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Lycaena Fabricius, 1807
Lycaena Fabricius, 1807; Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 285, TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
Lycia Sodoffsky, 1837; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 1837 (6) : 81 (unj. repl. for Lycaena Fabricius, 1807), TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
= ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441; [NL4A, 137]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188
Heodes Dalman, 1816; K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 63, TS: Papilio virgaureae Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 137]
Chysoptera Zincken, 1817; Allgem. Lit. Ztg, Halle 1817 (3): 75, TS: Papilio virgaureae Linnaeus
= Heodes ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
= ; [NL4A, 137]
Migonitis Sodoffsky, 1837; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 1837 (6) : 82 (repl. for Lycaena Fabricius, 1807, preocc. Migonitis Rafinesque, 1815, Migonitis Hübner, 1816), TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
= ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441; [NL4A, 137]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188
Tharsalea Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 125, TS: Polyommatus arota Boisduval
= ; [NL4A, 138]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191
Gaeides Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 126, TS: Chrysophanus dione Scudder
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Chalceria Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 125, TS: Chrysophanus rubidus Behr
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Epidemia Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 127, TS: Polyommatus epixanthe Boisduval & Leconte
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Rumicia Tutt, 1906; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 18 (5) : 131, TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
= ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441; [NL4A, 138]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188
Loweia Tutt, 1906
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Hyrcanana Bethune-Baker, 1914; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 26 (5): 135, TS: Polyommatus caspius Lederer
Thersamonia Verity, 1919; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 31 : 28, TS: Papilio thersamon Esper
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Palaeoloweia Verity, 1934; (repl. name)
= Loweia ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Helleia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 20, 48, TS: Papilio helle Denis & Schiffermüller
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Sarthusia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 20, TS: Polyommatus sarthus Staudinger
Disparia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 21, 58 (preocc. Nagano, 1916), TS: Papilio dispar Haworth
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Phoenicurusia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 21, TS: Polyommatus margelanica Staudinger [Polyommatus phoenicurus, Lederer, misid. type]
Palaeochrysophanus Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 23, 64, TS: Papilio hippothoe Linnaeus
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Palaeochrysophanus Verity, 1934; Ent. Rec. 46 (5), Suppl.: (13) nota [invalid]
Thersamolycaena Verity, 1957; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 69 : 225 (repl. Disparia Verity, 1943), TS: Papilio dispar Haworth
Hermelycaena Miller & Brown, 1979; Bull. Allyn Mus. 51 : 22, TS: Chrysophanus hermes
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Hyllolycaena Miller & Brown, 1979; Bull. Allyn Mus. 51 : 15, TS: Paplio hyllus Cramer
= ; [NL4A, 138]
?Chrysophanus Scudder, 1872; 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 56, TS: Papilio hyllus Cramer
Antipodolycaena Smart, 1975; The international bufferfly book: 274, TS: Lycaena boldenarum White
Hellolycaena Koçak, 1983; Priamus 3 (1) : 3, TS: Polyommatus those Guérin-Méneville
= ; [NL4A, 138]
Lycaena, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

Chrysoptera ; Tutt, 1906, (missp.)
Hircanana ; (missp.)
Lycaena ; Godman & Salvin, [1887], Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 102
Heodes (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Loweia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Thersamolycaena (Lycaenidae) ; [BRU2, 125]
Phoenicurusia (Lycaenidae) ; [BRU2, 130]
Hyrcanana (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Hyrcanana (Lycaenidae) ; [BRU2, 135]
Helleia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Palaeochrysophanus (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Sarthusia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Phoenicurusia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Thersamonia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Thersamonia (Lycaenidae) ; [BRU2, 127]
Lycaena (Lycaenidae) ; [BRU2, 123]
Lycaena (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441; [BK, 212]; [NL4A, 137]; [AfrL]
Lycaena (Lycaenini) ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188

The "grouping" here is not based on any scientific principles, it's a guesswork based on how different taxa have been assigned to different genera before they were combined into Lycaena. --msa


Subgenus Lycaena Fabricius, 1807
Lycaena Fabricius, 1807; Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 285, TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
Lycia Sodoffsky, 1837; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 1837 (6) : 81 (unj. repl. for Lycaena Fabricius, 1807), TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
Migonitis Sodoffsky, 1837; Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 1837 (6) : 82 (repl. for Lycaena Fabricius, 1807, preocc. Migonitis Rafinesque, 1815, Migonitis Hübner, 1816), TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
Rumicia Tutt, 1906; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 18 (5) : 131, TS: Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus
Lycaena, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]

fiLycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)
EU, NAF, AM, Temperate Asia, Japan, Abyssinia. See [About maps] Pikkukultasiipi Small Copper Common Copper American Copper Liten guldvinge Gyllenvinge Kleiner Feuerfalter Le Bronzé Manto bicolor Czerwończyk żarek
Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus, 1761; Fauna Suecica (Edn 2): 285, TL: C. Sweden
Papilio timeus Cramer, [1777]; Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): pl. 186, f. E, F
Papilio virgaureae Scopoli, 1763; Ent. Carniolica: 180
Lycaena phlaeas aestivus Zeller, 1847; Isis von Oken 1847 (2): 158
turcicus (Gerhard, 1853) (Polyommatus); Mon. Lyc. : 5
?hyperborea (Ford, 1924) (Heodes); Trans. ent. Soc.: 739
Lycaena phlaeas, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena phlaeas, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Lycaena phlaeas, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena phlaeas, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Lycaena phlaeas, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Lycaena phlaeas, Georgia Lepidoptera (USA) [GALEPS]
Lycaena phlaeas, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena phlaeas, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena phlaeas, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Lycaena phlaeas ; [BIR, 301]; [BARU, #343]; [NACL, #4251]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 39, 40]; [MRS, 663]; [BRU2: 123, pl. 57, f. 7-39]; [Opler]; [AfrL]; [Otakar Kudrna]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188
[phlaeas-1.jpg] 646x554 (~56Kb) SPAIN: Teneriffa, 1-5.4.1996, Photo © Valentina Anderson [phlaeas-2.jpg] 512x425 (~32Kb) SPAIN: Teneriffa, 1-5.4.1996, Photo © Valentina Anderson [phlaeas-3.jpg] 500x450 (~58Kb) West Down, Devon, UK 12/06/92, Photo © Simon Coombes
[phlaeas-3u.jpg] 450x381 (~26Kb) upperside France, Bretagne (Brittany), Bois De Lorge, 9 July 1997, Photo © Simon Coombes [phlaeas-4u.jpg] 500x439 (~26Kb) upperside Finland, Tampere, Rusko, 6820:339, 11.8.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [phlaeas-4v.jpg] 500x581 (~50Kb) underside Finland, Kangasala, Savo, 6815:338, 18.8.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen
[phlaeas-5u.jpg] 512x768 (~54Kb) upperside Germany, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Oetisheim, 8° 49' E, 48° 58' N, altitude 300m, 26.07.1998 (sucking on Origanum vulgare), Photo © Karl Hofsäß [phlaeas-5v.jpg] 512x768 (~47Kb) underside Germany, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Oetisheim, 8° 49' E, 48° 58' N, altitude 300m, 26.07.1998 (sucking on Origanum vulgare), Photo © Karl Hofsäß [phlaeas-6uU.jpg] identification uncertain 800x708 (~111Kb) upperside Ukraine, Ivano Frankovsk, near Kalush, Stankova, 24.10.2001, Photo © Erich Mangl
[phlaeas-7.jpg] 435x290 (~23Kb) Netherlands, Middenduin, Overdeen, May 2003, Photo © Peter Groenendijk [phlaeas-8.jpg] 444x518 (~27Kb) A floweer clump, Chihaya-akasaka-mura, Minami-kawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. 3th August 2002, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [phlaeas.jpg] 450x298 (~21Kb)

Larva on Rumex, R. longifolius, R. crispus, R. acetosa [SPRK]

Larva on Rumex acetosella, R. crispus, Oxyria digyna [NAB]

Larva on Rumex nepalensis [BIR]


EU, W.Siberia, Caucasus, Transcaucasia Hesperia eleus Fabricius, 1798; Ent. Syst. (Suppl.): 430
Lycaena phlaeas f. caerulopunctata Rühl, 1895; in Heyne, Palaearkt. Grossschmett. 1 : 218, TL: C.Asia
Chrysophanus phlaeas ab. oberthuri Blachier, 1908; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 217, pl. 4, f. 7, TL: (Morocco)
Lycaena phlaeas phlaeas ; [BMAT: 29, pl. 10, f. 1-11]
[phlaeas_phlaeas-1u.jpg] 600x435 (~34Kb) upperside Morocco, Itzer, Moyen Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre [phlaeas_phlaeas-2v.jpg] 600x435 (~30Kb) underside Morocco, Itzer, Moyen Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre

f. caeruleopunctata
[caeruleopunctata-1.jpg] 448x396 (~28Kb) UK, W. SUFFOLK, Icklingham, King's Forest, GRID TL 7945 7330, 23.5.2004, Photo © Jonathan P. Tyler

Larva on Rumex thyrsoideus, R. papilio, R. vesicarius, R. tingitanus, R. acetosa, R. acetosella, Polygonum sp. [BMAT]


L. p. hypophlaeas (Boisduval, 1852)
Altai, S.Siberia, Amur, N.Ussuri, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey Polyommatus hypophlaeas Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 291, TL: "Nord de la California"
Lycaena americana Harris, 1862; Treatise Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd edn): 273, TL: Massachusetts
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Chrysophanus phlaeas var. americana ab. ♀ fasciata Strecker, 1878; Synon. Cat. Macroplep.: 101, TL: "Florida" [?error]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Chrysophanus americanus ab. fulliolus Hulst, 1886; Ent. Amer. 2 (9) : 182, TL: [New York]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Lycaena bacchus Scudder, 1889; Butts eastern U.S. Canada 2: 998 (Harris MS, nom. nud.)
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Heodes hypophlaeas ab. obliterata Scudder, 1889; Butts eastern U.S. Canada 2: 1001
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Chrysophanus phlaeas adrienne Maynard, 1891; Man. N. Amer. Butt., app.: 153, TL: Eastern Massachusetts
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Heodes hypophlaeas f. caeca Reiff, 1913; Ent. News 24 (7) : 306, pl. 10, f. 3-4, TL: West Roxbury, Mass.
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Chrysophanus hypohplaeas ab. octomaculata Dean, 1918; Lepidoptera 2 (8): 60, TL: [Missouri]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Heodes hypophlaeas hypophlaeas ab. banksi Watson & Comstock, 1920; Bull. Amer. Mus. 42 (10) : 454, TL: Lexington, Massachusetts
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Heodes hypophlaeas ab. fulvus Rummel, 1929; Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 23 (5): 268, TL: [New Jersey]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Heodes hypophlaeas ab. neui Rummel, 1929; Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 23 (5): 268, TL: [New Jersey]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 189
Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas, Butterflies of America [BOA]
obsoleta ; Barnes & McDunnough, 1917, (missp.)
Lycaena phlaeas americana ; [NACL, #4251a]
Heodes hypophleas[sic, recte hypophlaeas] ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas ; [NACL, #4251b]; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 124]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas hypophlaeas ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 188

[americana-1f.jpg] 431x324 (~21Kb) female Chelsea, Michigan, USA, May 2004, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Oxyria digyna Ballmer & Pratt, 1989, J. Lep. Soc. 43 (1): 59

L. p. chinensis (Felder, 1862)
S.Ussuri phlaeas chinensis (Felder, 1862); Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 488
matsumuranus (Bryk, 1946) (Heodes); Ark. Zool. 38 A (3) : 55, TL: Korea
Lycaena phlaeas chinensis ; [BARU, (note)]; [MRS, 663]; [BRU2, 124]
L. p. pseudophlaeas (Lucas, 1866)
Uganda, Ethiopia Chrysophanus phlaeas pseudophlaeas Lucas, 1866; Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (4) 5 : 499, TL: Abyssinia
Lycaena phlaeas pseudophlaeas ; [BAFR, 525]; [MRS, 663]
Lycanea phlaeas pseudophlaeas ; [BK, 213 (note)]
Lycaena phlaeas pseudophlaeas ; [AfrL]
L. p. stygiana Butler, 1880
W.Pamirs Lycaena phlaeas stygiana ; [BRU2, 123]
L. p. oxiana (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)
Kopet-Dagh, Alai, Ghissar-Darvaz, Tian-Shan Polyommatus phlaeas var. oxiana Grum-Grshimailo, 1890; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 4 : 365
turanica (Rühl, 1895) (Polyommatus); in Heyne, Palaearkt. Grossschmett. 1 : 747, TL: Tura
Lycaena phlaeas f. naruena Courvoisier, 1911; Ent. Zs. 24 (49): 262
coccineus (Ford, 1924) (Heodes); Trans. ent. Soc.: 726
Lycaena phlaeas oxiana ; [BRU2, 123]; [Oleg Kosterin]
[oxiana-1mu.jpg] 533x400 (~65Kb) upperside male A bank of the Shirkent River in its lower flow several km upstream of the kishlak Shirkent, the southern principal slope of the Ghissar mountain range, the Pamiro-Alai Mts., Tursun-Zade Province, Tadjikistan. 7th May 1989, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

