 : 108, pl. 2a, f. 6, TL: Bhutan, Darjeeling
Princeps krishna ;
Papilio krishna ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 384; [BIR, 389]; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 11]; [BOR, 56]; [MRS, 155]
Papilio (Achillides) krishna ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
N.India, Nepal?, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam - Manipur ?manipuri Tytler
Papilio (Achillides) krishna krishna ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 4, f. 2
P. k. charlesi Fruhstorfer, 1902
W.China Papilio krishna charlesi Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (10) : 73, TL: Siao-Lou, Szetchuan
Papilio krishna charlesi, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Papilio krishna charlesi ; Yoshino, 1995, Neo Lepidoptera 1: 1 (note)
P. k. thawgawa Tytler, 1939
N.Burma, Yunnan Papilio krishna thawgawa Tytler, 1939; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 41 (2): 238, TL: Hthawgaw, NE.Burma
Papilio krishna nu Yoshino, 1995; Neo Lepidoptera 1: 1, f. 1-2, TL: Gaolingon Mts., Yunnan
= ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75
Papilio (Achillides) krishna thawgawa ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 4, f. 1
Papilio krishna thawgawa ; Huang, 2003, Neue Ent. Nachr. 55: 75 (note)
P. k. mayumiae Mitsuta & Shinkai, 2002
N.Vietnam Papilio krishna mayumiae Mitsuta & Shinkai, 2002; Futao (41): 24, TL: Sapa, N.Vietnam

Papilio arcturus Westwood, 1842
W.China, Kashmir - Sikkim, Assam, Burma. See [About maps] Blue Peacock
Papilio arcturus Westwood, 1842; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 9 : 37, TL: Himalaya
Papilio arcturus arcturus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Princeps arcturus ;
Papilio arcturus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 383; [BIR, 387]; [MRS, 151]
Papilio (Achillides) arcturus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
Nepal - S.Burma Papilio arcturus ab. privatus Röber, 1927; Int. ent. Zs. 20 (44): 400, TL: Naga Hills
Papilio arcturus dawna Tytler, 1939; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 41 (2): 237-238, TL: Dawna Taung, Dawnas.
Papilio (Achillides) arcturus arcturus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 4, f. 3
P. a. arius Rothschild, 1908
NW.India Papilio arcturus arius Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 174, TL: Kashmir valley
Papilio (Achillides) arcturus arius ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 4, f. 5
P. a. arcturulus Fruhstorfer, 1902
Szechuan Papilio arcturus arcturulus Fruhstorfer, 1902; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 14 (2) : 349, TL: Szechuan
Papilio arcturus arcturulus ; [MRS, 151]

Papilio polyctor Boisduval, 1836
Chitral - Sikkim, Assam, Burma. See [About maps] Common Peacock
Papilio polyctor Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 205, TL: Cashmere
?Papilio polyctor ab. alarich Niepelt, 1916; in Strand, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 22, pl. 13, f. 5
Princeps polyctor ;
Papilio polyctor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 381; [BIR, 387]; [BOR, 52]; [MRS, 150]
Papilio (Achillides) polyctor ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]

Larva on Xanthoxylon alatum [BIR], Zanthoxylum alatum, Limonia acidissima [MRS]

N.India, valleys of Himalaya Sarbaria peeroza Moore, 1882; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1882 (1) : 258, TL: Dharmsala, NW.Himalaya
Papilio polyctor ab. gen. vern. peeroza ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 382
Papilio polyctor ab. gen. aest. polyctor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 382
Papilio (Achillides) polyctor polyctor ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 3, f. 5
P. p. xiei Chou, 1994
Yunnan Papilio polyctor xiei Chou, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 751, 150, f. 5, TL: Mengla, Yunnan
= ?Papilio bianor ganesa Doubleday, 1842;
P. p. stockleyi Gabriel, 1936
N.Thailand Papilio polyctor stockleyi Gabriel, 1936; Entomologist 69: 282
Papilio (Achillides) polyctor stockleyi ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 3, f. 6
P. p. significans Fruhstorfer, 1902
S.Burma Papilio polyctor significans Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (9): 65, TL: Tandong, Tenasserim, 4000'
Papilio polyctor significanus[sic] ; Fruhstorfer, 1902, Soc. Ent. 17 (9): 66 (orig. missp.)

Papilio elephenor Doubleday, 1845
Assam, S.Shan States. See [About maps] Yellow-crested Spangle
Papilio elephenor Doubleday, 1845; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1) 16 (106): 305, TL: Sylhet
?Papilio elphenor Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 15, TL: Sylhet
Papilio elephenor ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 378
Papilio elphenor[sic] ; [BIR, 386]; [BOR, 52]
Papilio elephenor ; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 4]
Papilio (Achillides) elephenor ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]

The palinurus species-group

Papilio palinurus Fabricius, 1787
-. See [About maps] Banded Peacock
Papilio palinurus Fabricius, 1787; Mantissa Insectorum 2: 2, no. 10, TL: Malaysia
Papilio palinurus palinurus, Butterflies in Indo-China [Yutaka Inayoshi]
Princeps palinurus ;
Papilio palinurus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 387; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 2]; [BOR, 56]
Papilio (Achillides) palinurus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [1]
Achillides palinurus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

Larva on Euodia Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8

Burma - Peninsular Malaya, Borneo Papilio regulus Stoll, [1790]; Aanhangsel Werk, Uitl. Kapellen (2-5): 175, pl. 41, f. 1, 1A
Papilio brama Guérin-Méneville, 1840; Rev. zool. (Soc. Cuvièr) 3 (2): 43, pl. 1, f. 3-4, TL: Malacca
Papilio palinurus tubero Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: SE.Borneo
Papilio palinurus nikagoras Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: W.Sumatra
Papilio palinurus ab. solinus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176
Papilio (Princeps) palinurus palinurus ; [BMP: 73, pl. 3, f. 15]
Papilio (Achillides) palinurus palinurus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 2, f. 1

Larva on Euodia [BMP]

P. p. auffenbergi Späth, 1992
Indonesia (Simeulue) Papilio (Achillides) palinurus auffenbergi ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 2, f. 2
P. p. nymphodorus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Basilan Papilio palinurus nymphodorus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Bazilan
P. p. adventus Fruhstorfer, 1903
Nias Papilio palinurus adventus Fruhstorfer, 1903; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 15 (2) : 306, TL: Nias
P. p. daedalus C. & R. Felder, 1861
Philippines Papilio daedalus C. & R. Felder, 1861; Wien. ent. Monats. 5 (10) : 298, TL: Luzon
Papilio palinurus daedalus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 388
Papilio (Achillides) daedalus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]
Achillides palinurus daedalus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 41, f. 6, pl. 42, f. 1-6
P. p. angustatus Staudinger, 1888
Philippines (Palawan, Balabac, Cuyo, Busuanga, Dumaran) Papilio daedalus var. angustatus Staudinger, 1888; Corr.-Bl. Ent. Ver. Iris 1 (5) : 273, TL: Palawan
Papilio palinurus angustatus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 388
Papilio (Achillides) daedalus angustatus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 5, f. 1
Achillides palinurus angustatus ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 41, f. 2-5

Papilio crino Fabricius, 1793
Ceylon, S.India, Bengal. See [About maps] Common Banded Peacock
Papilio crino Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 5, TL: Madras, India
Papilio crino var. montanus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 322, 370, TL: Rambodde, Ceylon
Harimala montanus ; Moore, [1881], Lepid. Ceylon 1 (4): 146, pl. 61, f. 1
Papilio crino ♂-ab. montanus Felder; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 389
Princeps crino ;
Papilio crino ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 389; [BIR, 389]; [BOW: pl. 133, f. 11]; [BOR, 56]
Papilio (Achillides) crino ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 5, f. 6

Larva on Chloroxylum swietenia [BIR]


Papilio buddha Westwood, 1872
S.India. See [About maps] Malabar Banded Peacock
Papilio buddha Westwood, 1872; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 86, pl. 3, f. 1, TL: ?
Princeps buddha ;
Papilio buddha ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 389; [BIR, 390]; [BOR, 58]
Papilio (Achillides) buddha ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 5, f. 3

Larva on Xanthoxylon rhetsa [BIR]


Papilio blumei Boisduval, 1836
Celebes (Sulawesi). See [About maps] Papilio blumei Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 206, TL: "Amboina" [error]
Princeps blumei ;
Papilio blumei ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 390; [BOR, 58]
Papilio (Achillides) blumei ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 85

Larva on Euodia, Toddalia Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 85

N.Sulawesi Papilio (Achillides) blumei blumei ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 5, f. 2; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86
P. b. fruhstorferi Röber, 1897
S.Sulawesi Papilio fruhstorferi Röber, 1897; Ent. Nachr. 23 (14) : 223, TL: S.Celebes
Papilio (Achillides) blumei fruhstorferi ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86

The ? species-group

Papilio chikae Igarashi, 1965
Philippines. See [About maps] Papilio chikae Igarashi, 1965; Tyô to Ga 16 (1/2): 41, TL: Mt. Santo Tomas (2258m), N.Luzon, Philioppines
Princeps chikae ;
Papilio (Achillides) chikae ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 5, f. 4
Achillides chikae ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8
Philippines (N.Luzon) Achillides chikae chikae
Achillides chikae chikae ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 39, f. 5-6, pl. 40, f. 1-2
P. c. hermeli (Nuyda, 1992)
Philippines (N.Mindoro) Achillides chikae hermeli Nuyda, 1992
Papilio hermeli Nuyda, 1992; , TL: Mt Halcon
Papilio (Achillides) hermeli ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 5, f. 5
Achillides chikae hermeli ; Page & Treadaway, 2003, Butterflies of the world, 17: 8, pl. 40, f. 3-6

Papilio peranthus Fabricius, 1787
Java, Celebes. See [About maps] Papilio peranthus Fabricius, 1787; Mantissa Insectorum 2: 4
Papilio peranthus ab. phoebus Fruhstorfer, 1898; Berl. Ent. Zs. 42 (3/4) : 307
Papilio peranthus ab. phoebus Fruhstorfer, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (22): 169
Princeps peranthus ;
Papilio peranthus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 390; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 3]
Papilio (Achillides) peranthus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86

Larva on Micromelum Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86

Java
P. p. adamantius C. & R. Felder, 1865
Celebes Papilio adamantius C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 322 (nom. nud.), TL: Celebes
Papilio adamantius C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 121, pl. 18, f. c, TL: Celebes
Papilio macedon Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 46, pl. 6, f. 2, TL: Macassar, Menado
= Papilio adamantius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 394
Papilio adamantius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 394
Papilio (Achillides) peranthus adamantius ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 6, f. 3; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86
P. p. intermedius Snellen, 1890
Tanadjampea, Bonerate, Kalaotoa Papilio peranthus var. intermedius Snellen, 1890; Tijdschr. Ent. 33 : 275, TL: Tanah-Djampea
Papilio peranthus intermedius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 391
Papilio (Achillides) peranthus intermedius ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86
P. p. fulgens Röber, 1891
Bonerate, Lombok, Sambawa, Flores, Pura, Adonara Papilio peranthus var. fulgens Röber, 1891; Tijdschr. Ent. 34: 274, TL: Bonerate
Papilio peranthus fulgens ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 392
P. p. baweana Hagen, 1896
Bawean Papilio peranthus var. baweana Hagen, 1896; Jahrb. Nass. Nat. 49 : 179, TL: Bawean
Papilio peranthus baweana ;
Papilio (Achillides) perantus baweanus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 6, f. 4
P. p. transiens Fruhstorfer, 1898
Lesser Sunda Is. Papilio peranthus transiens Fruhstorfer, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (22): 169
Papilio peranthus transiens Fruhstorfer, 1898; Berl. Ent. Zs. 42 (3/4) : 307
P. p. insulicola Rothschild, 1896
Saleyer Papilio adamantius insulicola Rothschild, 1896; Novit. Zool. 3 (2): 91, TL: Saleyer
Papilio (Achillides) adamantius insulicola ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86
P. p. fannius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Sumbawa Papilio peranthus fannius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Sumbawa
P. p. kinesias Fruhstorfer, 1909
Flores Papilio peranthus kinesias Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Flores
P. p. kransi Jurriaanse & Lindemans, 1920
Buton Papilio peranthus kransi Jurriaanse & Lindemans, 1920; Tijdschr. Ent. 62 (Suppl.) : 5, TL: Buton I.
?Papilio peranthus kransi Jurriaanse, 1920; Tijdschr. Ent. 62 : xlvii, TL: Buton I.
Papilio (Achillides) peranthus kransi ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86
Tukangbesi Papilio (Achillides) peranthus wangiwangiensis ; Vane-Wright & de Jong, 2003, Zool. Verh. Leiden 343: 86

