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Tmolus Hübner, [1819]
Tmolus Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (5): 76, TS: Papilio echion Linnaeus
Tmolus (Eumaeini) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 440; [Opler]; [NL4A, 131]

Tmolus echion (Linnaeus, 1767)
Hawaii, S.Texas, Mexico - Brazil, Paraguay, Trinidad, Surinam. See [About maps] Larger Lantana Butterfly
Papilio echion Linnaeus, 1767; Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): 788, TL: "West Indies"
Papilio crolus Stoll, [1780]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (26b-28): pl. 333, f. G, H, TL: Surinam
= ; [NL4A, #675]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 232
Thecla labes Druce, 1907; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1907 (3) : 602, pl. 36, f. 6, TL: Trinidad
= ; [NL4A, #675]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 232
Thecla sanctissima Jørgensen, 1935; An. Mus. Argent. Cienc. nat. 38: 93, TL: Paraguay
= ; [NL4A, #675]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 232
Tmolus echion, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Thecla echion ; Hewitson, 1874, Ill. diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae (6): 155, pl. 61, f. 410-411; Godman & Salvin, [1887], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 63; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 719
Ministrymon echion ;
Tmolus echion ; [NACL, #4292]; [BOW: pl. 69, f. 52]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #675]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 232

Larva on Lantana [NAB]

T. e. echiolus (Draudt, 1920)
Mexico Thecla echion f. echiolus Draudt, 1920; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 5 : 786, pl. 156 f, TL: Mexico, Guerrero
= Tmolus echion ; [NL4A, #675]
Tmolus echion echiolus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Tmolus echion echiolus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Tmolus echion echiolus ; [NACL, #4292a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 232

Tmolus sp.
Panama. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #676]

Tmolus crolinus Butler & Druce, 1872
Mexico - Panama, Costa Rica. See [About maps] Tmolus crolinus Butler & Druce, 1872; Cistula ent. 1 (5) : 107, TL: Costa Rica
Tmolus crolinus, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Tmolus crolinus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Thecla crolinus ; Godman & Salvin, [1887], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 63, 3: pl. 55, f. 31-33; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 719
Tmolus crolinus ; [BOW: pl. 69, f. 52 (text)]; [NL4A, #677]

Tmolus venustus (Druce, 1907)
Brazil(Mato Grosso), French Guiana. See [About maps] Thecla venustus Druce, 1907; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1907 (3) : 602, pl. 36, f. 3-4, TL: Brazil, Mato Grosso
Uzzia cotera Johnson, 1991; , TL: French Guiana
= ; [NL4A, #678]
Tmolus venustus ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 152; [NL4A, #678]

Tmolus cydrara (Hewitson, 1868)
Mexico - Amazon. See [About maps] Thecla cydrara Hewitson, 1868; Descr. some new spec Lyc.: 17, TL: Brazil
Tmolus cydrara, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Tmolus cydrara, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Thecla cydrara ; Hewitson, 1869, Ill. diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae (4): 133, pl. 53, f. 295-296; Godman & Salvin, [1887], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 62; Godman & Salvin, [1901], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 719
Tmolus cydrara ; Brown & Mielke, 1967, J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 152; [BOW: pl. 69, f. 49]; [NL4A, #679]
[cydrara-1m.jpg] 400x425 (~27Kb) male Belize, Central America, Photo © John Shuey


Tmolus sp.
Peru. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #680]

Tmolus sp.
Costa Rica. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #681]

Tmolus ufentina (Hewitson, 1868)
Brazil(Amazonas). See [About maps] Thecla ufentina Hewitson, 1868; Descr. some new spec Lyc.: 17, TL: Brazil, Amazonas
Thecla ufentina ; Hewitson, 1869, Ill. diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae (4): 133, pl. 53, f. 297-298
Tmolus ufentina ; [NL4A, #682]

Tmolus sp.
Ecuador. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #683]

Tmolus sp.
Brazil(Santa Catarina). See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #684]

Tmolus sp.
Guatemala. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #685]

Tmolus sp.
Peru. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #686]

Tmolus sp.
Ecuador. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #687]

Tmolus sp.
Peru. See [About maps] Tmolus sp. ; Robbins, MS, [NL4A, #688]

Tmolus mutina (Hewitson, 1867)
Brazil (Amazon). See [About maps] Thecla mutina Hewitson, 1867; Ill. diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae (3): 94, pl. 38, f. 113-114, TL: Brazil, Amazon
Tmolus mutina ; [NL4A, #689]


22.12.2011 (6)

References:
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[JLS]
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society; the original J. Lep. Soc. articles
[John Shuey]
e-mail: jshuey at tnc.org; Director of Conservation Science; Indiana Office of The Nature Conservancy; http://www.nature.org
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.


Some related literature:
Brown & Mielke, 1967
Lepidoptera of the Central Brazil Plateau. I. Preliminary list of Rhopalocera (continued) J. Lep. Soc. 21 (3): 145-168
Butler & Druce, 1872
Descriptions of new genera and species of Lepidoptera from Costa Rica Cistula ent. 1 (5) : 95-118
Druce, 1907
On Neotropical Lycaenidae, with Descriptions of New Species Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1907 (3) : 566-632, pl. 31-36
Eliot, 1973
The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative Arrangement Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 373-505, 162fgs, pl. 1-6
Godman & Salvin, [1887]; Godman & Salvin, [1901]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. (1887-1901) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 1-782, 3: pl. 1-112
Hewitson, 1867; Hewitson, 1869; Hewitson, 1874
Illustrations of diurnal Lepidoptera. Lycaenidae Ill. diurn. Lep. Lycaenidae (1): 1-36,37*, pl. 1-16 (1863), (2): 37-76, pl. 17-30 (1865), (3): 77-114, pl. 31-46 (1867), (4): 115-136,14a-h, pl. 47-54,3a-c, (Suppl.) 1-16, pl. 1-5 (1869), (5): 137-150,151*, pl. 55-59, (Suppl.) pl. 6 (1873), (6): 151-184,185*, pl. 60-73 (1874), (7): 185-208,209*, pl. 74-83 (1877), (8): 209-228, pl. 84-85,88-92, (Suppl.) 17-47, pl. 1a-b,3a-b,4a,5a-b,7-8 (1878)
Hewitson, 1868
Descriptions of some new species of Lycaenidae Descr. some new spec Lyc.: 36pp
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Jørgensen, 1935
Lepidópteros nuevos o raros de la Argentina y del Paraguay An. Mus. Argent. Cienc. nat. 38: 85-130
Linnaeus, 1767
Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturae, secundum Classes, Ordines, .... Editio Duocecima Reformata. Tom. 1. Part II. Syst. Nat. (Edn 12) 1 (2): -,533-1327
Pelham, 2008
A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada J. Res. Lepid. 40: 1-652
Draudt in Seitz, 1920
Die amerikanischen Tagfalter Gross-Schmett. Erde 5 : 1-48 (1907), : 49-72 (1908), : 73-160 (1909), : 161-200 (1910), : 201-240 (1911), : 241-344 (1912), : 345-456 (1913), : 457-480 (1914), : 481-536 (1915), : 537-664 (1916), : 665-720 (1917), : 745-768 (1919), : 721-744,769-816 (1920), : 817-856 (1921), : 857-912,937-944 (1922), : 913-936,945-1000 (1923), : 1001-1141 (1924)
Stoll, [1780]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (26b-28): 29-90, pl. 305-336 (1780), (29-31): 91-164, pl. 337-372 (1781), (32-32): 165-252, 1-29, pl. 373-400 (1782)


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.