L. p. comedarum (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)
E.Pamirs Polyommatus phlaeas var. comedarum Grum-Grshimailo, 1890; in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 4 : 366
Lycaena phlaeas comedarum ; [BRU2, 123]
L. p. abbottii (Holland, 1892)
Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi Chrysophanus abbottii Holland, 1892; Entomologist 25 (Suppl.) : 90
Chrysophanus abbottii Holland, 1896; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 18 (1062) : 240, pl. 7, f. 1
Lycaena abotti[sic, recte abbottii] ; [EBW]
Lycaena phlaeas abbotti ; [BAFR, 525]; [BK: 213, pl. 21, f. 274]
Lycaena phlaeas abbottii ; [AfrL]
L. p. arethusa (Dod, 1907)
Alberta Chrysophanus arethusa Dod, 1907; Can. Ent. 39 (5) : 169
Lycaena phlaeas arethusa, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena phlaeas arethusa ; [NACL, #4251c]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas arethusa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
L. p. daimio (Seitz, [1909])
S.Kuriles, Sakhalin Lycaena phlaeus[sic] chinensis ab. kurilensis Matsumura, 1928; Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 200, TL: Kuriles
kuriliphlaeas (Bryk, 1942) (Heodes); Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 56 : 19, TL: Kurile Is.
daimio ; Esaki & Nakahara, 1930, Zephyrus 2 (3) : 150
Lycaena phlaeas daimio ; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 124]
L. p. polaris Courvoisier, 1911
N.Urals, N.Siberia, Chukotka Lycaena phlaeas f. polaris Courvoisier, 1911; Ent. Zs. 24 (49): 262, TL: Lappland; Norway
Chrysophanus phlaeas f. polaris ; Courvoisier, 1911, Dt. ent. Z. Iris 25 (9) : 109
Lycaena phlaeas polaris ; [BRU2, 123]
L. p. ethiopica (Poulton, 1922)
SW.Uganda (Ruwenzori Mts) Heodes phlaeas ethiopica Poulton, 1922; Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1921 : lxxxvi
Lycaena phlaeas ethiopica ; [BAFR, 525]; [AfrL]
L. p. flavens (Ford, 1924)
Tibet phlaeas flavens (Ford, 1924) (Heodes); Trans. ent. Soc.: 642 [?]
Lycaena phlaeas flavens ; [MRS, 663]
L. p. coccineus (Ford, 1924)
phlaeas coccineus (Ford, 1924) (Heodes); Trans. ent. Soc.: 726
Lycaena phlaeas coccinea ; [MRS, 663]
L. p. shima Gabriel, 1954
Arabia, Yemen phlaeas shima Gabriel, 1954; Exped. S.W. Arabia 1937-38, 1 : 388
Lycaena phlaeas shima ; [BAFR, 525]; [BK, 213 (note)]; [AfrL]
L. p. arctodon Ferris, 1974
Montana Lycaena phlaeas arctodon Ferris, 1974; Bull. Allyn Mus. 18 : 4, f. 17-18, TL: E side Beartooth Pass, Custer NF, Carbon Co., Mont.
Lycaena phlaeas arctodon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena phlaeas arctodon ; [NACL, #4251d]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas arctodon ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
L. p. feildeni (McLachlan, 1878)
Ellesmere Is. Chrysophanus phloeas[sic] feildeni McLachlan, 1878; J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 14 : 111, TL: lat 81°41'N; Grinnell Land [SE.Ellesmere Is.]
Heodes hypophleas fieldeni ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41 (missp.)
Lycaena phlaeas feildeni ; [NACL, #4251e]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas feildeni ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
L. p. kamtschatica Gorbunov, 1994?
Kamchatka Peninsula Lycaena phlaeas kamtschatica Gorbunov, 1994?; , TL: Kamchatka, Ganal'skaya Tundra
L. p. ganalica Gorbunov, 1995
Kamchatka Lycaena phlaeas ganalica ; [BRU2, 123]
L. p. alpestris Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena phlaeas alpestris Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 662, TL: California, Mono Co., N slope of Mt. Dana
Lycaena phlaeas alpestris, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Lycaena) phlaeas alpestris ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190

Lycaena cupreus (Edwards, 1870)
-. See [About maps] Lustrous Copper
Chrysophanus cupreus Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 20, TL: "Oregon"
Lycaena cuprea, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena cupreus cupreus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena cupreus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Chalceria cupreus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Lycaena cuprea ; [NACL, #4252]
Lycaena cupreus ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 1 (text only)]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Lycaena) cupreus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190

Larva on Oxyria digyna?, Rumex paucifolius? [NAB]

Oregon, ..., Wyoming Lycaena cupreus artemisia Scott, 1981; Papilio (n.s.) 1: 6, TL: The Potholes, Teton Co., Wyoming
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
Lycaena (Lycaena) cupreus cupreus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
L. c. snowi (Edwards, 1881)
Colorado, British Columbia, Alberta, ... Chrysophanus snowi Edwards, 1881; Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 7: 69, TL: Colorado
Chrysophanus snowi henryae Cadbury, 1937; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 89: 409, pl. 16, f. 9, TL: Caribous Pass, B.C
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
Lycaena (Heodes) snowi tr.f. mcdunnoughi Gunder, 1927; Can. Ent. 59 (12): 284, pl. A, f. 12, TL: Laggan, Alta.
macdunnoughi dos Passos, 1964; Lepid. Soc. Mem. 1: 61 (emend.)
Lycaena cupreus snowi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena cuprea henryae ; [NACL, #4252b]
Chalceria snowi ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Lycaena cuprea snowi ; [NACL, #4252a]
Lycaena cupreus snowi ; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 2]
Lycaena (Lycaena) cupreus snowi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190
L. c. lapidicola Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena cuprea lapidicola Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 663, f. 5-8, TL: California, Mono Co., Tioga Pass
Heodes cupreus ab. ♀ maculinita Gunder, 1926; Ent. News 37 (1) : 8, pl. 1, f. 11, TL: Mammoth, Mono Co., California
Lycaena cupreus lapidicola, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Lycaena) cupreus lapidicola ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 190

Subgenus ?

fiLycaena helle ([Schiffermüller], 1775)
CEU, NEU, Russia, Siberia, Amurland, Dzhungarsky Alatau. See [About maps] Luhtakultasiipi Violet Copper Anilinvinge Czerwończyk fioletek
Papilio helle [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 181
Papilio amphidamas Esper, 1781; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (3): 82, pl. 63, f. 5
Lycaena helle, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena helle, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Lycaena helle, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Lycaena helle, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena helle, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Helleia helle ; [MRS, 662]
Lycaena helle ; [BARU, #342]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 37]; [BRU2: 123, pl. 57, f. 1-6]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[helle-1f.jpg] 650x654 (~39Kb) female FINLAND: Ks: Kuusamo Liikasenvaara, 736:61, 9.7.1998, Photo © Markku Savela [helle-1m.jpg] 500x626 (~29Kb) male FINLAND: Ks: Kuusamo Liikasenvaara, 736:61, 9.7.1998, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Polygonum viviparum, (in Finland) [SPRK] Rumex aquaticus, R. acetosa, Polygonum amphibium, P. bistorta [BARU]


CEU, NEU, Caucasus Major Lycaena helle helle ; [BRU2, 123]
L. h. phintonis (Fruhstorfer, 1910)
Amurland Chrysophanus amphidamas phintonis Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (26) : 144, TL: Sibirien, Irkutsk
Lycaena helle phintonis ; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 123]
[phintonis-1uv.jpg] 600x835 (~115Kb) upperside underside Russia: S.Tuva, Korumnug-Taiga Mts. (1200m), 8-25.6.2002, Vashchenko A. & B. leg. Photo © D. Smirnov


Lycaena kiyokoae Sakai, 1978
Afghanistan. See [About maps] Lycaena kiyokoae Sakai, 1978; Atalanta 9 (1): 115

Lycaena evansii (de Nicéville, 1902)
Kashmir, Chitral. See [About maps] Chrysophanus evansii de Nicéville, 1902; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 14 (2): 249, pl. FF, f. 11, TL: Drosh, Chitral, Western Himalayas
Lycaena evansi ; [EBW]

Lycaena standfussi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1891)
Tibet - W.China. See [About maps] Polyommatus standfussi Grum-Grshimailo, 1891; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 450
Lycaena standfussi ; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 8]
[standfussi-1fu.jpg] 1300x984 (~256Kb) upperside female China, Qinghai prov, 20 km S Tianjun (3900m), Photo © A. Timchenko leg. [standfussi-1mv.jpg] 900x749 (~122Kb) underside male China, Qinghai prov, 20 km S Tianjun (3900m), Photo © A. Timchenko leg.

L. s. subbrunnea (South, 1913)
Chrysophanus subbrunnea South, 1913; J. Bomb. nat. Hist. Soc. 22 (3): 607
Lycaena standfussi subbrunnea ; Huang, 2001

Lycaena susanus (Swinhoe, 1889)
Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan. See [About maps] Chrysophanus susanus Swinhoe, 1889; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1889 (4) : 397

Lycaena kasyapa (Moore, 1865)
W.Himalayas, Kashmir, NW.India, Chitral - Mussoorie. See [About maps] Green Copper
Chrysophanus kasyapa Moore, 1865; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (2) : 506, pl. 31, f. 10
Lycaena kasyapa ; [BIR, 301]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 178, f. 16]

Lycaena zariaspa (Moore, 1874)
W.Himalayas, Kashmir, NW.India. See [About maps] Chrysophanus zariaspa Moore, 1874; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (1) : 271

Lycaena pang (Oberthür, 1886)
Tibet, W.China. See [About maps] Chrysophanus pang Oberthür, 1886; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 6 : 12
Lycaena pang ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 9]

Lycaena tseng (Oberthür, 1886)
N.Burma - W.China. See [About maps] Chrysophanus tseng Oberthür, 1886; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 6 : 13
Lycaena tseng ; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 10]

Lycaena ouang (Oberthür, 1891)
Yunnan. See [About maps] Chrysophanus ouang Oberthür, 1891; Étud. d'Ent. 15 : 17, pl. 2, f. 19, TL: Tsekou, NW. Yunnan
Lycaena ouang ; [EBW, (name)]; Huang, 2001, Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 51: 75 (note), pl. 3, f. 24
L. o. nujiangensis Huang, 2001
Lycaena ouang nujiangensis Huang, 2001; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 51: 75, pl. 3, f. 20, pl. 4, f. 25, TL: Gamagou

Lycaena irmae Bailey, 1932
S.Tibet. See [About maps] Lycaena irmae Bailey, 1932; J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 697
Lycaena irmae ; [EBW, (name)]

Lycaena li (Oberthür, 1886)
W.China. See [About maps] Chrysophanus li Oberthür, 1886; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 6 : xxii
Lycaena li ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 5, 6]
Helleia li ; [MRS, 662]

Lycaena svenhedini (Nordström, 1935)
China. See [About maps] Chrysophanus svenhedini Nordström, 1935; Ark. Zool. 27A (7): 30

Lycaena pavana (Kollar, [1844])
W.Himalayas, Kashmir - Kumaon, NW.India. See [About maps] White-bordered Copper
Polyommatus pavana Kollar, [1844]; in Hügel, Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek, 4: 416, pl. 5, f. 5-6
Lycaena pavana ?Horsfield; [BIR, 301 (is not Nacaduba pavana Horsfield)]
Lycaena pavana ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 178, f. 17]

Lycaena orus (Stoll, [1780])
Cape. See [About maps] Sorrel Copper
Papilio orus Stoll, [1780]; in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (26b-28): 84, pl. 332, f. E, F
Lycaena orus ; [EBW]; [BAFR, 525]; [AfrL]

Larva on Polygonum undulatum, Rumex ecklonianus? [PBSA]