Papilio pericles Wallace, 1865
Timor. See [About maps] Papilio pericles Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 45, pl. 6, f. 1, TL: Timor
Papilio pericles hekaton Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Letti
Papilio pericles hermogenes Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: Selaru
Papilio pericles olympiodorus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: Babber
Princeps pericles ;
Papilio pericles ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 392; [BAUR: 88]
Papilio (Achillides) pericles ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 9, f. 5

Papilio lorquinianus C. & R. Felder, 1865
Halmaheira, Moluccas, New Guinea. See [About maps] Papilio lorquinianus C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 119, TL: Dodinga
Papilio lorquinianus apollodorus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (42): 176, TL: Waigiu
Papilio lorquinianus dewaro Joicey & Talbot, 1922; Bull. Hill Mus. 1 (2) : 321, TL: Arfak
ochoco Shmogori, 1997
Princeps lorquinianus ;
Papilio lorquinianus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 393; [BOW: pl. 134, f. 2]
Papilio (Achillides) lorquinianus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]
Ternate, Halmahera, Batjan Papilio lorquinianus lorquinianus ; [BAUR, 86]
P. l. philippus Wallace, 1865
Serang Papilio philippus Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 45, pl. 6, f. 3 ♂, TL: Moluccas, Ceram (not Batjan)
Papilio lorquinianus philippus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 393
Papilio (Achillides) lorquinianus philippus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 6, f. 2
P. l. albertisi Oberthür, 1880
Kapaur, Andai, West Irian Papilio d'albertisi Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 41 (nom. nud.), TL: Andai
Papilio d'albertisi Oberthür, 1880; Ann. Mus. Stor. nat. Genova 15 : 469, pl. 2, f. 1, TL: Andai
Papilio lorquinianus albertisi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 394; [BAUR, 86]
P. l. gelia Jordan, 1909
Bachan lorquinianus gelia Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 83
Papilio lorquinianus gelia ; [BAUR, 88 (text)]
P. l. esmeae Parrott, 1985
Morotai lorquinianus esmeae Parrott, 1985; Papilio Int. 2: (104-108)
P. l. boanoensis Kariya, 1992
Boano I. Papilio lorquinianus boanoensis Kariya, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (3): 229, TL: Boano I., Moluccas
Obi Is. Papilio (Achillides) lorquinianus ?ssp. ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 6, f. 1

Papilio neumoegeni Honrath, 1890
Sumba, Sambawa Papilio neumoegeni Honrath, 1890; Ent. Nachr. 16 (8) : 127, TL: Sumba
Papilio (Harimala) maremba Doherty, 1891; J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 60 Pt.II (2) : 192, TL: Sumba
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 390
Princeps neumoegeni ;
Papilio neumoegeni ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 390; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (4): 503 (note); [BOR, 58]
Papilio (Achillides) neumoegeni ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 6, f. 5-6

The ulysses species-group

Papilio ulysses Linnaeus, 1758
New Guinea. See [About maps] Ulysses Butterfly Blue Mountain Swallowtail Mountain Blue Blue Emperor
Papilio ulysses Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 462, TL: Asia
Papilio diomedes Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 462, TL: India
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 395
Papilio ulysses telephanes Fruhstorfer, 1902; Soc. Ent. 17 (8): 58, TL: Kiriwina; Fergusson
dirce Jordan, 1909
Papilio ulysses physkon Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: Waigiu
Papilio ulysses eugenius Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: New Guinea
Papilio ulysses eugenius f. principalis Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: New Guinea
Papilio ulysses eugenius f. roxane Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: New Guinea
Papilio ulysses taxiles Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: New Guinea, Milne Bay
Papilio ulysses denticulatus Joicey & Talbot, 1916; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1916 (1) : 68, TL: Bismarck Is.
Papilio ulysses, Lepidoptera Larvae of Australia [Don Herbison-Evans]
Princeps ulysses ;
Papilio ulysses ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 395; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 12, 17]
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]

Larva on Citrus, Evodia [BAUR], Cinnamomum camphora, Acradenia euodiiformis, Acronychia vestita, Citrus limon, C. paradisi, C. sinensis, C. spp., Euodia bonwickii, E. elleryana, E. micrococca, E. vitiflora, E. spp., Evodiella muelleri, Geijera paniculata, G. salicifolia, Halfordia scleroxyla K. L. & L. E. Dunn, 1991, Review Austr. Butts. (1-4): (120-140)

Seran, Ambon Papilio ulysses ulysses ; [BAUR, 83 (text)]
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses ulysses ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 8, f. 1, pl. 9, f. 1
P. u. telemachus Montrouzier, 1856
Trobriand, Fergusson, Goodenough Papilio telemachus Montrouzier, 1856; Ann. Sci. Phys. Lyon (2) 8: 401, TL: Woodlark I.
Papilio ulysses telemachus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 397; [BAUR, 84]
P. u. telegonus C. & R. Felder, 1860
Bachan, Ternate, Halmahera Papilio telegonus C. & R. Felder, 1860; Wien. ent. Monats. 4 (8): 226, TL: Batjan
Papilio ulysses telegonus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 399; [BAUR, 83]
P. u. autolycus C. & R. Felder, 1865
W.Irian - Papua Papilio autolycus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 321 (nom. nud.?), TL: New Guinea
Papilio autolycus C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 114, TL: New Guinea
Papilio penelope Wallace, 1865; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 25 (1) : 44, TL: New Guinea; Waigeu; Aru
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 396
Papilio ulysses autolycus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 396; [BAUR, 84]
P. u. joesa Butler, 1869
Cape York - McKay, Queensland Papilio joësa Butler, 1869; Entomologist 4 : 348, TL: Queensland
Papilio ulysses joësa ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 397
Papilio ulysses joesa ; [BAUR, 84]
P. u. orsippus Godman & Salvin, 1888
Choiseul, Isabel, Guadalcana, Florida Is. Papilio orsippus Godman & Salvin, 1888; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1 (2): 101, TL: Guadalcanar, Solomon Is.
f. hilaria Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 85
f. penthina Jordan, 1909; in Seitz, Grossschm. Erde 9: 85
Papilio ulysses orsippus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 398; [BAUR, 86 (text)]
P. u. ambiguus Rothschild, 1895
Bismarck Archipelago Papilio ulysses ambiguus Rothschild, 1895; Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 397, TL: New Britain, New Ireland, Duke of York Island
Papilio ulysses ambiguus ; [BAUR, 84]
P. u. melanotica Hagen, 1897
Moluccas Papilio ulysses autolycus ab. melanotica Hagen, 1897; Jarhb. Nass. Ver. Nat. 50 : 56, TL: Moluccas
Papilio ulysse melanotica ; Rothschild, 1915, Novit. Zool. 22 (2): 194
P. u. gabrielis Rothschild, 1898
Admiralty Is. Papilio ulysses gabrielis Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 (2): 217, TL: St. Gabriel, Admiralty Is.
Papilio ulysses gabrielis ; [BAUR, 86]
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses gabrielis ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 8, f. 2, pl. 9, f. 4
P. u. nigerrimus Ribbe, 1898
Bougainville, Shortland Is. Papilio ulysses var. nigerrimus Ribbe, 1898; Soc. Ent. 12 (21): 161
♀-f. nigerrimus ;
♀-f. cyanippe ;
Papilio ulysses nigerrimus ; [BAUR, 86 (text)]
P. u. morotaicus Rothschild, 1908
Morotai I. Papilio ulysses morotaicus Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 174, TL: Mira; Morty I. (Morotai)
Papilio ulysses morotaicus ; [BAUR, 83 (text)]
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses morotaicus ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 9, f. 2
P. u. dohertius Rothschild, 1898
Obi Papilio ulysses dohertius Rothschild, 1898; Novit. Zool. 5 : 417, TL: Obi
Papilio ulysses dohertius ; [BAUR, 83 (text)]
P. u. ampelius Rothschild, 1908
Buru Papilio ulysses ampelius Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 174, TL: Buru
Papilio ulysses ampelius ; Joicey & Talbot, 1924, Bull. Hill Mus. 1 (3) : 512; [BAUR, 83 (text)]
P. u. oxyartes Fruhstorfer, 1909
Aru Papilio ulysses oxyartes Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (43): 177, TL: Aru
Papilio ulysses oxyartes ; [BAUR, 83 (text)]
Papilio (Achillides) ulysses oxyartes ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 9, f. 3
P. u. georgius Rothschild, 1908
New Georgia Group Papilio ulysses georgius Rothschild, 1908; Novit. Zool. 15 (1) : 174, TL: Solomon Is.
Papilio ulysses rothschildianus Fruhstorfer, 1909; Ent. Zs. 22 (41) : 169 (repl. georgius Rothschild)
Papilio ulysses georgius ; [BAUR, 86 (text)]

Papilio montrouzieri Boisduval, 1859
New Caledonia Papilio montrouzieri Boisduval, 1859; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (3) 7 : clv
Papilio chaudoiri C. & R. Felder, 1860; Wien. ent. Monats. 4 (4): 99, pl. 2, f. 1, TL: "Moluccas" [error]
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 399
Papilio (ulysses var.) ulyssinus Westwood, 1860; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 5: 73
Papilio (ulysses var.) ulyssinus ab. ulyssellus Westwood, 1860; Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 5: 73 [?], TL: New Caledonia
Papilio westwoodi Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 41, pl. 3, f. 2, TL: New Caledonia
Princeps montrouzieri ;
Papilio montrouzieri ♂-ab. ulyssellus ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 400
Papilio montrouzieri ab. westwoodi ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 400
Papilio montrouzieri ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 399; [BOW: pl. 135, f. 12 (text)]; [BAUR, 86]
Papilio (Achillides) montrouzieri ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2], pl. 9, f. 6

Papilio syfanius Oberthür, 1886
W.China. See [About maps] Papilio syfanius Oberthür, 1886; Étud. d'Ent. 11 : 13, pl. 1, f. 3, TL: W.China
?Papilio syfanius Oberthür, 1890; Étud. d'Ent. 13 : 37
Papilio bianor syfanius ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 380
Papilio syfanius ; [MRS, 156]
Papilio (Achillides) syfanius ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: [2]
N.Yunnan Achillides syfanius syfanius ; Yoshino, 1997, Neo Lepidoptera 2-2: 1 (note), f. 3-4
Papilio (Achillides) syfanius syfanius ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 1
P. s. albosyfanius Shimogori & Fujioka, 1997
China (N.Yunnan) Papilio (Achillides) syfanius albosyfanius ; Bauer & Frankenbach, 1998, Butterflies of the world, 1: pl. 7, f. 2
P. s. kongaensis (Yoshino, 1997)
Sichuan Achilles syfanius kongaensis Yoshino, 1997; Neo Lepidoptera 2-2: 1, f. 1-2, 70, TL: Mt. Kongashan, Luting, near Kanting, Sichuan

Subgenus Heraclides Hübner, [1819]
Heraclides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio thoas Linnaeus
Calaides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 86, TS: Papilio androgeos Cramer
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Priamides Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 87, TS: Priamides hipponous Hübner
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Troilides Hübner, [1825]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. [111], TS: Troilides tros Hübner
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Thoas Swainson, [1833]; Zool. Illustr. (2) 3 (26): pl. 121, TS: Papilio thoas Linnaeus
= Heraclides ; [NL4A, 94]
Heraclides (Papilionini) ; [NL4A, 94]

The anchisiades species-group

Papilio hyppason Cramer, [1775]
Surinam, Brazil(Pará), Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador. See [About maps] Papilio hyppason Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 46, pl. 29, f. E, TL: Surinam
Papilio amosis Cramer, [1780]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (23-24): 139, pl. 269, f. A, B (preocc. Cramer, 1777), TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #107]
Papilio hippason[sic] var. paraensis Bates, 1861; J. Ent. 1 (4) : 225, TL: Brazil, Pará
= ; [NL4A, #107]
Papilio hippasonides Grose-Smith, 1902; in Grose-Smith & Kirby, Rhop. Exot. [1] 3: (Papilio) 52, pl. 22, f. 3-4, TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #107]
Papilio hyppason ♂-f. ptilion Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 602, TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #107]
Papilio hyppason rousseau-decellei Le Moult, 1933; Novit. Ent. 3: 16, TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #107]
f. unimacula Rousseau-Decelle, 1943; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 48: 111 (preocc. Joicey & Talbot, 1922), TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #107]
f. modestior Varea, 1975; , TL: Ecuador
= ; [NL4A, #107]
Papilio hyppason ; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 5]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Troilides) hyppason ; [EcuL]
Heraclides hyppason ; [NL4A, #107]

Papilio pelaus Fabricius, 1775
-. See [About maps] Papilio pelaus Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 444, TL: "India"
Papilio pelaus pelaus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Heraclides pelaus ; [NL4A, #115]
Papilio pelaus ; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 9]
Jamaica Papilio ornofagus Weidemeyer, 1863; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 2: 147 (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #115a]
Papilio pelaus pelaus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 603; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides pelaus pelaus ; [NL4A, #115a]
P. p. imerius Godart, 1819
Hispaniola Papilio imerius Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 69, TL: "East Indies"
Papilio augias Ménétriés, 1832; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 5 : 293 (preocc. Linnaeus, 1763), TL: Haiti
= ; [NL4A, #115c]
Papilio pelaus imerius, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio augias ; Ménétriés, 1834, Nouv. Mém. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 3 : 117, pl. 10, f. 1-2
Papilio pelaus imerius ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 603; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Priamides) pelaus imerius ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 2, pl. 2, f. 3-4
Heraclides pelaus imerius ; [NL4A, #115c]
P. p. atkinsi Bates, 1935
Cuba pelaus atkinsi Bates, 1935; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 78 : 113, TL: Cuba
Papilio pelaus atkinsi ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Priamides) pelaus atkinsi ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 2, pl. 2, f. 5-6
Heraclides pelaus atkinsi ; [NL4A, #115b]
P. p. puertoricoensis (Möhn, 1999)
Puerto Rico Heraclides (Priamides) pelaus puertoricensis Möhn, 1999; Butterflies of the World 8: 2, pl. 2, f. 1-2, TL: Puerto Rico
Papilio pelaus puertoricoensis ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides pelaus puertoricensis ; [NL4A, #115d]

Papilio oxynius (Geyer, [1827])
Cuba. See [About maps] Laertias oxynius Geyer, [1827]; , TL: Cuba
Papilio augustus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 358, TL: Cuba
= ; [NL4A, #113]
f. ochracea Rousseau-Decelle, 1933; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 38 (17) : 272, TL: Cuba
= ; [NL4A, #113]
Papilio oxynius ♀ f. niveomarginatus Rousseau-Decelle, 1933; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 37 : 306, TL: Cuba
= ; [NL4A, #113]
Papilio oxynius ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 603; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 7]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides oxynius ; [NL4A, #113]

Papilio epenetus Hewitson, 1861
W.Ecuador. See [About maps] Papilio epenetus Hewitson, 1861; Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio V): [10], pl. [5], f. 14-15, TL: "Cinchona, Ecuador"
Papilio epenetus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 604; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 19]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Priamides) epenetus ; [EcuL]
Heraclides epenetus ; [NL4A, #101]

Papilio chiansiades Westwood, 1872
Amazonas, Ecuador, Peru. See [About maps] Papilio chiansiades Westwood, 1872; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1872 (2) : 101, pl. 5, f. 4-5, TL: Rio Topo, Ecuador
Papilio chiansiades ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 604; Strand, 1916, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 23, pl. 17, f. 4; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 17]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides chiansiades ; [NL4A, #99]
Ecuador Heraclides chiansiades chiansiades ; [NL4A, #99a]
Heraclides (Priamides) chiansiades chiansiades ; [EcuL]
P. c. maroni Moreau, 1923
French Guiana, Venezuela? Papilio anchisiades maroni Moreau, 1923; Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1923 : 215, TL: French Guiana
Heraclides chiansiades maroni ; [NL4A, #99c]
Papilio maroni ;
Papilio anchisiades maroni ; [Bernard Rond, (with reservations)]

Comment by [Bernard Rond]. D treats it first as a sp, yet with some doubt. In the addenda and corrigenda of vol 1, published in vol 3 of " butterflies of the neotropical region ", he says it is just a ssp of anchisiades. From the figure he gives, and from my personal data (I have specimens collected by me in Venezuela which are quite similar to that figure) it is just an individual form of a very variable species.

P. c. dospassosi Rütimeyer, 1969
Colombia chiansiades dospassosi Rütimeyer, 1969; J. Lep. Soc. 23: 255, TL: Rio Putumayo [Colombia]
Heraclides (Priamides) chiansiades dospassosi ; [EcuL]
Heraclides chiansiades dospassosi ; [NL4A, #99b]
P. c. mossi (Brown, 1994)
Brazil(Pará) Heraclides chiansiades mossi Brown, 1994; , TL: Brazil(Pará)
Heraclides chiansiades mossi ; [NL4A, #99d]

Papilio erostratus Westwood, 1847
-. See [About maps] Papilio erostratus Westwood, 1847; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 5 : 36, pl. 3, f. 2, 2*, TL: C.Amer.
Papilio erostratus erostratus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio erostratus erostratus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio erostratus ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 229, 3: pl. 69, f. 9
Priamides erostratus ;
Papilio erostratus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 605; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 21]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides erostratus ; [NL4A, #102]
Guatemala, Costa Rica, Belize, ... Papilio rhetus Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 65, pl. 11, f. 5 (preocc. Cramer, 1775), TL: Guatemala
= ; [NL4A, #102a]
Papilio herostratus ; C. & R. Felder, 1864, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 310 (missp.?)
Heraclides erostratus erostratus ; [NL4A, #102a]
P. e. erostratinus Vázquez, 1947
Mexico erostratus erostratinus Vázquez, 1947; An. Inst. Biol. Mexico 18: 1947, TL: Mexico, Puebla
Papilio erostratus erostratinus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio erostratus erostratinus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio erostratus f. erostratinus ; [Bernard Rond, (probably)]
Heraclides erostratus erostratinus ; [NL4A, #102b]
P. e. vazquezae Beutelspacher, 1986
Mexico erostratus vazquezae Beutelspacher, 1986; , TL: Mexico, Guerrero
Papilio erostratus vazquezae, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio erostratus vazquezae, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Heraclides erostratus vazquezae ; [NL4A, #102c]

Papilio rogeri Boisduval, 1836
-. See [About maps] Papilio rogeri Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 278, TL: Mexico, Yucatán
Papilio rogeri rogeri, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio rogeri rogeri, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio rogeri, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio rogeri ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 231, 3: pl. 70, f. 8-9; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 606; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
Heraclides rogeri ; [NL4A, #116]
[rogeri-1.jpg] 562x485 (~34Kb) Belize, Central America, Photo © John Shuey

Mexico Heraclides rogeri rogeri ; [NL4A, #116a]
P. r. pharnaces Doubleday, 1846
Mexico Papilio pharnaces Doubleday, 1846; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 18 (121) : 374, TL: "S.Amer."
Papilio phanostratus Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 232, TL: Mexico, Jalapa
= ; [NL4A, #116b]
Papilio polycharmus Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 232, 3: pl. 70, f. 10, TL: Mexico, Sinaloa
= ; [NL4A, #116b]
f. paucimaculata Vázquez, 1947; An. Inst. Biol. Mexico 18: 249, TL: Mexico, Guanajuato
= ; [NL4A, #116b]
f. dissimilis Vázquez, 1957; An. Inst. Biol. Mexico 27: 478 (preocc. Linnaeus, 1758), TL: Mexico, Chiapas
= ; [NL4A, #116b]
Papilio rogeri pharnaces, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio rogeri pharnaces, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Priamides pharnaces ;
Papilio pharnaces ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 231; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 730; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 605; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 10]; [Bernard Rond]
Papilio rogeri pharnaces ;
Heraclides pharnaces ;
Heraclides rogeri pharnaces ; [NL4A, #116b]

Papilio anchisiades Esper, 1788
-. See [About maps] Ruby-spotted Swallowtail Red-spotted Swallowtail
Papilio anchisiades Esper, 1788; Die ausl. Schmett. : 53, pl. 13, f. 1-2, TL: [Surinam]
?Papilio pompeius Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 63
Papilio isidorus Bates, 1861; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (2) 5 (8): 338 (preocc. Doubleday, 1846)
Papilio pompeius Kirby, 1871; (preocc. Fabricius, 1781)
Papilio anchisiades, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Heraclides isidorus ;
Papilio anchisiades ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 607; [NACL, #4183]; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 9]; [BNA: 179, pl. 8]; [Opler]
Priamides anchisiades ;
Heraclides anchisiades ; [NAB, 340]; [NL4A, #92]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Papilio anchises; Stoll, 1780

Larva on Citrus spp., C. limon, Casimiroa edulis [BNA]

Venezuela, Colombia - Guayanas, Peru Papilio hipponous Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 87, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #92a]
Papilio archelaus Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 32, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #92a]
Papilio theramenes C. & R. Felder, 1861; Wien. ent. Monats. 5 (3): 74, TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #92a]
Heraclides matusiki Johnson & Rozycki, 1986; J. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 94: (383-393), TL: NE.Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #92a]
Papilio anchisiades anchisiades ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 608; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Priamides) anchisiades anchisiades ; [EcuL]
Heraclides anchisiades anchisiades ; [NL4A, #92a]
P. a. lamasi (Brown, 1994)
Ecuador anchisiades lamasi (Brown, 1994) (Heraclides); , TL: Ecuador,Palmar, Manabi
Heraclides (Priamides) anchisiades lamasi ; [EcuL]
Heraclides anchisiades lamasi ; [NL4A, #92d]
P. a. idaeus (Fabricius, 1793)
Texas, Mexico - Panama Papilio idaeus Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 16, TL: "Madras"
Papilio pandion Bates, 1861; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (2) 5 (8): 338 (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #92c]
Papilio anchisiades var. pandion Bates, 1863; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1863 : 242, TL: Panama
= ; [NL4A, #92c]
Papilio pandion C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 79 (preocc. Bates, 1863), TL: Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #92c]
Papilio pandonius Staudinger, 1894; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 7 (1) : 104 (repl. name), TL: Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #92c]
Papilio anchisiades idaeus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio anchisiades idaeus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio anchisiades idaeus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio pandion ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 230, 3: pl. 70, f. 6-7, 11; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 730
Papilio anchisiades idaeus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 607; [NACL, #4183a]; [BCR, 73, pl. 6]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides anchisiades idaeus ; [NL4A, #92c]

Larva on Casimiroa edulis, Zanthoxylum, Citrus [BCR]