Lycaena clarki Dickson, 1971
Cape, Transkei, Transvaal. See [About maps] Lycaena clarki Dickson, 1971; in Clark & Dickson, Life Histories of the South Africa Lycaenid Butterflies: 7-10
Lycaena orus f. clarki ; [BAFR, 525]
Lycaena clarki ; [EBW]; [AfrL]

Larva on Rumex spp., Rumex ecklonianus [PBSA]


Lycaena bathinia Snellen, 1899
Java. See [About maps] Lycaena bathinia Snellen, 1899; Tijdschr. Ent. 42 : 212, TL: Java

Lycaena panava (Westwood, 1852)
N.India. See [About maps] Thecla panava Westwood, 1852; Gen. diurn. Lep. (2): 487

?Lycaena pallida Miskin, 1891²
New Guinea. See [About maps]
The "thersamolycaena" species-group
thersamolycaena Verity, 1957; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 69 : 225, TL: Papilio dispar, Haworth
disparia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 21, 58 (preocc. Disparia Nagano, 1916), TL: Papilio dispar, Haworth
Lycaenidae thersamonolycaena; [BRU2, 125]

fiLycaena dispar (Haworth, 1802)
. See [About maps] Isokultasiipi Large Copper Dukatvinge Großer Feuerfalter Czerwończyk nieparek
Papilio dispar Haworth, 1802; Prodr. Lep. Brit.: 3, nota, TL: England
Lycaena dispar, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena dispar, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena dispar, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena dispar, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Thersamonia dispar ;
Thersamolycaena dispar ; [BARU, #346]
Thersamonolycaena dispar ; [BRU2: 125, pl. 58, f. 7-12]
Lycaena dispar ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 36, 38]; [MRS, 663]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[dispar-1l.jpg] 597x400 (~64Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [dispar-1mu.jpg] 594x400 (~45Kb) upperside male Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [dispar-2mu.jpg] 470x364 (~80Kb) upperside male Czech Republic, Blansko, 4.7.2004, Photo © Michal Koupý
[dispar-2v.jpg] 470x434 (~85Kb) underside Czech Republic, Blansko, 4.VII.2004, Photo © Michal Koupý [dispar-3fu.jpg] 470x319 (~89Kb) upperside female Czech Republic, Blansko, 17.7.2004, Photo © Michal Koupý

Larva on Rumex hydrolapathum, R. aquaticus [SPRK], R. confertus, (etc.) [BARU] Rumex acetosa [BRU2, 126]


England (extinct) Thersamonolycaena dispar dispar
Thersamonolycaena dispar dispar ; [BRU2, 126]
L. d. rutila (Werneburg, 1864)
Europe, Caucasus, Transcaucasia, N.Tien-Shan, W.Tien-Shan, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Ghissar rutilus (Werneburg, 1864) (Papilio); Beir. zur Schmet. (1): 391
Thersamolycaena dispar rutila ; [Oleg Kosterin]
Thersamonolycaena dispar rutila ; [BRU2, 126]
[rutila-1fu.jpg] 533x400 (~47Kb) upperside female The Black Sea coast at the settlement Yuzhnyaya Ozereevka near Novorossiysk, Novorossiysk District, Krasnodarskii Krai Province, Russia. 2nd June 1990, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

L. d. festiva (Krulikovsky, 1909)
Ural, W.Siberia Chrysophanus dispar festivus Krulikovsky, 1909; Rev. russ. ent. 9 (3) : 300
Thersamolycaena dispar festiva ; [BARU, (note)]
Thersamonolycaena dispar festiva ; [BRU2, 126]
[festiva-1fv.jpg] 457x400 (~41Kb) underside female The Irtysh River left bank floodland within the Omsk City, West Siberia, Russia. 27th August 1996 (on Inula salicina L.), Photo © Oleg Kosterin

L. d. dahurica (Graeser, 1888)
Transbaikalia, W.Amur Polyommatus dispar var. dahurica Graeser, 1888; Berl. Ent. Zs. 32 (1): 75
Thersamolycaena dispar dahurica ; [BARU, (note)]
Thersamonolycaena dispar dahurica ; [BRU2, 126]
L. d. aurata Leech, 1887
C.Siberia, E.Amur, Ussuri Polyommatus auratus Leech, 1887; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1887 : 414, pl. 35, f. 3, TL: Korea
Polyommatus borodowskyi Grum-Grshimailo, 1899; Ann. Mus. Zool. Imp. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb. 4 (4) : 459
parvus (Kurentzov, 1941)
Lycaena dispar borodowskyi ; [MRS, 663]
Thersamolycaena dispar aurata ; [BARU, (note)]
Thersamonolycaena dispar aurata ; [BRU2, 126]
Lycaena dispar aurata ; [MRS, 663]
[aurata-1fv.jpg] 533x400 (~36Kb) underside female A road crossing a woody (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) brook valley between the villages Budyumkan and Uryupino 5-7 km of the former, Gazimurskozavodskoi District, E Chita Province, E Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia. 25th July 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin


Lycaena violaceus (Staudinger, 1892)
Altai, Sayan, Transbaikalia, Mongolia, N.China. See [About maps] Polyommatus dispar var. violaceus Staudinger, 1892; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 315, TL: Kentei [Malakhanskiy mountain range, Kudara-Somon]
Thersamolycaena violaceus ; [BARU, #345]
Thersamonolycaena violacea ; [BRU2: 126, pl. 58, f. 4-6]
Misidentified/misapplied:
splendens; auct.
[violaceus-1mu.jpg] 533x400 (~42Kb) upperside male A rocky southern slope of a piedmont hill of the mountain Gydyrgun on the northern bank of Lake Zun-Torei, Onon District, SE Chita Province (Dahuria), Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia. 13th July 1996, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

Larva on Rheum rhabarbarum [BRU2, 126]


Altai, Sayan, Transbaikalia Thersamonolycaena violacea violacea ; [BRU2, 126]

Lycaena splendens (Staudinger, 1881)
Dzhungarsky Alatau, Tian-Shan. See [About maps] Polyommatus splendens Staudinger, 1881; Stettin ent. Ztg 42 (7-9): 280, TL: Lepsa [Lepsy Valley near Cherkasskoe, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Kazakhstan]
Lycaena splendens ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 7]
Thersamonolycaena splendens ; [BRU2: 126, pl. 58, f. 1-3]

Lycaena alciphron (Rottemburg, 1775)
SEU, CEU, Asia Minor, Iran, W.Sibera, Altai, E.Kazakhstan, Zabaikalye, Mongolia, N.Sikhote-Alin. See [About maps] Purple-shot Copper Violetter Feuerfalter Manto de Purporo Czerwończyk zamgleniec
Papilio alciphron Rottemburg, 1775; Der Naturforscher 6 : 11, TL: Berlin
Papilio virgaurea Hufnagel, 1766; Berlin. Mag. 2: 79 (preocc.)
Papilio lampetie [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 322
Papilio hipponoe Esper, 1781; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (2): 68, pl. 62, f. 2, (5): pl. 78, f. 5-6
Papilio hiere Fabricius, 1787; Mantissa Insectorum 2: 80
Heodes alciphron, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Lycaena alciphron, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena alciphron, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena alciphron, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena alciphron, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes alciphron ; [BARU, #347]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 24]
Thersamonolycaena alciphron ; [BRU2: 126, pl. 58, f. 13-21]
Lycaena alciphron ; [MRS, 664]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[alciphron-1v.jpg] 500x397 (~63Kb) underside Mt. Canigou, Pyrenees Orientales, France 27/7/96, Photo © Simon Coombes [alciphron-2mu.jpg] 533x400 (~57Kb) upperside male A valley meadow at the Shadrikha Rivulet at the village Mel'nichikha, Novosibirsk District and Province, West Siberia, Russia. 17th May 1993, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [alciphron-3mu.jpg] 664x585 (~87Kb) upperside male Russia, Moscow area, 11.06.2007, Photo © D. Smirnov
[alciphron-3mz.jpg] 745x604 (~87Kb) male Russia, Moscow area, 11.06.2007, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Rumex [R&H], Rumex acetosa, (etc.) [BARU] Rumex confertus, (C.Russia) [BRU2, 127]


CEU, SEU, SW.Siberia, Altais, Sayan ?Chrysophanus alciphron madytus Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 17, TL: Sicily
?Chrysophanus alciphron veronius Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 17, TL: Pyrenees
?Chrysophanus alciphron epidelion Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 17, TL: Alpes Maritimes
?Chrysophanus alciphron deinareton Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 18, TL: Grans Sasso, Monti Sibillini
Thersamonolycaena alciphron alciphron ; [BRU2, 126]
L. a. melibaeus (Staudinger, 1878)
Caucasus, Transcaucasia Polyommatus alciphron var. melibaeus Staudinger, 1878; Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 14 : 231
Chrysophanus alciphron fruginus Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 17, TL: Armenia
Thersamonolycaena alciphron melibaeus ; [BRU2, 126]

Larva on Rumex alpestris [BRU2, 127]

L. a. naryna (Oberthür, 1910)
N.Tian-Shan, Inner Tian-Shan, Dzhungarsky Alatau Polyommatus gordius naryna Oberthür, 1910; Ètud. Lépid. Comp. 4 : 115, pl. 49, f. 407, TL: Fort Naryne, Turkestan
Thersamonolycaena alciphron naryna ; [BRU2, 126]
L. a. heracleana (Blachier, 1908)
Morocco (Toubkal Massif, Dj.Siroua) Chrysophanus alciphron var. heracleana Blachier, 1908; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 217, TL: Atlas Mounains (Morocco)
Heodes alciphron heracleana ; [BMAT: 29, pl. 10, f. 12-15]
Heodes alciphron heracleanus ;
[heracleana-1u.jpg] 600x435 (~55Kb) upperside Morocco, Djebel Siroua, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier

Larva on Rumex scutatus, R. acetosa [BMAT]


L. a. acutipennis Chou & Zhang, 1994
Xinjiang Lycaena alciphron acutipennis Chou & Zhang, 1994; in Chou, Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium 1-2: 771, 664, f. 73, TL: Xinjiang
L. a. rubida Korshunov, 1977²
Transbaikalia alciphron rubida Korshunov, 1977²; (?preocc. Berh, 1866)
Heodes alciphron rubidus; [BARU]
Heodes alciphron rubidus, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Thersamonolycaena alciphron rubida ; [BRU2, 126]
L. a. chairemon (Fruhstorfer, 1917)
Carpathians Chrysophanus alciphron chairemon Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 16, TL: Herzegovina; Bulgaria, Orsowa
Thersamonolycaena alciphron chairemon ; [BRU2, 127]

Lycaena aeolus Wyatt, 1961
W.Pmairs (Shugnansky, Ishkashimsky Mts.), Afghanistan. See [About maps] Lycaena aeolus Wyatt, 1961; J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 17, TL: Bala-Quran, Anjuman Valley, Hindu Kush Mts., 14300ft, Afghanistan
Thersamonia aeolus ;
Thersamonolycaena aeolus ; [BRU2: 127, pl. 57, f. 40-42]
Lycaena aeolus ;

Lycaena aeolides (Churkin, 1999)
Ghissar. See [About maps] Thersamonolycaena aeolides Churkin, 1999; Atalanta 29 (1/4): 125, pl. IVb, f. 1, TL: Ghissar, Fanskie Mts.
Thersamonolycaena aeolides ; [BRU2: 127, pl. 57, f. 43-45]

The "thersamonia" species-group
thersamonia Verity, 1919; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 31 : 28, TL: Papilio thersamon, Esper
Lycaenidae thersamonia ; [BRU2, 127]

Lycaena thersamon (Esper, 1784)
it, SEEU, Asia Minor, W.Asia, Iraq, Iran, N.Altai, ?Mongolia, NW.China. See [About maps] Lesser Fiery Copper
Papilio thersamon Esper, 1784; Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (9): 176, pl. 89, f. 6, TL: Sarepta, Südrussland
omphale Klug, 1834; in Ehrenberg, Symbolae phys., Ins. 4: pl. 40, f. 12-14
?hylla (Koçak, 1983); (preocc.)
Lycaena thersamon, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Thersamonia thersamon, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena thersamon, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Thersamonia thersamon ; [BARU, #344]; [EBW]; [BMAT: 106 (Oberthür 1915)]; [BOW: pl. 11, f. 3]; [BRU2: 127, pl. 59, f. 1-12]
Lycaena thersamon ; [MRS, 663]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[thersamon-1u.jpg] 500x398 (~97Kb) upperside Hisaronu limani, SW Turkey 18/04/95, Photo © Simon Coombes [thersamon-1v.jpg] 500x444 (~68Kb) underside Hisaronu limani, SW Turkey 18/04/95, Photo © Simon Coombes