P. a. capys (Hübner, [1809])
Bolivia - Parana, Argentina, Paraguay Papilio capys Hübner, [1809]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl. 120, f. 3-4
Papilio evander Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 32 (preocc. Stoll, 1780), TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #92b]
Papilio capys ; Hübner, [1819], Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 87
Papilio anchisiades capys ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 157; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides anchisiades capys ; [NL4A, #92b]
P. a. philastrius Fruhstorfer, 1915
Trinidad anchisiades philastrius Fruhstorfer, 1915; Ent. Rundschau 32 (12) : 70, TL: Trinidad
Papilio anchisiades philastrius ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides anchisiades philastrius ; [NL4A, #92e]

Papilio isidorus Doubleday, 1846
-. See [About maps] Papilio isidorus Doubleday, 1846; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 18 (121) : 375, TL: Bolivia
Papilio isidorus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 610; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 9 (text only)]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides isidorus ; [NL4A, #108]
Bolivia, Peru Papilio isidorus chironis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 610, TL: "Panama"
= ; [NL4A, #108a]
f. pseudoflavescens Sala, 1992; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #108a]
Papilio isidorus chironis ; [BCR, 73 (text only)]
Papilio isidorus isidorus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 611
Heraclides isidorus isidorus ; [NL4A, #108a]
P. i. rhodostictus Butler & Druce, 1874
Costa Rica, Panama, ... Papilio rhodostictus Butler & Druce, 1874; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (3) : 364, TL: Costa Rica
Papilio rhodostictus ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 232; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 612; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 9 (text only)]; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 612
Papilio rhodostictus rhodostictus ; [BCR, 73, pl. 6]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides rhodostictus ;
Heraclides isidorus rhodostictus ; [NL4A, #108g]

Larva on Citrus, Zanthoxylum [BCR]

P. i. flavescens Oberthür, 1879
Colombia, Ecuador Papilio isidorus flavescens Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 79, TL: Nouvelle-Grenade
Papilio isidorus var. leucostictus Honrath, [1885]; Berl. ent. Z. 29 (2) : 276, TL: Colombia
= ; [EcuL]; [NL4A, #108d]
Papilio ceus Dognin, 1887; Extrait du Naturaliste : 15 (nom. nud.), TL: Ecuador
= ; [NL4A, #108d]
Papilio isidorus flavescens ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 611
Heraclides (Priamides) isidorus flavescens ; [EcuL]
Heraclides isidorus flavescens ; [NL4A, #108d]
P. i. brises Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Colombia Papilio isidorus brises Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 610, TL: Colombia
Papilio rhodostictus nymphius orientalis Apolinar, 1924; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #108c]
Heraclides isidorus brises ; [NL4A, #108c]
P. i. nymphius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Colombia Papilio rhodostictus nymphius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 612, pl. 8, f. 48, TL: Colombia
Papilio isidorus var. leleargei Apolinar, 1915; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #108e]
Papilio metrobates Ehrmann, 1919; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #108e]
Papilio rhodostictus nymphius occidentalis Apolinar, 1924; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #108e]
Papilio rhodostictus nymphius ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides isidorus nymphius ; [NL4A, #108e]
P. i. pacificus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Colombia, W.Ecuador Papilio rhodostictus pacificus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 612, pl. 8, f. 49, TL: Colombia, Rio Dagua
Heraclides (Priamides) isidorus pacificus ; [EcuL]
Papilio rhodostictus pacificus ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides isidorus pacificus ; [NL4A, #108f]
P. i. autana (Racheli & Racheli, 1995)
Venezuela isidorus autana (Racheli & Racheli, 1995) (Heraclides); , TL: Venezuela
Heraclides isidorus autana ; [NL4A, #108b]
P. i. tingo (Racheli & Racheli, 1995)
Peru isidorus tingo (Racheli & Racheli, 1995) (Heraclides); , TL: Peru
Heraclides isidorus tingo ; [NL4A, #108h]

The thoas species-group

Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771
-. See [About maps] Thoas Swallowtail King Swallowtail
Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771; Mantissa Plant. 2: 536, TL: [Surinam]
Papilio thoas ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 223, 3: pl. 69, f. 4; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 729; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 555; [NACL, #4169]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 5 (text only)]; [BNA: 177, pl. 8]; [Opler]
Heraclides thoas ; [NAB, 336]; [NL4A, #118]
[thoas-1aU.jpg] identification uncertain 640x423 (~48Kb) Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, 16 June 2000), Photo © Erich Mangl
thoas? cresphontes?
[thoas-1bU.jpg] identification uncertain 655x719 (~64Kb) Butterfly House (Vienna, Austria, 16 June 2000), Photo © Erich Mangl
thoas? cresphontes?

Larva on Zanthozylum, Citrus limon, Ptelea, Ruta graveolens, Piper spp., Monnieria trifolia? [BNA]


Guianas, Brazil(Para) Papilio ?arcihmedes Fabricius, 1938
= ; [NL4A, #118a]
Papilio thoas thoas ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 559; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thoas thoas ; [NL4A, #118a]
P. t. autocles Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Texas, Mexico - Nicaragua Papilio thoas autocles Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 557, TL: Mexico, Guerrero
f. nigro-caudata Vázquez, 1948; An. Inst. Biol. Mexico 19: 234, TL: Mexico, Chiapas; Veracruz
= ; [NL4A, #118b]
ab. nigrimarginata Beutelspacher, 1976; , TL: Mexico, Veracruz
= ; [NL4A, #118b]
f. ochracea Beutelspacher, 1976; , TL: Mexico, Chiapas
= ; [NL4A, #118b]
Papilio thoas autocles, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio thoas autocles, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio thoas autocles ; [NACL, #4169a]; [BNA, 177]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thoas autocles ; [NL4A, #118b]
P. t. cinyras Ménétriés, 1857
Brazil(Amazonas), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia Papilio cinyras Ménétriés, 1857; Cat. lep. Petersb. 2: 68, n. 1124, pl. 7, f. 3, TL: "Bahia"
Papilio lampedon Gray, 1856; List Spec. lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 54 (nom. nud.), TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #118d]
Papilio thoas chamadus Fruhstorfer, 1907; Stettin ent. Ztg 68 (2): 301, TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #118d]
Papilio cinyras ab. ridens Fassl, 1916; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 29 (4) : 189, pl. 7, f. 1, TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #118d]
Papilio thoas flavibrunneus Prüffer, 1922; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #118d]
Papilio thoas cyniras[sic] ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Heraclides) thoas cyniras[sic] ; [EcuL]
Papilio thoas cinyras ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 560
Heraclides thoas cinyras ; [NL4A, #118d]
P. t. nealces Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Nicaragua - Trinidad, Colombia, Ecuador Papilio thoas nealces Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 558, TL: Colombia, Muzo
Papilio thoas nealces ; [BCR: 71, pl. 4, f. 2]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Heraclides) thoas nealces ; [EcuL]
Heraclides thoas nealces ; [NL4A, #118e]

Larva on Piper [BCR]

P. t. oviedo Gundlach, 1866
Cuba Papilio oviedo Gundlach, 1866; in Poey, Rep. Fis. Nat. Cuba. 1 : 279, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: Cuba
Papilio epithoas Oberthür, 1897; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1897 (11) : 179-180, f. 5, TL: "Mexico"
= ; [NL4A, #118f]
Papilio thoas oviedo ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 557; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thoas oviedo ; [NL4A, #118f]
P. t. thoantiades Burmeister, 1878
Argentina, Uruguay Papilio thoantiades Burmeister, 1878; Descr. phys. Rép. Arg. 5: 59, TL: Argentina
Papilio euclides Larrañaga, 1923; , TL: Uruguay
= ; [NL4A, #118g]
Papilio thoas brasiliensis ab. ochracea Giacomelli, 1927; , TL: Argentina
= ; [NL4A, #118g]
Papilio thoas thoantiades ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 561; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thoas thoantiades ; [NL4A, #118g]
P. t. brasiliensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Brazil(Rio de Janeiro, Mato Grosso), Uruguay, Paraguay Papilio thoas brasiliensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 560, TL: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro
Papilio thoas impunctata Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #118c]
ab. completa Dufrane, 1946; , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #118c]
ab. reducta Dufrane, 1946; , TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #118c]
Papilio thoas brasiliensis ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 157; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thoas brasiliensis ; [NL4A, #118c]

Papilio melonius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Jamaica Papilio thoas melonius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 556, pl. 8, f. 59, TL: Jamaica
Papilio thoas melonius ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides melonius ; [NL4A, #111]

Papilio homothoas Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Colombia, Venezuela. See [About maps] Papilio homothoas Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 561, pl. 5, f. 13, TL: Venezuela
Papilio homothoas ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides homothoas ; [NL4A, #106]

Papilio cresphontes Cramer, [1777]
C.USA, S.USA, E.USA, Mexico - Panama - Colombia, Cuba. See [About maps] Giant Swallowtail
Papilio cresphontes Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 106, pl. 165, f. A
Heraclides oxilus Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83 (repl. name)
= ; [NL4A, #100]
ab. lurida Schultz, 1908; , TL: "N.Amer."
= ; [NL4A, #100]
Papilio thoas cresphontes ab. luxuriosa Reiff, 1911; , TL: Michigan
= ; [NL4A, #100]
ab. intacta Strand, 1918
= ; [NL4A, #100]
var. maxwelli Franck, 1919; , TL: [Florida]
= ; [NL4A, #100]
tr.f. forsythae Gunder, 1933; , TL: Florida
= ; [NL4A, #100]
f. melanurus Hoffmann, 1940; , TL: Mexico, Guerrero
= ; [NL4A, #100]
Papilio cresphontes pennsylvanicus Chermock & Chermock, 1945; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #100]
Papilio cresphontes; [BNA: 176, pl. ]
Papilio cresphontes, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio cresphontes, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio cresphontes, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. cresphontes, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Papilio cresphontes, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio chresphontes ; Dury, 1878, (missp.)
Papilio cresphontes pennsylvanicus ; [NACL, #4170a]
Heraclides cresphontes ; [NAB, 337]; [NL4A, #100]
Papilio cresphontes ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 562; [NACL, #4170]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 5]; [BCR: 72, pl. 4, f. 1]; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
[cresphontes-1u.jpg] 900x675 (~278Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, Birgmingham, June 2001, Photo © Boris Yampolsky [cresphontes-2l.jpg] 1000x767 (~88Kb) larva USA: Alabama, 6.7.2002, Photo © Vitaly Charny [cresphontes-3l.jpg] 1400x930 (~127Kb) larva USA: Alabama, 6.7.2002, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[cresphontes.jpg] 500x558 (~31Kb) USA, Texas, Grapevine, 15-18.6.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen

Larva on Citrus sinensis, C. limon, C. aurantium, Citrus grandis, Zanthoxylum fagara, Z. americanum, Z. clava-herculis, Z. hirsutum, Ptelea trifoliata, Ruta graveolens, Casimiroa edulis, Dictamnus albus, Amyris elemifera, Choisya [BNA]

Larva on Phellodendron amurense, (oviposits and matures) [Marc W. Schenck]



Papilio andraemon (Hübner, [1823])
-. See [About maps] Bahaman Swallowtail
Heraclides andraemon Hübner, [1823]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. [98], [99]
Papilio andraemon andraemon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio andraemon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio andraemon ; Godman & Salvin, [1893], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 243 (note); Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 570; [NACL, #4172]; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 10]; [BNA: 176, pl. 9]; [Opler]
Heraclides andraemon ; [NL4A, #93]
Florida, Cuba, Jamaica Heraclides andraemon hernandezi Torre, 1936; , TL: Cuba
= ; [NL4A, #93a]
Papilio andraemon andraemon ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 571; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides andraemon andraemon ; [NL4A, #93a]
P. a. bonhotei Sharpe, 1900
Bahamas Papilio andraemon bonhotei Sharpe, 1900; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.: 201, pl. 19, TL: Bahamas,"Honduras"
Papilio andraemon bonhotei ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 571; [NACL, #4172a]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides andraemon bonhotei ; [NL4A, #93b]
P. a. tailori Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Cayman Islands Papilio andraemon tailori Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 571, TL: Cayman Islands
Papilio andraemon tailori ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides andraemon tailori ; [NL4A, #93c]

Papilio paeon Boisduval, 1836
-. See [About maps] Papilio paeon Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 356, TL: Chili
Papilio paeon ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 566; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 5 (text only)]
Heraclides paeon ; [NL4A, #114]
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia peon peon[sic] perugino Bryk, 1953; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #114a]
Heraclides paeon marxi Möhn, 2001; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #114a]
Heraclides paeon paeon ; [NL4A, #114a]
Papilio paeon paeon ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 567; [Bernard Rond]
P. p. thrason C. & R. Felder, 1865
Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia Papilio thrason C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 74, TL: Venezuela, Bogotá
Papilio thrason ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 224
Papilio paeon thrason ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 566; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides paeon thrason ; [NL4A, #114c]
Heraclides (Heraclides) paeon thrason ; [EcuL]
P. p. escomeli Cockerell, 1927
Peru Papilio paeon escomeli Cockerell, 1927; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 29 (2) : 48, TL: Peru
Heraclides paeon escomeli ; [NL4A, #114b]

Papilio aristodemus Esper, 1794
-. See [About maps] Schaus' Swallowtail Island Swallowtail
Papilio aristodemus Esper, 1794; Mag. Neu Ausl. Ins. 1: 8, TL: [Haiti]
Papilio aristodemus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio aristodemus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio aristodemus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 569; [NACL, #4171]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 4]; [BNA: 178, pl. 8]; [Opler]
Heraclides aristodemus ; [NAB, 339]; [NL4A, #95]

Larva on Amyris elemifera, Zanthoxylum fagara [BNA]

Hispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Florida Papilio cresphontinus Martyn, 1797; Psyche, 3: f. 8, TL: Haiti
= ; [NL4A, #95a]
Papilio daphnis Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 39 (preocc. Denish & Schiffermüller, 1775), TL: Haiti
= ; [NL4A, #95a]
Papilio cresphontinus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Heraclides aristodemus aristodemus ; [NL4A, #95a]
Papilio aristodemus aristodemus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 570; [Bernard Rond]
P. a. temenes Godart, 1819
Cuba Papilio aristodemus temenes Godart, 1819; , TL: Antilles,"N.Amer"
Papilio aristodemus temenes ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 569; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides aristodemus temenes ; [NL4A, #95e]
P. a. ponceanus Schaus, 1911
SE.Florida, Bahamas Papilio ponceana Schaus, 1911; Ent. News 22 (10) : 438, TL: Florida
Papilio aristodemus driophilus Clench, 1978; J. Lep. Soc. 32 (4): 273, TL: Cutlass Bay, near Dolphin Head, southern Cat Island, Bahamas
= ; [NL4A, #95d]
Papilio aristodemus ponceanus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio aristodemus ponceanus ; [NACL, #4171a]
Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus ; [NL4A, #95d]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Papilio aristodemus ponceanus; Clench, 1977, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 46 (12): 190
P. a. bjorndalae Clench, 1978
Bahamas Papilio aristodemus bjorndalae Clench, 1978; J. Lep. Soc. 32 (4): 275, TL: Man of War Bay, Great Inagua Island, Bahamas
Heraclides aristodemus bjorndalae ; [NL4A, #95b]
P. a. majasi (Miller, 1987)
Bahamas Heraclides aristodemus majasi Miller, 1987; , TL: Bahamas
Heraclides aristodemus majasi ; [NL4A, #95c]

Papilio machaonides Esper, 1796
Hispaniola (Haiti, DR), Puerto Rico, Cayman Islands Papilio machaonides Esper, 1796; Die ausl. Schmett. : 191, pl. 45, f. 2, TL: Haiti
Papilio lycoraeus Godart, 1819; , TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #110]
Papilio machaonides, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio machaonides, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio machaonides ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 571; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 8]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides machaonides ; [NL4A, #110]

Papilio ornythion Boisduval, 1836
Texas, Mexico - Guatemala. See [About maps] Ornythion Swallowtail
Papilio ornythion Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 354, TL: Mexico, Yucatán
Papilio ornythion, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio ornythion, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio ornythion, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio ornythion, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio ornythion ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 227, 3: pl. 69, f. 7-8; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 729; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 573; [NACL, #4174]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 5 (text only)]; [BNA: 178, pl. 8]; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
Calaides ornythion ;
Heraclides ornythion ; [NL4A, #112]

Larva on Citrus [BNA]


Papilio astyalus Godart, 1819
-. See [About maps] Broad-banded Swallowtail Astyalus Swallowtail
Papilio astyalus Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 62, TL: ;Brésil
Papilio astyalus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Calaides astyalus ;
Papilio astyalus ; [NACL, #4173]; [BNA: 178, pl. 8]; [Opler]
Heraclides astyalus ; [NL4A, #97]

Larva on Citrus [BCR], Citrus sinensis, C. limon [BNA]

Brazil(Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Parana), Argentina, Paraguay Heraclides lycophron Hübner, [1823]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. [100]
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio mentor Dalman, 1823; Analecta Entomologica: 37, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio pirithous Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 358 (preocc. Linnaeus, 1767), TL: "Cuba",Brazil]
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio oebalus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 360, TL: [Brazil]
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio drepanon Gray, 1856; List Spec. lep. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 53 (nom. nud.), TL: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron drepanon Fruhstorfer, 1907; Stettin ent. Ztg 68 (2): 302, TL: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron ab. delunensis Niepelt, 1916; in Strand, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 21, pl. 13, f. 10-11, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron f. paulina Krüger, 1934; (preocc. Cramer, 1777), TL: Brazil, São Paulo; Minas Gerais
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron lycophron f. thersitoides Rousseau-Decelle, 1943; , TL: Argentina
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron pirithous f. suffusa Rousseau-Decelle, 1943; , TL: Paraguay
= ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio lycophron lycophron ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 576
Papilio lycophron ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 573; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 6]
Heraclides astyalus astyalus ; [NL4A, #97a]
Papilio astyalus astyalus ; [Bernard Rond]
P. a. pallas Gray, [1853]
Texas, Mexico, Costa Rica Papilio pallas Gray, [1853]; , TL: Mexico
Papilio pallas Doubleday, [1845]; 53 (nom. nud.), TL: Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #97e]
Papilio hozaus Ehrmann, 1921; , TL: Costa Rica
= ; [NL4A, #97e]
Papilio astyalus pallas, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio astyalus pallas, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio astyalus pallas, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio pallas ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 225, 3: pl. 69, f. 5-6
Papilio lycophron pallas ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 574
Papilio astyalus pallas ; [NACL, #4173a]; [BCR, 72, pl. 4]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides astyalus pallas ; [NL4A, #97e]
P. a. bajaensis Brown & Faulkner, 1992
Mexico (Baja California Sur) Papilio astyalus bajaensis Brown & Faulkner, 1992; (repl. name), TL: Mexico, Baja California Sur
Papilio (Heraclides) astyalus occidentalis Brown & Faulkner, 1984; (preocc. Martin, 1915), TL: Mexico, Baja California Sur
= ; [NL4A, #97c]
Papilio astyalus bajaensis, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio astyalus bajaensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Heraclides astyalus bajaensis ; [NL4A, #97c]
P. a. hippomedon (C. & R. Felder, 1859)
Colombia, Venezuela Papilio hippomedon C. & R. Felder, 1859; Wien. ent. Monats. 3 (12): 393
Papilio theophron C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 311 (nom. nud.)
Papilio theophron C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 76, TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #97d]
f. iraidari Lichy, 1960; , TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #97d]
f. taini Lichy, 1960; , TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #97d]
Papilio lycophron hippomedon ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 575
Papilio hippomedon ; Strand, 1916, Lepidoptera Niepeltiana (2) : 21, pl. 17, f. 3
Papilio astyalus hippomedon ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides astyalus hippomedon ; [NL4A, #97d]
P. a. phanias Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Goias Papilio lycophron phanias Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 575, TL: Ecuador, Zamora
Papilio lycophron brunneus Prüffer, 1922; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #97f]
Papilio astyalus phanias ; [NEN41]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Calaides) astyals phanias ; [EcuL]
Heraclides astyalus phanias ; [NL4A, #97f]
P. a. anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002
Colombia Papilio astyalus anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002; , TL: Colombia
Heraclides astyalus anchicayaensis ; [NL4A, #97b]

Papilio thersites Fabricius, 1775
Jamaica Papilio thersites Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 453, TL: America
Papilio palamedes Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 454 (preocc. Drury, 1773), TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #117]
Papilio acamas Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 8, TL: Jamaica
= ; [NL4A, #117]
Papilio thersites ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 572; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 11]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides thersites ; [NL4A, #117]

Papilio caiguanabus Poey, [1852]
Cuba. See [About maps] Papilio caiguanabus Poey, [1852]; Hist. Nat. Cuba 1 : 442, pl. 15, f. 1-4, TL: Cuba
Papilio numicus Hopffer, 1856; Neue Schmett. (2) : pl. 1, f. 3-4, TL: Cuba
= ; Hewitson, 1866, Ill. exot. Butts [3] : iv; [NL4A, #98]
Papilio numicus ; Hewitson, 1864, Ill. exot. Butts [1] (Papilio VI): [11], pl. [6], f. 16
Papilio caiguanabus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 567; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 16]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides caiguanabus ; [NL4A, #98]

Papilio aristor Godart, 1819
Haiti (extint?), Dominican Republic Papilio aristor Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 60
Papilio aristor ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 568; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Calaides) aristor ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 2, pl. 2, f. 7-8
Heraclides aristor ; [NL4A, #96]

Papilio androgeus Cramer, [1775]
Mexico, W.Indies - Brazil. See [About maps] Androgeus Swallowtail Queen Swallowtail
Papilio androgeus Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 24, pl. 16, f. C, D, TL: Surinam
?Papilio amosis Stoll, [1787]; Aanhangsel Werk, Uitl. Kapellen (1): 1, pl. 1, f. 1a-b
Papilio androgeus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Calaides androgeus ;
Papilio androgeus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 577; [NACL, #4175]; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 11, 12]; [BNA: 179, pl. 8, 9]; [EBW]; [Opler]
Heraclides androgeus ; [NL4A, #94]

Larva on Citrus sinensis [BNA]

Surinam, Colombia, Ecuador - Bolivia, Brazil(Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso) orestes Meerburgh, [1777]; , TL: ?
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio polycaon Cramer, [1779]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (17-21): 17, pl. 203, f. A, B, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio piranthus Cramer, [1779]; Uitl. Kapellen 3 (17-21): 18, pl. 204, f. A, B, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio androgeus bagous Fruhstorfer, 1907; Stettin ent. Ztg 68 (2): 300, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
f. mira Fassl, 1922; , TL: Brazil, Pará
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio androgeos[sic] f. feyeri Niepelt, 1924; , TL: Ecuador
= ; [EcuL, (f.morph.)]; [NL4A, #94a]
var. fassli Knop, 1925; , TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
ab. decellei Krüger, 1934; , TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio hibisci Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name), TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio altheae Fabricius, 1938; (preocc.,repl. name), TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio acanthus ; Gmelin, [1790], in Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (edn 13) 1 (5) : 2231 (missp.)
Papilio androgeos ; Kirby, 1871, (missp.)
Heraclides androgeus androgeus ; [NL4A, #94a]
Papilio androgeus androgeus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 579; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Calaides) androgeus androgeus ; [EcuL]
P. a. epidaurus Godman & Salvin, 1890
Florida, Mexico, Panama, Cuba - Santa Lucia Papilio epidaurus Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 224, 3: pl. 69, f. 1-3, TL: Mexico, Veracruz
f. ochracea Beutelspacher, 1976; , TL: Mexico(Chiapas)
= ; [NL4A, #94b]
Papilio androgeus epidaurus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio androgeus epidaurus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio epidaurus ; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 729
Papilio androgeus epidaurus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 578; [NACL, #4175]; [BCR, 72, pl. 4]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides androgeus epidaurus ; [NL4A, #94b]
Heraclides (Calaides) androgeus epidaurus ; [EcuL]