Larva on Rumex, Polygonum aviculare, Bistorta major, Atraphaxis laetevirens, Limonium gmelinii [BRU2, 128], Sarothamnus [H&R], Caragana frutex, Lycium ruthernicum [BARU]


L. t. persica (Bienert, [1870])
Kopet-Dagh, Ghissar Polyommatus persica Bienert, [1870]; Lepid. Erg. Reise Persiens: 28, TL: Persia
Thersamonia thersamon persica ; [BRU2, 127]

Larva on Acantholimon spp. [BRU2, 128]

L. t. jiadengyuensis (Huang & Murayama, 1992)
Xinjiang (Altai) Thersamonia thersamon jiadengyuensis Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 9, f. 27-28, TL: Jiadengyu, Altai, 1400m
L. t. sajanica (Huang & Murayama, 1992)
Sajan Mts. Thersamonia thersamon sajanica Huang & Murayama, 1992; Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 11, TL: Turan, Sajan Mts., 2000m, SW.Irkutsk

Lycaena phoebus (Blachier, 1905)
Morocco. See [About maps] Moroccan Copper
Chrysophanus phoebus Blachier, 1905; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1905 : 212, TL: Atlas Mountains (Morocco)
Chrysophanus phoebus ab. aurata Lucas, 1937; Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 42: 233, TL: Marrakech (Morocco)
Lycaena phoebus, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Thersamonia phoebus ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 11, f. 3 (text only)]; [BMAT, 29, pl. 10, f. 16-21]
[phoebus-1u.jpg] 600x435 (~36Kb) upperside Morocco, Tizi-n-Tarakatine, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Michel Tarrier [phoebus-2v.jpg] 600x435 (~33Kb) underside Morocco, Tizi-n-Tarakatine, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre [phoebus-3.jpg] 600x435 (~38Kb) Morocco, Tizi-n-Tarakatine, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre
[phoebus-4v.jpg] 600x435 (~44Kb) underside Morocco, Tizi-n-Tarakatine, Anti-Atlas, Photo © Jean Delacre

Larva on Polygonum equisetiforme, P. aviculare? [BMAT]



Lycaena kurdistanica (Riley, 1921)
Armenia (highland), NE.Turkey, W.Iran. See [About maps] Heodes thersamon kurdistanica Riley, 1921; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 8 (47) : 598, TL: Harir, Karind Gorge; Kermanshah
Thersamonia kurdistanica ; [BRU2: 128, pl. 59, f. 13-15]

Lycaena ochimus (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851])
Transcaucasia, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon. See [About maps] Polyommatus ochimus Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (49): (ii) f. 523-526, TL: Kleinasien
Polyommatus ochimus Herrich-Schäffer, [1852]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 6 (55): 31
phaeton (Freyer, [1850]) (Polyommatus); Neuere Beitr. Schmett. 6: pl. 571, f. 2 (preocc.)
kefersteini (Gerhard, [1850]) (Polyommatus); Versuch Mon. europ. Schmett.: pl. 9, f. 4a-c (nom. nud.)
Heodes ochimus ; [BOW: pl. 205, f. 34]
Thersamonia ochimus ; [EBW]; [BRU2: 128, pl. 59, f. 19-21]

Larva on Acantholimon spp. [BRU2, 128]

Armenia (highland) Thersamonia ochimus ochimus
Thersamonia ochimus ochimus ; [BRU2, 128]
L. o. ocliferius (Nekrutenko, 1977)
Caucasus Minor Heodes (Thersamonia) ochimus ocliferius Nekrutenko, 1977; Rep. Acad. Sci. SSR Ukraine (B) 2: 457
Thersamonia ochimus ocliferius ; [BRU2, 128]
L. o. sachandensis (Schurian & Hoffmann, 1982)
Talysh Mts. Thersamonia ochimus sachandensis Schurian & Hoffmann, 1982
Thersamonia ochimun sachandensis ; [BRU2, 128]

Lycaena asabinus (Herrich-Schäffer, [1851])
Lebanon - Turkey - Transcaucasia, Iran, Armenia. See [About maps] Polyommatus asabinus Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (49): (ii) pl. 109, f. 527-528, TL: Amasya, Turkey
?Polyommatus asabinus Herrich-Schäffer, [1852]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 6 (55): 32
Thersamonia asabinus ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 11, f. 3 (text only)]; [BRU2: 128, pl. 59, f. 22-24]
Lycaena asabinus ;

Larva on Acantholimon spp. [BRU2, 128]


Lycaena thetis Klug, 1834
Greece, Asia Minor - Armenia (highlands), Iraq, Iran, Baluchistan, Chitral, Ladak. See [About maps] Fiery Copper Golden Copper
Lycaena thetis Klug, 1834; in Ehrenberg, Symbolae phys., Ins. 4: pl. 40, f. 17-18, TL: Syria
Polyommatus ignitus Herrich-Schäffer, [1846]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (14): (ii) f. 332
Chrysophanus caudatus Staudinger, 1901; in Staudinger & Rebel, Cat. Lepid. palaearct. Faunengeb., 1: 73
Thersamonia thetis ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 11, f. 4]; [BRU2: 129, pl. 59, f. 25-27]
Lycaena thetis ; [BIR, 302]; [Otakar Kudrna]

Larva on Acantholimon spp., (Armenia) [BRU2, 129]


Lycaena lampon Lederer, [1870]²
Kopet-Dagh, SE.Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan. See [About maps] lampon Lederer, [1870]²; : 8, pl. 2, TL: Gebirge Lendakuh; Hadschyabad
lamponides (Staudinger, 1901) (Chrysophanus); in Staudinger & Rebel, Cat. Lepid. palaearct. Faunengeb., 1: 73
eberti Forster, 1972; Ent. Z., Frankf. a.M. 82: 225:Afghanistan, Band-i-amir
Heodes lampon ; [BOW: pl. 205, f. 35 (text)]
Thersamonia lampon ; [BOW: pl. 11, f. 4 (text)]; [BRU2: 129, pl. 59, f. 28-30]

Larva on Acantholimon erinaceum, A. pulchellum [BRU2, 129]


Lycaena alaica (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
Pamirs-Alai, S.Ghissar, NE.Afghanistan?. See [About maps] Polyommatus thersamon var. alaica Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 305, TL: Alai [Malyi Karamyk River, sothern slope o fthe Alai Mts. near Daraut-Kurgan, Kirghizia]
Lycaena thersamon alaica ; [MRS, 663]
Thersamonia alaica ; [BRU2: 129, pl. 59, f. 16-18]
Lycaena alaica ;

Lycaena solskyi Erschoff, 1874
Pamirs-Alai, Ghissar-Darvaz, Tian-Shan, Kashmir, Samarkand. See [About maps] Lycaena solskyi Erschoff, 1874; in Fedschenko, Travels in Turkestan. 2 (5) : 8, pl. 1, f. 7, TL: Maracanda [Uzbekistan]
Heodes solskyi ; [BOW: pl. 205, f. 34, pl. 206, f. 1]
Lycaena solskyi ; [MRS, 664]
Thersamonia solskyi ; [EBW, (name)]; [BRU2: 129, pl. 59, f. 31-36]

Larva on Acantholimon laxum, (Talassky Alatau Mts.) [BRU2, 129]

Ghissarsky, Turkestansky, Zeravshansky Mts. Thersamonia solskyi solskyi
Thersamonia solskyi solskyi ; [BRU2, 129]
L. s. fulminans (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
Zaalaisky Mts, Tian-Shan, Alai, Darvaz Polyommatus solskyi var. fulminans Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 305, TL: Translai
Lycaena solskyi fulminans ; [MRS, 664]
Thersamonia solskyi fulminans ; [BRU2, 129]

Lycaena alpherakii (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
E.Pamirs, NW.China. See [About maps] Polyommatus alpherakii Grum-Grshimailo, 1888; Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 305, TL: Hindukush orient.
Thersamonia alpherakyi[sic, recte alpherakii] ; [BRU2: 130, pl. 59, f. 37-39]
Thersamonia solskyi alpherakyi[sic] ;
Lycaena alpherakyi[sic] ;

Larva on Acantholimon pamiricum [BRU2, 130]


Lycaena attila (Zhdanko, 1990)
Zaalaisky Mts. Thersamonia attila Zhdanko, 1990; Ent. Obozr. 69 (1): 140, TL: [Irkeshtam, 2600m, eastern part of Zaalaisky Mts., Kirghizia]
Thersamonia attila ; [BRU2: 130, pl. 59, f. 43, pl. 83, f. 43]
Lycaena attila ;

Lycaena aditya (Moore, [1875])
W.Pamirs, Afghanistan, Pakistan, N.India. See [About maps] Chrysophanus aditya Moore, [1875]; Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (4) : 571, pl. 66, f. 1, TL: Dros valey, Ladak [N.Pakistan]
Thersamonia aditya ; [BRU2: 130, pl. 59, f. 40-42]
Lycaena aditya ;

Lycaena hyrcana (Neuburger, 1903)
N.Iran - C.Asia. See [About maps] Chrysophanus ochimus var. hyrcana Neuburger, 1903; Soc. Ent. 18 (8) : 59, TL: Hyrcania

The "phoenicurusia" species-group
phoenicurusia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 21, TL: Polyommatus margelanica, Staudinger [Polyommatus phoenicurus, Lederer, misid. type]

Lycaena margelanica (Staudinger, 1881)
S.Tajikistan - N.Tien-Shan. See [About maps] Polyommatus margelanica Staudinger, 1881; Stettin ent. Ztg 42 (7-9): 282, TL: Margelan [northern slope of Alaisky Mts., Kirghizia]
phoenicurus margelanica ;
Phoenicurusia margelanica ; [BRU2: 130, pl. 60, f. 16-24]
Misidentified/misapplied:
Polyommatus phoenicurus; Verity, 1943, Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 21

Larva on Atraphaxis frutescens, A. pyrifolia [BRU2, 131]

Ghissar, Darvaz, Alai, W.Tien-Shan, W.Pamir Phoenicurusia margelanica margelanica
Phoenicurusia margelanica margelanica ; [BRU2, 130]
L. m. legezini (Zhdanko, 1999)
S.Ghissar, Babatag, Karatau, Teriklitau, Rangontau Phoenicurusia margelanica legezini Zhdanko, 1999
Phoenicurusia margelanica legezini ; [BRU2, 130]
L. m. nigra (Zhdanko, 1999)
Zailiisky Alatau, Lake Issyk-Kul (mountains around) Phoenicurusia margelanica nigra Zhdanko, 1999
Phoenicurusia margelanica nigra ; [BRU2, 131]

The "hyrcanana" species-group
hyrcanana Bethune-Baker, 1914; Ent. Rec. J. Var. 26 (5): 135, TL: Polyommatus caspius, Lederer
sarthusia Verity, 1943; Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 2: 20, TL: Polyommatus sarthus, Staudinger

Lycaena caspius (Lederer, 1869)
Kopet-Dagh, Ghissar?, N.Iran, Afghanistan?. See [About maps] Polyommatus caspius Lederer, 1869; Horae Soc. ent. ross. 6 (2) : 76, pl. 4, f. 3, TL: Astrabad [Gorgan, N.Iran]
?Polyommatus transiens Staudinger, 1886; Stett. Ent. Ztg. 47 (4-6): 201
= ; [BRU2, 135 (?)]
?Lycaena afghana Howarth & Povolny, 1976; Èas. morav. Mus. Brn. 61: 150
= ; [BRU2, 135 (?)]
Lycaena caspius ; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 4]
Hyrcanana caspius ; [BRU2: 135, pl. 61, f. 30-32]
Kopet-Dagh Hyrcanana caspius caspius
Hyrcanana caspius caspius ; [BRU2, 135]

Lycaena ophion Hemming, 1933
Kopet-Dagh, Ghissar-Darvaz. See [About maps] Lycaena ophion Hemming, 1933; Entomologist 66: 278 (repl. caudatus Staudinger, 1901), TL: [Karateginsky Mts., Tajikistan]
Chrysophanus sarthus var. caudatus Staudinger, 1901; in Staudinger & Rebel, Cat. Lepid. palaearct. Faunengeb., 3: 73 (preocc.), TL: Buch.[ara] s.[eptentrionalis] or.[ientalis] (Karategin)
Hyrcanana ophion ; [BRU2: 135, pl. 61, f. 33-35, 42-44]