Larva on Zanthoxylum elephanatiasus, Citrus reticulata [BNA]

P. a. laodocus (Fabricius, 1793)
Brazil(Minas Gerais, Paraná), Paraguay, Argentina Papilio laodocus Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3 (1): 8, TL: Brazil
f. limbatus Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; , TL: Paraguay
= ; [NL4A, #94c]
f. vollmanni Lederer, 1961; , TL: Brazil, Paraná
= ; [NL4A, #94c]
Papilio laodocus ; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 12 (text only)]
Papilio androgeus laodocus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 580; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides androgeus laodocus ; [NL4A, #94c]

The torquatus species-group

Papilio himeros Hopffer, 1866
-. See [About maps] Papilio himeros Hopffer, 1866; Stettin ent. Ztg 27 (1-3) : 26, TL: Brazil
Papilio himeros ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 614
Heraclides himeros ; [NL4A, #105]
Brazil(Minas Gerais - Rio de Janeiro) Papilio mentor Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 351 (preocc. Dalman, 1823), TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #105a]
Papilio herodotus Capronnier, 1874; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 17 : 10 (nom. nud.), TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #105a]
Papilio herodotus Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 71, pl. 4, f. 2, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #105a]
Papilio lycophron var. minor Burmeister, 1878; Descr. phys. Rép. Arg. 5: 60 (repl. name), TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #105a]
Heraclides himeros himeros ; [NL4A, #105a]
Papilio himeros himeros ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 614; [Bernard Rond]
P. h. baia Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Brazil(Bahia) Papilio himeros baia Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 614, TL: Brazil, Bahia
Papilio himeros baia ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 157
Papilio himeros bahia[sic?] ; [Bernard Rond, (spell.?)]
Heraclides himeros baia ; [NL4A, #105b]

Papilio lamarchei Staudinger, 1892
Argentina - Bolivia. See [About maps] Papilio lamarchei Staudinger, 1892; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 428, TL: Bolivia
Papilio lamarchei ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 615; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides lamarchei ; [NL4A, #109]

Papilio hectorides Esper, 1794
Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil(Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Parana). See [About maps] Papilio hectorides Esper, 1794; Mag. Neu Ausl. Ins. 1: 8, pl. 1, f. 1, TL: "East Indies"
Papilio argentus Martyn, 1797; Psyche: pl. 14, f. 3-4, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio torquatinus Esper, 1799; Die ausl. Schmett. : 206, pl. 51, f. 2, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio pandrosus Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 62 (preocc. Borkhausen, 1788), TL: "French Guiana",Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio lysithous Godart, 1819; Encyclopédie Méthodique. 9 (1): 73, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Menelaides chirodamas Hübner, [1825]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. 103
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio mezentius Doubleday, 1844; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 14 (93) : 417, TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio torquatinus ab. melania Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 78, pl. 3, f. 3, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio hectorides ♀-f. catamelas Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 616, TL: Brazil, Santa Catarina
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio hectorides agordus Fruhstorfer, 1915; , TL: Paraguay
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio hectorides lysirte Fruhstorfer, 1915; , TL: Brazil, Santa Catarina; Rio Grande do Sul
= ; [NL4A, #104]
Papilio hectorides ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 615; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 1, 2]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides hectorides ; [NL4A, #104]

Papilio garleppi Staudinger, 1892
-. See [About maps] Papilio garleppi Staudinger, 1892; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 427, TL: Bolivia
Papilio garleppi ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 617; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 12 (text only)]
Heraclides garleppi ; [NL4A, #103]
Bolivia Papilio garleppi garleppi ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 618; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides garleppi garleppi ; [NL4A, #103a]
P. g. interruptus Staudinger, 1892
Peru, Brazil(Amazonas) Papilio garleppi var. interruptus Staudinger, 1892; Dt. ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 427, TL: Brazil, Amazonas; Peru
Papilio garleppi interruptus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 617; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides garleppi interruptus ; [NL4A, #103b]
P. g. lecerfi (Brown & Lamas, 1994)
Guianas garleppi lecerfi (Brown & Lamas, 1994) (Heraclides); (repl. name), TL: French Guiana
garleppi var. insidiosus Le Cerf, 1923; (preocc. Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912), TL: French Guiana
= ; [NL4A, #103c]
Papilio garleppi insidiosus ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides garleppi lecerfi ; [NL4A, #103c]

Papilio torquatus Cramer, [1777]
-. See [About maps] Papilio torquatus Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 123, pl. 177, f. A, B, TL: Surinam
Heraclides torquatus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Heraclides torquatus ; [NL4A, #119]
Papilio torquatus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 618; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 12, 13]
Venezuela, Guianas - Brazil (Amazonas), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia Princeps caudius Hübner, [1809]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 1 : pl. 117
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio patros Gray, [1853]; Cat. lep. Ins. Coll. Brit. Mus. 1 (Papilionidae) : 43, pl. 7, f. 7, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio torquatus var. flavida Oberthür, 1879; Étud. d'Ent. 4 : 115, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio torquatus torquatus ♀-f. theras Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 621, TL: Surinam,"Upper Amazon"
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio torquatus torquatus ♀-f. cleolas Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 621, TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
var. dubia Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; (preocc. Fuessly, 1783)
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio torquatus ab. modestus Röber, 1927; Int. ent. Zs. 20 (44): 401, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio garleppi interruptus f. xanthica Rousseau-Decelle, 1943; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
ab. leo Okano, 1985; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #119a]
Papilio torquatus torquatus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 620; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Troilides) torquatus torquatus ; [EcuL]
Heraclides torquatus torquatus ; [NL4A, #119a]
P. t. mazai Beutelspacher, 1977
Mexico, El Salvador torquatus mazai Beutelspacher, 1977; , TL: Mexico, Jalisco
Papilio torquatus tolus f. semimaculata Vázquez, 1949; , TL: Mexico, Guerrero
= ; [NL4A, #119d]
Papilio torquatus atsukoae Okano, 1985; , TL: El Salvador
= ; [NL4A, #119d]
Papilio torquatus mazai, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio torquatus mazai, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Heraclides torquatus mazai ; [NL4A, #119d]
P. t. tolmides Godman & Salvin, 1890
Panama, Costa Rica Papilio tolmides Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 229, 3: pl. 70, f. 5, TL: Panama
Papilio torquatus tolmides ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 619; [BCR, 73, pl. 4]; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides torquatus tolmides ; [NL4A, #119f]

Larva on Citrus [BCR]

P. t. tolus Godman & Salvin, 1890
Mexico, Guatemala Papilio tolus Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 228, 3: pl. 70, f. 1-4, TL: Mexico, Tampico
f. prorsus maculata[sic] Vázquez, 1949; , TL: Mexico, Veracruz
= ; [NL4A, #119g]
f. semipunctata Vázquez, 1949; , TL: Mexico, Guerrero; Veracruz
= ; [NL4A, #119g]
Papilio torquatus tolus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio torquatus tolus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio torquatus tolus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 619; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides torquatus tolus ; [NL4A, #119g]
P. t. leptalea Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
W.Ecuador Papilio torquatus leptalea Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 620, TL: Ecuador,Balsapamba
Papilio torquatus leptalea ; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides (Troilides) torquatus leptalea ; [EcuL]
Heraclides torquatus leptalea ; [NL4A, #119c]
P. t. polybius Swainson, 1823
Brazil(Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Mato Grosso), Paraguay, Argentina Papilio polybius Swainson, 1823; Zool. Illustr. (1) 2: pl. 94, TL: Brazil, Minas Gerais
Troilides tros Hübner, [1825]; Samml. exot. Schmett. 2 : pl. [111]
= ; [NHM]
Papilio trojanus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 301, TL: Brazil
= ; [NL4A, #119e]
f. albosignata Rouisseau-Decelle, 1943; , TL: Brazil(Rio de Janeiro)
= ; [NL4A, #119e]
Papilio torquatus polybius ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 157; [Bernard Rond]
Heraclides torquatus polybius ; [NL4A, #119e]
P. t. jeani (Brown & Lamas, 1994)
Colombia, , W.Venezuela Heraclides torquatus jeani Brown & Lamas, 1994; (repl. name), TL: Colombia
Papilio orchamus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 300 (preocc. Cramer, 1777), TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #119b]
Heraclides torquatus jeani ; [NL4A, #119b]
Papilio torquatus orchamus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 619; [Bernard Rond]

The ? species-group

Papilio × tasso Staudinger, [1884]
Brazil. See [About maps] Papilio tasso Staudinger, [1884]; in Staudinger & Schatz, Exot. Schmett. 1 (4): 19, (3): pl. 13, TL: "Brazil"
torquatus polybius × himeros himeros ;
Papilio tasso ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 622
Heraclides tasso ; Johnson & Matusik, 1987, J. Lep. Soc. 41 (2): 108-113 (species, but maybe hybrid)
× tasso ; [NL4A, 96]

Comment by [Bernard Rond]. tasso is another very doubtful taxon. In 1910, S says that only a few old specimens are known, but without precising where they are kept. D says there not a single one remaining in any Museum nor collection known. Obviously no other specimen has been collected since Staudinger. This taxon looks like a legend... Hybrid or aberration ?


?Papilio peleides Esper, 1793
Papilio peleides Esper, 1793; Die ausl. Schmett. : 150, pl. 39, f. 2, TL: "Indien?"
Papilio peleides ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 623
peleides ; [NL4A, 96 (artifact)]

Comment by [Bernard Rond]. peleides is still more doubtful. S & D says that it is only known through Esper's drawing. Probably an aberration.


Subgenus Pterourus Scopoli, 1777
Pterourus Scopoli, 1777; Introd. Hist. nat.: 433, TS: Papilio troilus Linnaeus
Jasoniades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio turnus Linnaeus
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Euphoeades Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (6): 83, TS: Papilio glaucus Linnaeus
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Caudati Koch, 1860; (unavail.)
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Pyrrhosticta Butler, 1872; Cistula ent. 1 : 86, TS: Papilio laetitia Butler
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Motasiona Niculescu, 1979
= Pterourus ; [NL4A, 96]
Pterourus (Papilionini) ; [NL4A, 96]

The troilus species-group

Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758
-. See [About maps] Spicebush Swallowtail
Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 459, TL: [South Carolina]
Papilio troilus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. troilus, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Papilio troilus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 594; [NACL, #4181]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 13]; [BNA: 183, pl. 7, 8]; [Opler]
Pterourus troilus ; [NAB, 345]; [NL4A, #138]
[troilus-1.jpg] 432x293 (~47Kb) USA: Huron River valley region, Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 1999, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [troilus-2v.jpg] 1300x975 (~144Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 4.5.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [troilus-3u.jpg] 1400x1050 (~392Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 22, 6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[troilus-4.jpg] 1200x872 (~231Kb) USA: Alabama, 1.5.2005 (with Eurytides marcellus), Photo © Vitaly Charny [troilus-5.jpg] 1200x887 (~175Kb) USA: Alabama, 16.7.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Sassafras albidum var. molle, Lindera benzoin, Cinnamomum camphora, Persea borbonia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia virginiana, Prunus persica?, P. serotina?, Pyrus arbutifolia?, Cercis canadensis?, Syringa vulgaris?, Zanthoxylum americanum?, Zanthoxylum fraxineum?, Z. clava-herculis? [BNA], Lindera melissifolia Morris, 1989, J. Lep. Soc. 43 (2): 147