Larva on Polygonum paronychioides [BRU2, 135]

Ghissar-Darvaz Hyrcanana ophion ophion
Hyrcanana ophion ophion ; [BRU2, 135]
L. o. meridianalis (Shchetkin, 1963)
Tadzhikistan ophion meridianalis (Shchetkin, 1963) (Chrysophanus); Trudy Inst. Zool. Parasit., Stalinabad 24: 52, TL: Khozratishoh Mts.
Hyrcanana ophion meridianalis ; [BRU2, 135]

Lycaena sartha (Staudinger, 1886)
Ghissar-Darvaz, Pamirs-Alai, NE.Afghanistan. See [About maps] Polyommatus sarthus Staudinger, 1886; Stett. Ent. Ztg. 47 (4-6): 202, TL: Südlichen Alai-Gebirgen wohl bei Kara-Kasuk
Lycaena sarthus ; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 4 (text)]
Hyrcanana sartha ; [BRU2: 135, pl. 61, f. 39-41]

Larva on Polygonum paronychioides [BRU2, 136]


Lycaena pamira (Nekrutenko, 1983)
W.Pamirs. See [About maps] Hyrcanana pamira Nekrutenko, 1983; Vestnik zool. 1983 (3): 12, f. 4, TL: [Nyut, Ishakshimsky Mts., SW.Pamirs, Tajikistan]
Hyrcanana pamira ; [BRU2: 136, pl. 61, f. 45-47]

Larva on Polygonum paronychoides [BRU2, 136]


Lycaena sultan (Lang, 1884)
W.Ghissar (Zeravshansky, Ghissarsky, Baisuntau, Fanskie). See [About maps] Polyommatus sultan Lang, 1884; Rhopalocera Europa Descripta et Delineata: 368
Polyommatus sultan Staudinger, 1886; Stett. Ent. Ztg. 47 (4-6): 202 (preocc.)
?Chrysophanus sultani Staudinger, 1901; in Staudinger & Rebel, Cat. Lepid. palaearct. Faunengeb., 1: 75
Lycaena sultan ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 206, f. 4 (text)]
Hyrcanana sultan ; [BRU2: 136, pl. 61, f. 36-38]

Larva on Polygonum paronychioides [BRU2, 136]


Subgenus Tharsalea Scudder, 1876
Tharsalea Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 125, TS: Polyommatus arota Boisduval
Tharsalea (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441

Lycaena arota (Boisduval, 1852)
California. See [About maps] Tailed Copper
Polyommatus arota Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 293, TL: "Montagnes de la Juba"
Lycaena arota arota, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Lycaena arota arota, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena arota, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Tharsalea arota ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40; [NACL, #4250]
Lycaena arota ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 40]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1063]
Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191

Larva on Ribes [NAB]

California Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota arota ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191
L. a. virginiensis (Edwards, 1870)
California, Nevada, Colorado Chyrosphanus virginiensis Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 21, TL: Virginia City, Nevada
Lycaena arota virginiensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Tharsalea virginiensis ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40
Tharsalea arota virginiensis ; [NACL, #4250a]
Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota virginiensis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191
L. a. nubila (Comstock, 1926)
California Tharsalea arota nubila Comstock, 1926; Bull. Soc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 (1): 34, TL: Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California
Tharsalea arota nubila ; [NACL, #4250b]
Lycaena arota nubila ; [NL4A, #1063a]
Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota nubila ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191
L. a. schellbachi Tilden, 1955
Schellbach's Copper
Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota schellbachi Tilden, 1955; Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci. 54 (2): 72, TL: North Rim, Grand Canyon, Arizona
Lycaena arota schellbachi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Tharsalea arota schellbachi ; [NACL, #4250c]
Lycaena (Tharsalea) arota schellbachi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191

Subgenus Chalceria Scudder, 1876
Chalceria Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 125, TS: Chrysophanus rubidus Behr
Gaeides Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 126, TS: Chrysophanus dione Scudder
Gaeides (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441
Chalceria (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441

Lycaena dione (Scudder, 1868)
Iowa, ..., Manitoba. See [About maps] Chrysophanus dione Scudder, 1868; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11 : 401, TL: Iowa
Chrysophanus dione Scudder, 1869; Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 1 (2): 330
Lycaena (Dione) dione tr.f. gibboni Gunder, 1927; Can. Ent. 59 (12): 284, pl. A, f. 13, TL: Miniota, Manitoba
Lycaena dione, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena dione, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena dione, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Lycaena dione ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
Gaeides dione ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40
Gaeides xanthoides dione ; [NACL, #4253a]
Lycaena dione ; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 5 (text only)]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Chalceria) dione ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191

Lycaena editha (Mead, 1878)
-. See [About maps] Edith's Copper
Chrysophanus editha Mead, 1878; Can. Ent. 10 (10) : 198, TL: the borders of Lake Tahoe, near Carnelian Bay
Lycaena editha, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena editha editha, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena editha, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Gaeides editha ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40; [NACL, #4254]
Lycaena editha ; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 5 (text only)]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Chalceria) editha ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192

Larva on Horkelia fusca, Horkelia tenuiloba, Rumex, Potentilla [NAB]

California, ... Lycaena editha vanduzeei Gunder, 1927; Ent. News. 38 (5) : 133, pl. 2, f. 1, TL: Deer Park, Placer Co., California
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
Lycaena (Chalceria) editha editha ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
L. e. vurali Koçak, 1984
Montana, Wyoming, ... Lycaena editha vurali Koçak, 1984; Priamus 3 (3): 95 (repl. Lycaena editha montana Field, 1936), TL: Broadwater Co., Montana
Lycaena editha montana Field, 1936; Ent. News 47 (5) : 122 (preocc. Lycaena semiargus montana Meyer-Dur, 1851), TL: Broadwater Co., Montana
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
Lycaena editha montana f. meadi Field, 1936; J. Ent. Zool. 28 (2): 25, TL: Teton Mts., Wyoming
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
Lycaena editha vurali, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Gaeides editha montana ; [NACL, #4254a]
Lycaena (Chalceria) editha vurali ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
Nevada Lycaena editha obscuramaculata Austin, 1989; J. Res. Lepid. 27 (3/4): 266 (repl. Lycaena editha nevadensis Austin, 1984), TL: Nevada, Elko Co., Jarbidge Mtns
Lycaena editha nevadenisis Austin, 1984; J. Res. Lepid. 23 (1): 83, 85 (preocc. Lycaena nevadensis Oberthür, 1896), TL: Nevada, Elko Co., Jarbidge Mtns
Lycaena (Chalceria) editha obscuramaculata ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
L. e. pseudonexa Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena editha pseudonexa Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 675, f. 45-58
Lycaena (Chalceria) editha pseudonexa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192

Lycaena xanthoides (Boisduval, 1852)
California. See [About maps] Great Gray Copper
Polyommatus xanthoides Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 292, TL: California
Lycaena xanthoides xanthoides, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Lycaena xanthoides xanthoides, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena xanthoides, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Gaeides xanthoides ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40; [NACL, #4253]
Lycaena xanthoides ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 5]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1064]
Lycaena (Chalceria) xanthoides ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192

Larva on Rumex hymenosepalus, R. conglomeratus, R. crispus, R. obstusifolia [NAB]

California Heodes xanthoides luctuosa Watson & Comstock, 1920; Bull. Amer. Mus. 42 (10) : 453, TL: Thachapi, California [Kern Co.]
= ; [NL4A, #1064a]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
Lycaena xanthoides tr.f. gunderi Rudkin, 1933; Ent. News 44 (4) : 97, TL: Bouquet Canyon, Los Angeles Co., California
= Lycaena helloides ; [NL4A, #1067]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
Lycaena xanthoides xanthoides ; [NL4A, #1064a]
Lycaena (Chalceria) xanthoides xanthoides ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192
L. x. obsolescens Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena xanthoides obsolescens Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 672, f. 37-40, TL: California, Inyo Co.
Lycaena (Chalceria) xanthoides obsolescens ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. x. nigromaculata Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena xanthoides nigromaculata Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 674, f. 41-44, TL: California, Colusa Co.
Lycaena xanthoides nigromaculata, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) xanthoides nigromaculata ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 192

Lycaena gorgon (Boisduval, 1852)
Nevada, .... See [About maps] Gorgon Copper
Polyommatus gorgon Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 292, TL: California
Lycaena gorgon gorgon, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Lycaena gorgon gorgon, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena gorgon, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Gaeides gorgon ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40; [NACL, #4255]
Lycaena gorgon ; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 41]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1065]
Lycaena (Chalceria) gorgon ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193

Larva on Eriogonum elongatum, E. nudum [NAB]

California Lycaena (Chalceria) gorgon gorgon ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. g. jacquelinaeae Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena gorgon jacquelinaeae Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 666, f. 17-20, TL: California, Modoc Co.
Lycaena (Chalceria) gorgon jacquelinaeae ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. g. dorothea Emmel & Pratt, 1998
Oregon Lycaena gorgon dorothea Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 668, f. 21-24, TL: Oregon, Josephine Co.
Lycaena (Chalceria) gorgon dorothea ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. g. micropunctata Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena gorgon micropunctata Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 668, f. 25-28, TL: California, Mono Co.
Lycaena gorgon micropunctata, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) gorgon micropunctata ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193

Lycaena rubidus (Behr, 1866)
-. See [About maps] Ruddy Copper
Chrysophanus rubidus Behr, 1866; Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 6 : 208, TL: Oregon
Lycaena rubidus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Chalceria rubidus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Chalceria rubida ; [NACL, #4257]
Lycaena rubidus ; [EBW]; [BOW: p. 20, f. 1]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193

Larva on Rumex hymenosepalus, R. triangularis [NAB]

Oregon, ... Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus rubidus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. r. sirius (Edwards, 1871)
Colorado Chrysophanus sirius Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 270, TL: Colorado
Lycaena rubidus sirius, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Chalceria rubidus sirius ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Chalceria rubida sirius ; [NACL, #4257d]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus sirius ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. r. duofacies Johnson & Balogh, 1977
Idaho, ... Lycaena (Tharsalea) rubidus duofacies Johnson & Balogh, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 21, f. 19-20, TL: Bogus Basin, nr. Boise, Boise Co., Idaho
Chalceria rubida duofacies ; [NACL, #4257a]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus duofacies ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. r. perkinsorum Johnson & Balogh, 1977
Oregon Lycaena (Tharsalea) rubidus perkinsorum Johnson & Balogh, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 25, f. 21-22, TL: Wasco Co., Oregon
Chalceria rubida perkinsorum ; [NACL, #4257b]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus perkinsorum ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. r. longi Johnson & Balogh, 1977
Nebraska, ... Lycaena (Tharsalea) rubidus longi Johnson & Balogh, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 28, f. 23-24, TL: Cañon Region N of Harrison, Sioux Co., Nebraska
Lycaena rubidus longi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Chalceria rubida longi ; [NACL, #4257c]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus longi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. r. monachensis Johnson & Balogh, 1977
California Lycaena (Tharsalea) rubidus monachensis Johnson & Balogh, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 38, f. 29-30, TL: Monache Meadows, Tulare Co., California
Lycaena rubidus monachensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Chalceria rubida monachensis ; [NACL, #4257e]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus monachensis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193
L. r. ferrisi Johnson & Balogh, 1977
Arizona Ferris' Copper
Lycaena (Tharsalea) ferrisi Johnson & Balogh, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 40, f. 31-32, TL: Apache Ditch Camp, Apache Co., Arizona
Lycaena rubidus ferrisi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena ferrisi, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Chalceria ferrisi ; [NACL, #4258]
Lycaena ferrisi ; [Opler]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus ferrisi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. r. incana Austin, 1998
Nevada Lycaena rubida incana Austin, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (44): 539, f. 1-4, TL: Nevada, Esmeralda Co.; White Mntns, Trail Canyon
Lycaena rubidus incana, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) rubidus incana ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 193

Lycaena heteronea Boisduval, 1852
Colorado - California. See [About maps] Blue Copper
Lycaena heteronea Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 298
Lycaena heteronea, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena heteronea heteronea, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena heteronea, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Cupido heteronea ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 42
Chalceria heteronea ; [NACL, #4259]
Lycaena heteronea ; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 43]; [EBW]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1066]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194

Larva on Eriogonum fasciculatum, E. latifolium, E. umbellatum, E. nudum, E. microthecum [NAB]

California Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea heteronea ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. clara H. Edwards, 1877
California Lycaena clara H. Edwards, 1877; Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc.: [1], TL: Tehachapi Pass, California
Lycaena heteronea clara, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Cupido clara ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 42
Chalceria heteronea clara ; [NACL, #4259a]
Lycaena heteronea clara ; [NL4A, #1066a]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea clara ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. gravenotata Klots, 1930
Colorado Lycaena heteronea gravenotata Klots, 1930; Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 25 (3): 163, f. 1-4, TL: Plainview, Jefferson Co., Colorado
Heodes heteronia[sic] ab. ♂ coloradensis Gunder, 1925; Ent. News 36 (7) : 194, pl. 5, f. 1, TL: Plain View, Colorado
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
Lycaena heteronea gravenotata, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea gravenotata ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
L. h. klotsi Field, 1936
Montana Lycaena heteronea klotsi Field, 1936; Ent. News 47 (5) : 123, TL: Broadwater Co., Montana
Lycaena heteronea klotsi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea klotsi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. submaculata Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena heteronea submaculata Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 670, f. 29-32, TL: California, Plumas Co., Warner Valley
Lycaena heteronea submaculata, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea submaculata ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. northi Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena heteronea northi Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 671, f. 33-36, TL: California, Humboldt Co., North Trinity Mtn
Lycaena heteronea northi, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea northi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. rava Austin, 1998
Nevada Lycaena heteronea rava Austin, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (44): 540, f. 5-8, TL: Nevada, Elko Co., Ruby Mntns
Lycaena heteronea rava, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea rava ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194
L. h. rutila Austin, 1998
Nevada Lycaena heteronea rutila Austin, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (44): 541, f. 9-12 (?preocc. Werneburg, 1864), TL: Nevada, Lincoln Co., Wilson Creek Range
Lycaena (Chalceria) heteronea rutila ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 194

Subgenus Epidemia Scudder, 1876
Epidemia Scudder, 1876; Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 127, TS: Polyommatus epixanthe Boisduval & Leconte
Hyllolycaena Miller & Brown, 1979; Bull. Allyn Mus. 51 : 15, TS: Paplio hyllus Cramer
Hellolycaena Koçak, 1983; Priamus 3 (1) : 3, TS: Polyommatus those Guérin-Méneville
Epidemia (Lycaeninae) ; Eliot, 1973, Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 441

Lycaena hyllus (Cramer, [1775])
ENA, Colorado. See [About maps] Bronze Copper
Papilio hyllus Cramer, [1775]; Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): pl. 43, f. B, C, TL: "Smirna" [Smyrna, Turkey]
Polyommatus thoe Guérin-Méneville, [1832]; Icon. Règne anim. Cuvier 3 (Insectes) : 490, : pl. 81, f. 4, 4a-b
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
Lycaena (Heodes) thoe tr.f. wyatti Gunder, 1927; Can. Ent. 59 (12): 284, TL: Colorado?
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
Lycaena thoe tr.f. wormsbacheri Gunder, 1927; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 26 (2): 53, TL: [Ohio?]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
Lycaena hyllus, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena hyllus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena hyllus, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Chrysophanus thoe ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Lycaena thoe ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 20, f. 3, 4]
Hyllolycaena hyllus ; [NACL, #4256]
Lycaena hyllus ; [Opler]
Lycaena (Epidemia) hyllus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
[hyllus-1.jpg] 432x338 (~32Kb) USA: Huron River valley region, Ann Arbor, Michigan, May 1999, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Rumex crispus, R. obtusifolius, R. longifolius, R. patientia, Polygonum coccineum, P. natans MacLean, 1990, J. Lep. Soc. 44 (1): 33



Lycaena epixanthe (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1835])
Newfoundland - Kansas. See [About maps] Bog Copper
Polyommatus epixanthe Boisduval & Le Conte, [1835]; Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (11-22): 127, pl. 38, f. 4-5
Lycaena epixanthe epixanthe, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena epixanthe, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Epidemia epixanthe ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41; [NACL, #4260]
Lycaena epixanthe ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 39]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Epidemia) epixanthe ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195

Larva on Vaccinium macrocarpum [NAB]

Lycaena (Epidemia) epixanthe epixanthe ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
L. e. phaedrus (Hall, 1924)
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland Heodes epixanthe phaedrus Hall, 1924; J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 32: 111, TL: Dublin Schore, Lunenburg Co., N.S.
Chrysophanus amicetus Holland, 1931; The Butterfly Book (1931 edn): 250, pl. 28, f. 28, pl. 64, f. 41-42, TL: Newfoundland
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
Epidemia epixanthe phaedra ; [NACL, #4260a]
Lycaena (Epidemia) epixanthe phaedrus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 195
L. e. michiganensis Rawson, 1948
Michigan, ... Lycaena epixanthe michiganensis Rawson, 1948; J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 56 (1) : 59, TL: Proud Lake, Oakland Co., Michigan
Lycaena epixanthe michiganensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia epixanthe michiganensis ; [NACL, #4260b]
Lycaena (Epidemia) epixanthe michiganensis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196

Lycaena dorcas Kirby, 1837
-. See [About maps] Dorcas Copper Cinquefoil Copper
Lycaena dorcas Kirby, 1837; in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 299, pl. 4, f. 1
Lycaena dorcas, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Epidemia dorcas ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41; [NACL, #4261]
Lycaena dorcas ; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 42 (text only)]; [Opler]
[dorcas-1mv.jpg] 324x432 (~30Kb) underside male Chelsea, Michigan, 3 July 2004, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Potentilla, P. fruticosa [NAB]


Manitoba, Ontario, ... Polyommatus anthelle Doubleday, 1847; List Spec. lep. Ins. B. M. 2 : 55, TL: Martin's Falls, Albany River, Hudson's Bay
Lycaena dorcas dorcas ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas dorcas ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. castro (Reakirt, 1866)
Colorado, ... Polyommatus castro Reakirt, 1866; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 148, TL: Rocky Mountains, Colorado Territory
Lycaena (Dione) helloides tr.f. williamsi Gunder, 1927; Can. Ent. 59 (12): 285, pl. A, TL: f. 14, 14b, 14d;Hall's Valley, Park Co., Colorado [Hall Valley]
= Lycaena helloides ; [NL4A, #1067]
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
Epidemia dorcas castro ; [NACL, #4261a]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas castro ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
L. d. florus (Edwards, 1883)
Alberta, ..., Montana Chrysophanus florus Edwards, 1883; Can. Ent. 15 (11) : 210, TL: Red Deer River, B. Am
Lycaena dorcas florus f. hulbirti Field, 1936; J. Ent. Zool. 28 (2): 25, TL: Broadwater Co., Montana
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
Lycaena dorcas florus f. sternitzkyi Field, 1936; J. Ent. Zool. 28 (2): 26, TL: Broadwater Co., Montana
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
Lycaena dorcas florus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia dorcas florus ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41; [NACL, #4261b]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas florus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. claytoni Brower, 1940
Maine, ... Lycaena dorcas claytoni Brower, 1940; Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 35 (4): 138, TL: Springfield, Maine [Penobscot Co.]
Lycaena dorcas claytoni, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia dorcas claytoni ; [NACL, #4261d]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas claytoni ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. megaloceras (Ferris, 1977)
Wyoming Epidemia dorcas megaloceras Ferris, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 45: 31, TL: 5-Spring Creek, Big Horn Co., Wyoming
Lycaena dorcas megaloceras, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia dorcas megaloceras ; [NACL, #4261e]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas megaloceras ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. arcticus (Ferris, 1977)
Yukon Epidemia dorcas arcticus Ferris, 1977; Bull. Allyn Mus. 45: 33, TL: Mayo Lake ROad, Yukon Territory
Lycaena dorcas arcticus, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia dorcas arcticus ; [NACL, #4261f]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas arcticus ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. michuron Scott, 2006
Michigan Lycaena dorcas michuron Scott, 2006; Papilio (n.s.) 12: 42, pl. 4, TL: Fenton Road, N of Hwy 59, Livingstone Co., Mich.
Lycaena dorcas michuron, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dorcas michuron ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 196
L. d. dospassosi McDunnough, 1940
New Brunswick Lycaena dorcas var. dosPassosi McDunnough, 1940; Can. ent. 72 (7) : 130, TL: Bathurst, N. B.
Epidemia dorcas dospassosi ; [NACL, #4261c]
Lycaena dospassosi ; [Opler]
Lycaena (Epidemia) dospassosi ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197

Lycaena helloides (Boisduval, 1852)
NA. See [About maps] Purplish Copper
Polyommatus helloides Boisduval, 1852; Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 291, TL: California
Lycaena (Heodes) thoe tr.f. sternitzkyi Gunder, 1927:REF#b: 284
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
Lycaena helloides, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena helloides, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Lycaena helloides, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena helloides, NSG Voucher Specimen [Wahlberg]
Lycaena helloides, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Epidemia helloides ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41; [NACL, #4262]
Lycaena helloides ; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 42]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1067]
Lycaena (Epidemia) helloides ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
[helloides-1v.jpg] 700x885 (~45Kb) underside USA: Tolmie State Park (47°07'23N 122°46'39W), Thurston Co., WA, 12.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [helloides-2v.jpg] 700x597 (~66Kb) underside USA: nr Crystal Mountain / FR9726 (47°13'56N 120°38'25W), Kittitas Co., WA, 11.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [helloides-3.jpg] 600x785 (~68Kb) USA: Teanaway, Jungle Creek, (47°20'06N 120°55'21W ±0.5km) Kittitas Co., WA, 21.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[helloides-4m.jpg] 500x546 (~35Kb) male USA: FR 6520 /Johnson Ridge, Mt. Baker Snoqualmie Nat. Forest (47°19'58N 121°42'43W), Snohomish Co., WA, 7.8.2001, Photo © Markku Savela [helloides-5.jpg] 900x1059 (~144Kb) USA: Cabin Mountain, (1408m), (47°14'15N 121°16'27W ~ ±0.5km), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.2006, Photo © Markku Savela [helloides-6.jpg] 900x1241 (~147Kb) USA: Cabin Mountain, (1408m), (47°14'15N 121°16'27W ~ ±0.5km), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.2006, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Polygonaceae, Rumex, Polygonum, less Potentilla [NAB]



Lycaena nivalis (Boisduval, 1869)
-. See [About maps] Nivalis Copper
Polyommatus nivalis Boisduval, 1869; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 44, TL: "de la région des neiges"
Lycaena nivalis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena nivalis, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Epidemia nivalis ; [NACL, #4263]
Lycaena nivalis ; [EBW, (name)]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Epidemia) nivalis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
[nivalis-1.jpg] 500x503 (~27Kb) USA: Wenatchee National Forest, (47°04'12N 120°56'10W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [nivalis-1v.jpg] 600x505 (~48Kb) underside USA: Wenatchee National Forest, (47°04'12N 120°56'10W), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Polygonum douglasii [NAB]


California, Nevada Chrysophanus ianthe Edwards, 1871; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (3/4) : 205, 211, TL: Nevada
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
Lycaena (Epidemia) nivalis nivalis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
L. n. browni dos Passos, 1938
Idaho, ... Lycaena nivalis browni dos Passos, 1938; Can. Ent. 70 (3): 45, pl. 2, f. 1-4, TL: Snowslide Canyon, 8mi from Montpelier, ID
Epidemia nivalis browni ; [NACL, #4263a]
Epidemia (Epidemia) nivalis browni ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
L. n. bichroma Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena nivalis bichroma Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 664, f. 9-12, TL: California, Siskiyou Co., summit of Mt. Eddy
Lycaena nivalis bichroma, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena (Epidemia) nivalis bichroma ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
L. n. warnermontana Emmel & Pratt, 1998
California Lycaena nivalis warnermontana Emmel & Pratt, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (52): 665, f. 13-16, TL: California, Modoc Co., Dismal Swamp, Warner Mntns
Lycaena (Epidemia) nivalis warnermontana ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197
L. n. praetexta Austin, 1998
Nevada Lycaena nivalis praetexta Austin, 1998; Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (44): 541, f. 13-16, TL: Nevada, Elko Co.
Lycaena (Epidemia) nivalis praetexta ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 197

Lycaena mariposa (Reakirt, 1866)
W.USA. See [About maps] Mariposa Copper
Polyommatus mariposa Reakirt, 1866; Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 149, TL: California
Lycaena mariposa, E.H. Strickland Ent. Mus, U of [ALBERTA]
Lycaena mariposa mariposa, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena mariposa, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Epidemia mariposa ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41; [NACL, #4264]
Lycaena mariposa ; [BOW: pl. 19, f. 44, 45]; [Opler]
Lycaena (Epidemia) mariposa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 198
[mariposa-1.jpg] 700x951 (~56Kb) USA: Table Mtn, (~ 47°19N 120°42W), Kittitas Co., WA, 30.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [mariposa-2v.jpg] 660x623 (~60Kb) underside USA: FR9705, Table Mtn (47°18'20N 129°41'43W), Kittitas Co., WA, 19.7.1999, Photo © Markku Savela [mariposa-3um.jpg] 900x728 (~61Kb) upperside male USA: Teanaway, Jungle Creek, (47°20'06N 120°55'21W ±0.5km) Kittitas Co., WA, 21.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela
[mariposa-3v.jpg] 600x717 (~58Kb) underside USA: Teanaway, Jungle Creek, (47°20'06N 120°55'21W ±0.5km) Kittitas Co., WA, 21.7.2000, Photo © Markku Savela [mariposa-4.jpg] 1000x1196 (~119Kb) USA: Cabin Mountain, (1408m), (47°14'15N 121°16'27W ~ ±0.5km), Kittitas Co., WA, 29.7.2006 (on Sedum divergens), Photo © Markku Savela

Larva on Vaccinium arbuscula, V. nivictum? Pratt & Ballmer, 1986, J. Lep. Soc. 40 (2): 127, (not Polygonum douglasii!)