Maine - Texas, NA.Georgia Papilio ilioneus Smith, 1797; in Smith & Abbot, Nat. Hist. Rarer Lepid. Ins. Georgia 1: 3 (preocc. Cramer, 1775), TL: Georgia
= ; Gatrelle, 2000, Taxonomic Rep. 2 (4): 4; [NL4A, #138a]
var. radiatus Strecker, 1900; Lep. Rhopal. Het., Suppl. 3 : 17, TL: District of Columbia; Pennsylvania; Delaware
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
Papilio anethis Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name), TL: [South Carolina]
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
ab. flava Dufrane, 1946; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
ab. addenda Dufrane, 1946; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
ab. obliterata Dufrane, 1946; , TL: USA
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
ab. berioi Dufrane, 1946; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #138a]
Papilio troilus radiatus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3
Papilio troilus ilioneus ; [NACL, #4181a]; [BNA, 183]; [Bernard Rond]
Papilio troilus troilus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 595; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus troilus troilus ; [NL4A, #138a]
P. t. texanus Ehrmann, 1900
Florida Papilio troilus var. texanus Ehrmann, 1900; Can. Ent. 32 (11) : 348, TL: ?Texas [Florida]
= Papilio troilus troilus ; Gatrelle, 2000, Taxonomic Rep. 2 (4): 4
Papilio troilus fakahatcheensis Gatrelle, 2000; Taxonomic Rep. 2 (4): 10, TL: Florida, Collier Co.
= ; [NL4A, #138b]
Papilio troilus texanus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 597
Pterourus troilus texanus ; [NL4A, #138b]

Papilio palamedes Drury, [1770]
-. See [About maps] Palamedes Swallowtail Laurel Swallowtail
Papilio palamedes Drury, [1770]; Illust. Nat. Hist. Exot. Insects 1 : 37, pl. 19, f. 1-2, TL: "Carolina"
Papilio flavomaculatus Goeze, 1779; Ent. Beyträge 3 (1) : 87
Papilio palamedes, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. palamedes, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Papilio palamedes ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 3; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 598; [NACL, #4182]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 12]; [BNA, 183, pl. 8]; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
Pterourus palamedes ; [NAB, 346]; [NL4A, #135]
[palamedes-1u.jpg] 1200x900 (~181Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 31.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [palamedes-1v.jpg] 1200x900 (~231Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 31.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [palamedes-2v.jpg] 1200x854 (~104Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 31.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny

Larva on Persea borbonia, P. borbonia var. pubescens, Sassafras albidum var. molle [BNA]


S.Maryland - Florida, S.Texas, N.Mexico Papilio chalcas Fabricius, 1775; Syst. Ent.: 453, TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #135a]
Papilio calchas Esper, 1801; Die ausl. Schmett. : 229, pl. 56, f. 3 (emend.)
= ; [NL4A, #135a]
Papilio chalcus ; Fabricius, 1781, (missp.)
Papilio palamedes palamedes ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 598
Pterourus palamedes palamedes ; [NL4A, #135a]
P. p. leontis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Mexico Papilio palamedes leontis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 599, TL: Mexico, Nuevo León
Papilio palamedes leontis, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio palamedes leontis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pterourus palamedes leontis ; [NL4A, #135b]

The glaucus species-group

Papilio appalachiensis (Pavulaan & Wright, 2002)
Pterourus appalachiensis Pavulaan & Wright, 2002; The Taxonomic Report 3 (7): (1-20)
Papilio appalachiensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio appalachiensis, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio appalachiensis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio appalachiensis ; Scriber & Ording, 2005, Ent. Exp. et Applicata 115: (247-263)

Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758
-. See [About maps] Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 460, no. 9
Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1764; Mus. Lud. Ulr.: 190, no. 9
Papilio ajax Linnaeus, 1758; (part, rej. ICZN Op. 286)
Papilio ehrmanni McDunnough, 1938, not Ehrmann, 1925
Papilio glaucus glaucus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio glaucus glaucus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio glaucus, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Papilio glaucus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
P. glaucus, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Papilio glaucus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 582; [NACL, #4176]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 9, 10]; [BNA: 179, pl. 6, 8]; [Opler]
Pterourus glaucus ; [NAB, 340]; [NL4A, #129]
[glaucus-1fu.jpg] 1513x1057 (~164Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, Jeff. Co., 19.9.1999, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-2fv.jpg] 1400x1050 (~330Kb) underside female USA: Alabama, 1.4.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-3m.jpg] 1400x1050 (~191Kb) male USA: Alabama, 4.5.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[glaucus-3mu.jpg] 1400x1050 (~335Kb) upperside male USA: Alabama, 4.5.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-4v.jpg] 1050x1400 (~226Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 1.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-5a.jpg] 1400x1050 (~381Kb) USA: Alabama, 22.6.2003 (with some Papilio troilus mixed in), Photo © Vitaly Charny
[glaucus-5b.jpg] 1400x1050 (~304Kb) USA: Alabama, 22.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-6fu.jpg] 1400x1050 (~240Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 28.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-6fv.jpg] 1400x1050 (~215Kb) underside female USA: Alabama, 28.6.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[glaucus-7u.jpg] 1400x1050 (~184Kb) upperside USA: Alabama, 9.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-8fu.jpg] 1400x1050 (~177Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 10.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-8fv.jpg] 1400x1050 (~167Kb) underside female USA: Alabama, 10.8.2003, Photo © Vitaly Charny
[glaucus-9fu.jpg] 1200x797 (~114Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 6.8.2005, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-a1fu.jpg] 1400x930 (~166Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 12.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-a2.jpg] 1400x1050 (~398Kb) USA: Alabama, 28.5.2006 (with Papilio troilus and Celastrina sp.?), Photo © Vitaly Charny
[glaucus-a2v.jpg] 1400x1050 (~300Kb) underside USA: Alabama, 28.5.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-a3fu.jpg] 1400x930 (~208Kb) upperside female USA: Alabama, 30.9.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny [glaucus-a3fv.jpg] 1400x930 (~193Kb) underside female USA: Alabama, 30.9.2006, Photo © Vitaly Charny

C.USA, E.USA, S.USA Papilio antilochus Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 463, no. 28, TL: N.Amer
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus Linnaeus, 1771; Mantissa Plant. 2: 536, TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio alcidamas Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 62, pl. 38, f. A, B
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus ab. fletcheri Kemp, 1900; Ent. News 11 : 481, TL: New Jersey
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus ab. delunaris Schultz, 1908; , TL: Pennsylvania
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus ab. perfulva Schultz, 1908; , TL: N.Amer.
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus turnus ab. imperfecta Reiff, 1911; , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus turnus ab. wheeleri Reiff, 1911; , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus turnus ab. paupercula Reiff, 1911; , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus ab. niger Hering, 1912; , TL: USA
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus f. turnus tr.f. dietzi Gunder, 1927; , TL: New York
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus f. turnus tr.f. gerhardi Gunder, 1927; , TL: Indiana
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio lauri Fabricius, 1938; (repl. name), TL: America
= ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio turnus australis Maynard, 1891; Man. N. Amer. Butt., app.: 215, TL: Florida
alcidamus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2 (missp.?)
Pterourus glaucus glaucus ; [NL4A, #129a]
Papilio glaucus australis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; [NACL, #4176b]
Papilio glaucus turnus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2
Papilio glaucus glaucus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 583; [BNA, 179]; [Bernard Rond]

Larva on Prunus cerasus, P. domestica, P. americana, P. serotina, Prunus pennsylvanica, P. virginiana, P. persica, Crataegus, Malus pumila, Cydonia oblongas, Populus tremuloides, P. deltoides, Carpinus caroliniana, Alnus incana, Carya, Tilia americana, Catalpa bignonioides, Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia acuminatus, M. virginiana, Cinnamomum camphora, Lindera benzoin, Sassafras albidum var. molle, Styrax americana?, Fraxinus americana, F. nigra, F. caroliniana, F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata, Syringa vulgaris, Ptelea trifoliata, Zanthoxylum americanum, Quercus velutina? [BNA]

P. g. alexiares Hopffer, 1866
Mexico Papilio alexiares Hopffer, 1866; Stettin ent. Ztg 27 (1-3) : 31, TL: Mexico
Papilio alexiares ; Godman & Salvin, [1893], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 241, 3: pl. 72, f. 6-7; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 592; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 10 (text only)]
Papilio glaucus alexiares ; [Bernard Rond]
Papiliio alexiares alexiares ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 592
Pterourus glaucus alexiares ; [NL4A, #129b]
P. g. garcia Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Mexico Papilio alexiares garcia Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 592, TL: Mexico, Nuevo León
Papilio glaucus garcia, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio alexiares garcia, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pterourus glaucus garcia ; [NL4A, #129c]

Papilio rutulus Lucas, 1852
W.USA. See [About maps] Western Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio rutulus Lucas, 1852; Revue Mag. Zool. (2) 4 (3): 138
Papilio rutulus Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 279 (preocc. Lucas, 1952), TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #129d]
Papilio rutulus var. hospitonina Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912; , TL: Canada
= ; [NL4A, #129d]
Papilio rutulus tr.f. fannyae Gunder, 1927; , TL: Oregon
= ; [NL4A, #129d]
Papilio rutulus var. ammoni Behrens, 1887; Can. Ent. 19 (10) : 199, TL: Nevada
= ; [NL4A, #129d]
Papilio rutulus var. arizonensis Edwards, 1883; Papilio 3 (1) : 4, TL: Arizona
= ; [NL4A, #129d]
Papilio rutulus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio rutulus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio rutulus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio rutulus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]

Papilio nitulus ; Cockerell, 1893, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 20 : 353 (missp.)
Papilio rutulus ; Boisduval, 1852, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 279; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 587; [NACL, #4177]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 10 (text only)]; [BOC, 122]; [Opler]
Pterourus rutulus ; [NAB, 342]
Papilio rutulus ammoni ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; [NACL, #4177a]
Papilio rutulus arizonensis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; [NACL, #4177b]
Papilio glaucus rutulus ; [BNA, 180]; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus glaucus rutulus ; [NL4A, #129d]
[rutulus-1v.jpg] 1024x768 (~92Kb) underside Minto Is., Salem, Oregon, USA, 8-91, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt [rutulus-2.jpg] 800x658 (~68Kb) USA: Robinson Canyon Rd, (47°01'01N 120°42'41W), Kittitas Co., WA, 26.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [rutulus-3u.jpg] 900x670 (~91Kb) upperside USA: Gas Works Park, Wallingford, Seattle, King Co., WA, 23.6.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[rutulus-3v.jpg] 900x697 (~83Kb) underside USA: Gas Works Park, Wallingford, Seattle, King Co., WA, 23.6.2000, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Prunus cerasus, Prunus domestica var. galatensis, P. americana, P. virginiana, P. persica, P. emarginata, P. ilicifolia, P. armeniaca, P. caroliniana, Malus pumila, Rubus?, Populus balsamifera, P. tremuloides, P. trichocarpa, P. angustifolia, Salix lasiolepis, S. lasiandra, S. scouleriana, S. exigua, S. babylonica, S. hookeriana, Betula papyrifera var. commutata, Alnus tenuifolia, A. viridis, Alnus crispa, Acer, Ulmus, Platanus racemosa, Magnolia?, Persea americana, Fraxinus, Syringa vulgaris, Ptelea baldwinii, Quercus chrysolepis [BNA]



Papilio canadensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Alaska - S.Canada, N.USA. See [About maps] Canadian Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio glaucus canadensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 586, TL: "Newfoundland"
arcticus Skinner, 1906
deficiens Dufrane, 1946
Papilio canadensis, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio canadensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio canadensis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio glaucus canadensis ; [NACL, #4176a]; [BNA, 179]; [Bernard Rond]
Papilio canadensis ; [BOC, 121]; [Opler]

Larva on Prunus cerasus, P. serotina, Prunus pennsylvanica, P. virginiana, P. persica, Amelanchier canadensis, Crataegus, Malus pumila, Sorbus americana, Populus balsamifera, P. tremuloides, P. grandidentata, Betula alba, B. lenta, Betula allegheniensis, B. papyrifera, Corylus, Alnus rugosa, Acer, Carya, Ulmus, Tilia americana, Fraxinus americana, F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Syringa vulgaris [BNA]