California, Nevada? Polyommatus zeroe Boisduval, 1869; Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 45
= ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 198
Epidemia zeroe ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 41
Lycaena (Epidemia) mariposa mariposa ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 198
L. m. charlottensis (Holland, 1931)
British Columbia Chrysophanus charlottensis Holland, 1931; The Butterfly Book (1931 edn): 6, TL: Queen Charlotte Island
Lycaena mariposa charlottensis, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Epidemia mariposa charlottensis ; [NACL, #4264a]
Lycaena (Epidemia) mariposa charlottensis ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 198
L. m. penroseae Field, 1938
Wyoming Lycaena mariposa penroseae Field, 1938; Pan-Pac. Ent. 14 (3): 142, TL: Lake Eleanor, Yellowstone National Park
Lycaena mariposa penroseae, Butterflies of America [BOA]
penrosae ; Brown, Eff & Rotger, 1955, (missp.)
Epidemia mariposa penroseae ; [NACL, #4264b]
Lycaena (Epidemia) mariposa penroseae ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 198

Subgenus Hermelycaena Miller & Brown, 1979
Hermelycaena Miller & Brown, 1979; Bull. Allyn Mus. 51 : 22, TS: Chrysophanus hermes

Lycaena hermes (Edwards, 1870)
California. See [About maps] Hermes Copper
Chrysophanus hermes Edwards, 1870; Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 21, TL: California
Chrysophanus del sud[sic] Wright, 1905; Butts. West Coast: 62, TL: California
= ; [NL4A, #1068]; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191
delsud Wright, 1905; (emend.)
Lycaena hermes, Listing of Mexican Butterflies [ILMB]
Lycaena hermes, Butterflies of America [BOA]
Lycaena hermes, Butterflies and Moths of North America [BAMONA]
Tharsalea hermes ; Dyar, 1903, Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 40
Hermelycaena hermes ; [NACL, #4265]
Lycaena hermes ; [EBW]; [Opler]; [NL4A, #1068]
Lycaena (Hermelycaena) hermes ; Pelham, 2008, J. Res. Lepid. 40: 191

Larva on Rhamnus crocea [NAB]


Subgenus ?

The "heodes" species-group

fiLycaena virgaureae (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, Siberia, Asia Minor, C.Asia, Mongolia. See [About maps] Loistokultasiipi Scarce Copper Vitfläckig guldvinge Guldvinge Dukatenfalter Großer Feuerfalter Argus Satiné Manto de Oro Czerwończyk dukacik
Papilio virgaureae Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 484, TL: Sweden
Lycaena virgaureae, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena virgaureae, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Lycaena virgaureae, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Lycaena virgaureae, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena virgaureae, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena virgaureae, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes virgaureae ; [BARU, #348]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 26, 28, 29]; [BRU2: 124, pl. 58, f. 25-36]
Lycaena virgaureae ; [MRS, 664]; [Otakar Kudrna]
[virgaureae-1mu.jpg] 450x327 (~42Kb) upperside male Mt. Canigou, Pyrenees Orientales, France 27/07/96, Photo © Simon Coombes [virgaureae-2fu.jpg] 680x680 (~60Kb) upperside female FINLAND: Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 27.7.1997, Photo © Markku Savela [virgaureae-2mu.jpg] 600x436 (~25Kb) upperside male FINLAND: Kb: Kiihtelysvaara, 692:68, 11.7.1997, Photo © Markku Savela
[virgaureae-2mv.jpg] 600x688 (~52Kb) underside male FINLAND: Kb: Kiihtelysvaara, 692:68, 11.7.1997, Photo © Markku Savela [virgaureae-3fu.jpg] 1400x968 (~124Kb) upperside female FINLAND, Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 2.8.1998, Photo © Markku Savela [virgaureae-3mu.jpg] 600x803 (~46Kb) upperside male Finland, Sipoo 670:39, 12.7.1979, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[virgaureae-4l.jpg] 596x400 (~42Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [virgaureae-4u.jpg] 596x400 (~53Kb) upperside Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [virgaureae-5m.jpg] 979x734 (~91Kb) male Lithuania: Dzukija, Marcinkonys-Zervynos, 15.7.2008 (on Thymus pulegioides), Photo © Harri Arkkio
[virgaureae-5mu.jpg] 745x938 (~80Kb) upperside male Lithuania: Dzukija, Marcinkonys, railwaystation, 16.7.2008, Photo © Harri Arkkio [virgaureae-5mv.jpg] 914x685 (~73Kb) underside male Lithuania: Dzukija, Marcinkonys-Zervynos, 15.7.2008, Photo © Harri Arkkio [virgaureae-6mv.jpg] 680x610 (~96Kb) underside male Russia, Moscow area, 3.7.2010 (36°25'E, 56°00'N), Photo © D. Smirnov
[virgaureae-f.jpg] 500x444 (~23Kb) female FINLAND: Ab: Suomusjärvi, 669:31, 18.8.1996, Photo © Markku Savela [virgaureae-um.jpg] 500x389 (~22Kb) upperside male Finland, Sotkamo, Pihlajapuro, 7/1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [virgaureae.jpg] 299x299 (~11Kb)

Larva on Rumex, R. acetosella [SPRK], Rumex thyrsifolium, R. acetosa [BARU], Fabaceae [MRS]


EU, W.Siberia, Caucasus, Tarbagatai, Altai Lycaena virgaureae oranula Freyer, 1845; Neuere Beitr. Schmett. 5: pl. 455, f. 1-2
Polyommatus estonica Huene, 1883; Ent. Nachr. 9 (4) : 49
Chrysophanus virgaureae caucasica Jachontov, 1908; Revue Russe Ent. 8 : 291
Chrysophanus virgaureae alexandrae Fruhstorfer, 1909; Int. ent. Zs. 3 (21): 120, TL: environs of town Miass
Chrysophanus virgaureae inalpinus Verity, 1913; J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 32 : 183
Lycaena virgaureae balcanicola Graves, 1928; in Graves & Hemming, Entomologist 61: 106-107, TL: S.Bulgaria, Kostenetz, 3000ft
balcanicola ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 18
Heodes virgaureae alexandrae ; [BARU, (note)]
Heodes virgaureae virgaureae ; [BRU2, 124]
L. v. virgaureola (Staudinger, 1892)
Sayan, Transbaikalia, Amur, Ussuri Polyommatus virgaureae virgaureola Staudinger, 1892; Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 314, TL: Kentei?
Heodes steni Bryk, 1946
virgaureae mongolica Kurenzov, 1970²
Heodes virgaureae virgaureola ; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 124]
[virgaureola-1mfv.jpg] 400x300 (~32Kb) underside male female A forb meadow on a SE slope 12 km SE of the village Gazimurskii Zavod, Gazimurskozavodskoi District, E Chita Province, E Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia. 24th July 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [virgaureola-1v.jpg] 400x451 (~32Kb) underside A meadow, with Medicago dominating, on the Tes-Khem River right bank in front of the Shivilig-Khem valley, the Ubsu-Nur intermontane hollow, Tes-Khem District, Tuva Republic, Siberia, Russia. 9th July 1990, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

L. v. lena Kurenzov, 1970²
C.Urals, C.Siberia, Far East virgaureae lena Kurenzov, 1970²; , TL: C. & E. Yakutia
Heodes virgaureae lena ; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 124]
L. v. armeniaca (A. Bang-Haas, 1906)
Armenia (highlands) Chrysophanus virgaureae armeniaca A. Bang-Haas, 1906; Dt. ent. Z. Iris, 19 (3) : 128
Heodes virgaureae armeniaca ; [BRU2, 124]

Lycaena ottomanus (Lefèbvre, 1830)
gr, Asia Minor, Balkans. See [About maps] Grecian Copper
Polyommatus ottomanus Lefèbvre, 1830; Rev.?/Mag. Zool. 1830: pl. 19
Lycaena ottomana, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena ottomana, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes ottomanus ; [EBW, (name)]
Lycaena ottomana ; [Otakar Kudrna]

Lycaena tityrus (Poda, 1761)
SEU, CEU, S.Russia, Transcaucasus, Altai. See [About maps] Sooty Copper Dansk Guldvinge Bienenflater Manto oscuro Czerwończyk uroczek
Papilio tityrus Poda, 1761; Ins. Mus. Graecensis: 77, TL: Austria, Graz
acrion (Pontoppidan, 1763)
Papilio dorilis Hufnagel, 1766; Berlin. Mag. 2: 68
dorilas (Rottemburg, 1775)
Papilio circe [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 181
Papilio xanthe [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 181
Papilio phocas Rottemburg, 1775; Der Naturforscher 6 : 29
?hypoxanthe Kirby, 1862; Man. Eur. Butt.: 91, f. 11, TL: ?Ukraine
= Lycaena dorilis ; Kirby, 1882, Eur. Butts Moths : 54
Polyommatus dorilis orientalis Staudinger, 1881; Stettin ent. Ztg 42 (7-9): 281
Palaeoloweia opisthochros Verity, 1939; Lambillionea 39: 186, TL: Persia
argentifex Bálint, 1990
Lycaena tityrus, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena tityrus, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena tityrus, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena tityrus, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes tityrus ; [BARU, #350]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 9, f. 25, 27]; [BRU2: 124, pl. 60, f. 1-3]
Lycaena tityrus ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[tityrus-1fv.jpg] 443x400 (~30Kb) underside female The floodland on the Om' River right bank in the Omsk City suburbs, West Siberia, Russia. 14th August 1995, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [tityrus-2mu.jpg] 870x597 (~44Kb) upperside male Paetz, Berlin, Germany, 7-90, Photo © S. Shuichi Haupt

Larva on Rumex, Sarothamnus [R&H]


The "palaeochrysophanus" species-group

fiLycaena hippothoe (Linnaeus, 1761)
EU, Russia, Siberia, Amur. See [About maps] Ketokultasiipi Purple-edged Copper Violettkantad guldvinge Kosmosvinge Manto de Cobre Czerwończyk płomieniec
Papilio hippothoe Linnaeus, 1761; Fauna Suecica (Edn 2): 274, TL: Sweden
Heodes hippothoe, Lepidoptera collection [SZMN]
Lycaena hippothoe, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Lycaena hippothoe, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Lycaena hippothoe, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Lycaena hippothoe, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Lycaena hippothoe, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Lycaena hippothoe, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes hippothoe ; [BARU, #349]; [BRU2: 125, pl. 60, f. 5-12]
Palaeochrysophanus hippothoe ; [H&R, 249]; [EBW]; [BOW: pl. 10, f. 9, 10]; [MRS, 664]
Paleochrysophanus[sic] hippothoe ; [BMAT: 102, pl. 32, f. 11 (not in N.Africa)]
Lycaena hippothoe ; [Otakar Kudrna]
[hippothoe-1uf.jpg] 500x455 (~31Kb) upperside female Finland, Tampere, Rusko, 6819:335, 12.7.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [hippothoe-1um.jpg] 400x359 (~21Kb) upperside male Finland, Tampere, Rusko, 6819:335, 12.7.1996, Photo © Tero Piirainen [hippothoe-2mu.jpg] 550x588 (~35Kb) upperside male FINLAND: Kl: Parikkala, 683:64, 1.7.1997, Photo © Markku Savela
[hippothoe-2mv.jpg] 500x564 (~35Kb) underside male FINLAND: Kl: Parikkala, 683:64, 1.7.1997, Photo © Markku Savela [hippothoe-3fu.jpg] 600x742 (~40Kb) upperside female Finland, Sipoo 670:39, 26.6.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [hippothoe-3mu.jpg] 600x719 (~49Kb) upperside male Finland, Sipoo 670:40, 20.6.1980, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[hippothoe-3v.jpg] 1200x834 (~104Kb) underside Finland, Sipoo 670:39, 24.6.1981, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen [hippothoe-4m.jpg] 1119x540 (~90Kb) male Russia, Moscow area, 17.06.2007, Photo © D. Smirnov