Papilio eurymedon Lucas, 1852
British Columbia, Montana - New Mexico, Baja California, Rockies. See [About maps] Pale Tiger Swallowtail Pallid Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio eurymedon Lucas, 1852; Revue Mag. Zool. (2) 4 (3): 140, TL: nr. Belden, N Fork Feather River, Pluma Co., California
Papilio antinous Donovan, 1805; Epitome nat. Hist. Ins. New Holland: pl. 16, TL: ["Australia"]
= ; Rothschild, 1895, Novit. Zool. 2 (3): 279; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio eurymedon Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 280 (preocc. Lucas, 1852), TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio albanus C. & R. Felder, [1864]; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 93 [?1865], TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio lewisii Kirby, 1884; Papilio 4 (5-6) : 104 (nom. nud.)
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio eurymedon ab. subnigrata Schultz, 1908; , TL: N.Amer.
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio eurymedon f. albanus ab. ♂ cocklei Gunder, 1925; Ent. News 36 (7) : 200, pl. 5, f. 12, TL: Canada
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio eurymedon f. albanus tr.f. columbiana Gunder, 1925; , TL: Canada
= ; [NL4A, #126]
Papilio eurymedon, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio eurymedon, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio eurymedon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio eurymedon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio eurymedon albanus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2
Papilio eurymedon ; Boisduval, 1852, Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 280; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 590; [NACL, #4179]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 8]; [BNA: 182, pl. 7]; [Bernard Rond]; [BOC, 126]; [Opler]
Pterourus eurymedon ; [NAB, 344]; [NL4A, #126]
[eurymedon-1.jpg] 800x614 (~86Kb) USA: Bridge Creek Trailhead, North Cascades Highway, (48°30'30N 120°43'00W), Chelan Co., WA, 28.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [eurymedon-2u.jpg] 800x601 (~67Kb) upperside USA: Robinson Canyon Rd, (47°01'01N 120°42'41W), Kittitas Co., WA, 26.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [eurymedon-2x.jpg] 900x682 (~81Kb) USA: Robinson Canyon Rd, (47°01'01N 120°42'41W), Kittitas Co., WA, 26.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Ceanothus, Prunus ilicifolia, Rhamnus, Rhamnus californicus, Alnus [NAB]

Larva on Prunus emarginata, P. virginiana, Prunus virginiana ssp. demissa, P. ilicifolia, P. persica, P. domestica, Malus pumila, Holodiscus discolor, Amelanchier alnifolia?, Crataegus rivularis, C. douglasii, Ceanothus fendleri, C. velutinus, Ceanothus prostratus, C. sanguineus, Rhamnus crocea, R. californica, R. californica var. rubra, Alnus rubra, Salix?, Ribes inerme? [BNA]



Papilio pilumnus Boisduval, 1836
Texas - Mexico - Guatemala. See [About maps] Three-tailed Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio pilumnus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 340, TL: Mexico, Oaxaca
Papilio pilumnus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio pilumnus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio pilumnus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio pilumnus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Papilio pilumnus ; Godman & Salvin, [1893], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 241, 3: pl. 72, f. 10; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 593; [NACL, #4180]; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 6 (text only)]; [BNA: 182, pl. 58]; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
Pterourus pilumnus ; [NL4A, #136]

Larva on Litsea [BNA]


Papilio multicaudata Kirby, 1884
British Columbia, Alberta - Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, California, Mexico, Guatemala. See [About maps] Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio multicaudata Kirby, 1884; Papilio 4 (5-6) : 104 (repl. name), TL: "Mexique"
Papilio multicaudatus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Papilio multicaudata multicaudata, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio multicaudata multicaudata, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio multicaudata, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Papilio multicaudatus, Butterflies of Southeastern Arizon [Bruce Walsh]
Pterourus multicaudatus ; [NAB, 343]
Papilio multicaudatus ; [NACL, #4178]; [BOC, 124]
Papilio multicaudata ; [BNA: 182, pl. 7]; [Bernard Rond]; [Opler]
Pterourus multicaudata ; [NL4A, #133]
[multicaudata-1u.jpg] 1300x1039 (~318Kb) upperside USA: Slide Rock State Park (north of Sedona), Coconico Co, Arizona, 11.8.2005, Photo © Valentina Anderson [multicaudata-1x.jpg] 1600x1144 (~247Kb) USA: Slide Rock State Park (north of Sedona), Coconico Co, Arizona, 11.8.2005, Photo © Valentina Anderson

Larva on Prunus virginiana, P. virginiana var. demissa, P. americana, P. emarginata, P. cerasus, P. capuli, P. ilicifolia?, Amelanchier, Vauquelina californica, Fraxinus oregonius, F. latifolia, F. anomala, F. viridis, F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata, Ligustrum lucidum, L. vulgare, Ptelea trifoliata, Ptelea trifoliata var. angustifolia, P. baldwinii, P. crenulata, Platanus racemosa [BNA]


Mexico, Arizona, ... Papilio daunus Boisduval, 1836; Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1 : 342 (preocc. Cramer, 1777), TL: Mexico
= ; [NL4A, #133a]
Papilio daunus ab. ragani Barnes, 1928; , TL: Arizona
= ; [NL4A, #133a]
Papilio daunus ; Godman & Salvin, [1890], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 340, 3: pl. 72, f. 9; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 2; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 589; [BOW: pl. 12, f. 6]
Pterourus multicaudata multicaudata ; [NL4A, #133a]
P. m. pusillus Austin & Emmel, 1998
Nevada Papilio multicaudata pusillus Austin & Emmel, 1998; , TL: Bull Run Mtns, Elko Co., Nevada
Papilio multicaudata pusillus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio multicaudata pusillus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio multicaudatus pusillus ; [BOC, 124]
P. m. grandiosus Austin & Emmel, 1998
Mexico Papilio multicaudata grandiosus Austin & Emmel, 1998; , TL: Mexico, Chiapas
Papilio multicaudata grandiosus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio multicaudata grandiosus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Pterourus multicaudata grandiosus ; [NL4A, #133b]

Papilio esperanza Beutelspacher, 1975
Mexico. See [About maps] Papilio esperanza Beutelspacher, 1975; , TL: Mexico, Oaxaca
Papilio esperanza, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Papilio esperanza, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Papilio esperanza ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus esperanza ; [NL4A, #125]

The zagreus species-group

Papilio zagreus Doubleday, 1847
-. See [About maps] Papilio zagreus Doubleday, 1847; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1) 19 (125): 174, TL: Venezuela
Pyrrhosticta zagreus ;
Pterourus zagreus ; [NL4A, #141]
Papilio zagreus ; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 17]
Colombia, Venezuela, Amazonas - Bolivia Papilio zagreus motilones Racheli & Pischedda, 1987; , TL: Venezuela
= ; [NL4A, #141a]
Papilio zagreus motilones ; [Bernard Rond]
Papilio zagreus zagreus ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticta) zagreus motilones ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 3, pl. 3, f. 5-6
Pterourus zagreus zagreus ; [NL4A, #141a]
P. z. ascolius C. & R. Felder, 1865
Ecuador, Colombia, Panama? Papilio ascolius C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 312 (nom. nud)
Papilio ascolius C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 82, TL: Ecuador, Quito
Pyrrhosticta ascolius ;
Papilio ascolius ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 625; [BOW: pl. 25, f. 17 (text only)]
Papilio ascolius ascolius ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 626; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus ascolius ; [NL4A, #141b]
P. z. bachus C. & R. Felder, 1865
Colombia, Ecuador? Papilio bachus C. & R. Felder, 1864; Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14 (3) : 312 (nom. nud.)
Papilio bachus C. & R. Felder, 1865; Reise Fregatte Novara, Bd 2 (Abth. 2) (1): 80, pl. 14, f. a-b, TL: Colombia, Bogotá
= ; [NL4A, #141c]
Papilio oberthuri Apolinar, 1916; , TL: Colombia
= ; [NL4A, #141c]
Pyrrhosticta bachus ;
Papilio bachus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 627; [BOW: pl. 24, f. 13]
Papilio bachus bachus ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 627; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus bachus ; [NL4A, #141c]
P. z. zalates Godman & Salvin, 1890
Panama, Nicaragua, Costa Rica Papilio zalates Godman & Salvin, [1890]; Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 233, 3: pl. 71, f. 1-3, TL: Panama, Volcan de Chiriqui
Papilio ascolius zalates ; Rothschild & Jordan, 1906, Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 625; [BCR, 74, pl. 6]; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus zalates ; [NL4A, #141k]
P. z. rosenbergi Druce, 1903
Ecuador Papilio rosenbergi Druce, 1903; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12 : 221, TL: Ecuador, Paramba
Papilio ascolius rosenbergi ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus (Pyrrhostichta) zagreus rosenbergi ; [EcuL]
Pterourus zagreus rosenbergi ; [NL4A, #141j]
P. z. chrysomelus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador Papilio bachus chrysomelus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 628, TL: Peru,Bolivia
Papilio bachus belsazar Niepelt, 1908; Berl. ent. Zs. 52 : 208, f. 1, TL: Ecuador, Cusarci [Curarai?]
= ; [NL4A, #141f]
Papilio zagreus bacchus[sic] f. lathyi Le Cerf, 1923; Bull. Mus. Hist. nat. Paris 29 : 361, TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #141f]
Papilio bachus chrysomelus ab. clarius Krüger, 1929; Int. ent. Z. 22 : 376, TL: Bolivia
= ; [NL4A, #141f]
Papilio bacchus[sic] chrysomelus f. silenus Biedermann, 1936; Rev. fr. Ent. 3: 174, TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #141f]
Papilio bachus chrysomelus ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus chrysomelus ; [NL4A, #141f]
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticha) bachus chrysomelus ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 3, pl. 3, f. 3, 4
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticha) bachus belsazar ; [EcuL]
P. z. daguanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906
Colombia Papilio ascolius daguanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906; Novit. Zool. 13 (3): 625, TL: Colombia
Papilio ascolius daguanus ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus daguanus ; [NL4A, #141h]
P. z. batesi (Racheli & Racheli, 1996)
N.peru zagreus batesi (Racheli & Racheli, 1996) (Pterourus); , TL: Peru
Pterourus zagreus batesi ; [NL4A, #141d]
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticta) zagreus batesi ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 3, pl. 3, f. 7
Papilio zagreus batesi ; [Bernard Rond]
P. z. chrysoxanthus Fruhstorfer, 1915
C.Peru, S.Peru - Bolivia zagreus chrysoxanthus Fruhstorfer, 1915; , TL: Peru
Papilio zimmermanni Ehrmann, 1921; Lepid., Forest Hills 5 (2) : 18, TL: "Colombia"
= ; [NL4A, #141g]
Papilio zagreus ab. flavus Le Moult, 1927; Enc. Ent. (B. Lep. 3) 2: 72, TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #141g]
Papilio zagreus zagreus f. feminina Bryk, 1953; , TL: Peru
= ; [NL4A, #141g]
Papilio zagreus chrysoxanthus ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticta) zagreus chrysoxanthus ; Möhn, 1999, Butterflies of the World 8: 3, pl. 3, f. 8; [EcuL]
Pterourus zagreus chrysoxanthus ; [NL4A, #141g]
P. z. nigroapicalis (Bollino & Sala, 1998)
Peru zagreus nigroapicalis (Bollino & Sala, 1998) (Pterourus); , TL: Peru
Pterourus (Pyrrhosticta) zagreus marcapataensis Möhn, 1999; Butterflies of the World 8: 2, pl. 3, f. 1-2, TL: Kosnipata, Rio Marcapata, Peru
= ; [NL4A, #141i]
Papilio zagreus marcapataensis ; [Bernard Rond]
Pterourus zagreus nigroapicalis ; [NL4A, #141i]
P. z. baueri (Möhn, 2001)
Brazil(Amazonas) Pterourus (Pyrrhosticta) zagreus baueri Möhn, 2001; , TL: Brazil, Amazonas
Pterourus zagreus baueri ; [N