Larva on Rumex, R. acetosella, R. acetosa [SPRK], Polygonum bistorta [BARU], Rumex hydrolapathum, R. confertus, (Moscow) [BRU2, 125]


EU, W.Siberia, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Tarbagatai Heodes hippothoe hippothoe
Papilio chryseis [Schiffermüller], 1775; Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 181
Papilio euridice Rottemburg, 1775; Der Naturforscher 6 : 28, n. 17
alciphronides (Krulikovsky, 1897)
Chrysophanus hippothoe ab. spadona Krulikovsky, 1909; Rev. russ. ent. 9 (3) : 300
Heodes hippothoe hippothoe ; [BRU2, 125]
L. h. stiberi (Gerhard, 1853)
N.Scandinavia, N.Urals Polyommatus stiberi Gerhard, 1853; Mon. Lyc. : pl. 35, f. 1a-b, TL: Lappland
Palaeochrysophanus hippothoe stiberi ; [H&R, 249]
Heodes hippothoe stiberi ; [BRU2, 125]; [BARU, (note)]
L. h. eurydame (Hoffmannsegg, 1806)
Alps? Papilio eurydame Hoffmannsegg, 1806; Mag. f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 5: 178, TL: Mountains near Geneva
Lycaena hippothoe eurydame, Europaische Schmetterlinge [Mario Maier]
Palaeochrysophanus hippothoe eurydame ; [H&R, 249]
L. h. eurybia (Ochsenheimer, 1808)
Altai, Sayan, Far East Papilio eurybia Ochsenheimer, 1808; Schmett. Europa 1 (2) : 81
sajana (Kozhantshikov, 1923)
Heodes hippothoe sajana ; [BARU, (note)]
Heodes hippothoe eurybia ; [BRU2, 125]

[sajana-1mfv.jpg] 501x395 (~37Kb) underside male female An alpine meadow in the valley of the headwater of the Chikty Rivulet, 2500 m above sea level, the southern principle slope of the Yuzhno-Chuiskii mountain range, the upper Dzhazator River basin, Kosh-Agach District, Altai Republic, West Siberia, Russia. 22nd July 1998 (on Pedicularis anthemifolia Fisch. ex Colla), Photo © Oleg Kosterin [sajana-1mv.jpg] 439x400 (~38Kb) underside male A meadow in a depression on the Adon-Chelon elevation, at the mountain Tsagan-Obo, 10 km NNW of the village Tasyrkhoi, S Chita Province (Dahuria), Transbaikalia, Siberia, Russia. 9th July 1996, Photo © Oleg Kosterin

L. h. amurensis (Staudinger, 1892)
Transbaikalia, Amur, Ussuri Polyommatus hippothoe var. amurensis Staudinger, 1892; in Romanoff, Mém. Lépid. 6 : 155
Heodes hippothoe amurensis ; [BARU, (note)]; [BRU2, 125]
Palaeochrysophanus hippothoe amurensis ; [MRS, 664]

Larva on Leguminosae [MRS]


Lycaena candens (Herrich-Schäffer, [1844])
SEEU. See [About maps] Polyommatus candens Herrich-Schäffer, [1844]; Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (7): (ii) f. 229-231, TL: Kleinasien [Turkey]
Lycaena candens, Captain's European Butterfly Guide [Simon Coombes]
Heodes candens ; [BRU2: 125, pl. 60, f. 13-15]
Lycaena candens ; [Otakar Kudrna]
L. c. leonhardi (Fruhstorfer, 1917)
Chrysophanus hippothoe leonhardi Fruhstorfer, 1917; Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 16, TL: Bulgaria, "Rilo..., Herzegowina Vucijabara"
Palaeochrysophanus hippothoe leonhardi ; [H&R, 250]
leonhardi ; Abadjiev, 2002, Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 20
L. c. pfeifferi (Beuret, 1952)
Caucasus, Transcaucasia Palaeochrysophanus candens pfeifferi Beuret, 1952; Mitt. ent. Ges. Basel (n.f.) 2: 59, TL: Caucasus
Heodes candens pfeifferi ; [BRU2, 125]

Larva on Rumex spp. [BRU2, 125]


Subgenus Antipodolycaena Smart, 1975
Antipodolycaena Smart, 1975; The international bufferfly book: 274, TS: Lycaena boldenarum White

Lycaena boldenarum White, 1862
New Zealand Lycaena boldenarum White, 1862; Proc. Ent. Soc. London 1861 : 26
Lycaena boldernarum ; [EBW, (missp.?)]; [BAUR, 363 (missp.?)]

Larva on Muehlenbeckia axillaris Gibbs, 1980, New Zealand Butterflies:


Cobb Valley population
[boldenarum_COBB-1fu.jpg] 324x474 (~74Kb) upperside female Cobb Valley, Nelson Lakes, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [boldenarum_COBB-1mu.jpg] 324x487 (~60Kb) upperside male Cobb Valley, Nelson Lakes, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards


'TIWAI'
[boldenarum_TIWAIX-1fu.jpg] 462x324 (~64Kb) upperside female Awarua Bay, nr Invercargill, Southland. South Island, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [boldenarum_TIWAIX-1fv.jpg] 483x324 (~51Kb) underside female Awarua Bay, nr Invercargill, Southland. South Island, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [boldenarum_TIWAIX-1mu.jpg] 478x324 (~63Kb) upperside male Awarua Bay, nr Invercargill, Southland. South Island, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards
[boldenarum_TIWAIX-1mv.jpg] 457x324 (~45Kb) underside male Awarua Bay, nr Invercargill, Southland. South Island, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards


'DESERT ROAD'
[boldenarum_DESERT-1mv.jpg] 484x324 (~45Kb) underside male Mt Ruapehu, North Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

L. b. caerulea (Salmon, 1946)
Chrysophanus boldenarum caerulea Salmon, 1946; Dominion Museum (New Zealand) Rec. Ent.: 10
[caerulea-1mu.jpg] 487x324 (~66Kb) upperside male Upper Hollyford Valley, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [caerulea-1mv.jpg] 460x324 (~63Kb) underside male Upper Hollyford Valley, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

L. b. ianthina (Salmon, 1946)
Chrysophanus boldenarum ianthina Salmon, 1946; Dominion Museum (New Zealand) Rec. Ent.: 11
[ianthina-1fu.jpg] 489x324 (~81Kb) upperside female Milford Sound, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [ianthina-1fv.jpg] 482x324 (~68Kb) underside female Milford Sound, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [ianthina-1mu.jpg] 458x324 (~77Kb) upperside male Milford Sound, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Jan 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards
[ianthina-1mv.jpg] 498x324 (~57Kb) underside male Milford Sound, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards


Lycaena rauparaha (Fereday, 1877)
New Zealand Chrysophanus rauparaha Fereday, 1877; Trans. N.Z. Inst. 9 : 462
[rauparaha-1fu.jpg] 451x300 (~90Kb) upperside female New Zealand, Malborough Sounds region, South Island, 20 Nov 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [rauparaha-1mu.jpg] 480x329 (~22Kb) upperside male New Zealand, Malborough Sounds region, South Island, 16 Nov 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Muehlenbeckia complexa [Gibbs]



Lycaena salustius (Fabricius, 1793)
New Zealand Hesperia salustius Fabricius, 1793; Ent. Syst. 3: 310
Lycaena edna Doubleday, 1843; in Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, ... 2: 283
Lycaena salustius ; [BOW: pl. 178, f. 18]; [EBW]; [BAUR, 363]
[salustius-1fu.jpg] 375x564 (~64Kb) upperside female New Zealand, Malborough Sounds region, South Island, 13 Nov 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [salustius-1mu.jpg] 564x375 (~56Kb) upperside male New Zealand, Malborough Sounds region, South Island, 13 Nov 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [salustius-1mv.jpg] 564x375 (~49Kb) underside male New Zealand, Malborough Sounds region, South Island, 13 Nov 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards
[salustius-3m.jpg] 462x324 (~52Kb) male Homer Tunnel, Fiordland, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [salustius-4fv.jpg] 487x324 (~36Kb) underside female Catlins, South Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [salustius-4mv.jpg] 324x466 (~25Kb) underside male Dunedin, South Island, NZ, Feb 2007, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards
[salustius-5fu.jpg] 487x324 (~41Kb) upperside female Banks Penninsular, South Island, NZ, Dec 2005, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Muehlenbeckia complexa, M. australis, M. axillaris Gibbs, 1980, New Zealand Butterflies:


L. s. maui (Fereday, 1877)
Chrysophanus maui Fereday, 1877; Trans. N.Z. Inst. 9 : 462, TL: Wellington
[maui-1mu.jpg] 476x324 (~72Kb) upperside male Upland Wellington, North Island, NZ, Feb 2006, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards


Lycaena feredayi (Bates, 1867)
New Zealand Chrysophanus feredayi Bates, 1867; Ent. mon. Mag. 4 : 53
Chrysophanus enysii Butler, 1876; Ent. mon. Mag. 13 : 153
Lycaena feredayi ; [BOW: pl. 178, f. 15]; [EBW]; [BAUR, 363]
[feredayi-1u.jpg] 324x483 (~40Kb) upperside Dunedin, South Island, NZ, Feb 2007, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards [feredayi-1v.jpg] 479x324 (~34Kb) underside Dunedin, South Island, NZ, Feb 2007, Photo © Christopher A. Rickards

Larva on Muehlenbeckia australis Gibbs, 1980, New Zealand Butterflies:



Unknown or unplaced taxa

Chrysophanus baralacha Moore, 1884; J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 53 Pt.II (1) : 25, TL: Baralacha Pass (16060ft), Ladak
Lycaena baralacha ; [NHM]

Lycaena nigrescens Dubois, 1867; Arch. Cosm.: 259, pl. 12, f. 1-2, TL: Luchon

Lycaena aricia Grum-Grshimailo, 1902; Ann. Mus. Zool. Imp. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb. 7 : 195, TL: W.China
?Cupido aricia ;

Chrysophanus virgaureae pelusiota Fruhstorfer, 1910; Ent. Zs. 24 (26) : 144, TL: Cogne

Lycaena melania Capronnier, 1889; Bull. Ent. Soc. Belg. 33 : cxx, TL: Lopori


9.2.2013 (69)

References:
[A. Timchenko]
Andrew Timchenko; Beijing, China (ex-Moscow, Russia)
[ALBERTA]
University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum; Browse Entomology Collection
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[AfrL]
Mark C. Williams; Checklist of Afrotropical Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea; Compiled by Mark C. Williams, 7th ed. (2008) (April 2007); Afrototropical Butterflies; e-mail: Mark C. Williams
[BAFR]
D'Abrera, 1980; Butterflies of the Afrotropical Region
[BAMONA]
Opler, Pavulaan, Stanford & Pogue; Butterflies and Moths of North America; Mountain Prairie Information Node
[BARU]
Korshunov & Gorbunov; Butterflies of the Asian part of Russia; English translation by Oleg Kosterin; [Dnevnye babochki aziatskoi chasti Rossii. Spravochnik]
[BAUR]
D'Abrera, 1977; Butterflies of the Australian Region (2nd edn)
[BCA]
electronic; BIOLOGIA CENTRALI-AMERICANA
[BHL]
The; Biodiversity Heritage Library; and on; Internet Archive; Note: The linking to the content of Internet Archive is somewhat delicate -- notify me when links break!
[BIR]
Wynter-Blyth, 1957; Butterflies of the Indian Region; (1982 Reprint)
[BK]
Larsen, 1996; The Butterflies of Kenya and their natural history
[BMAT]
Tennent, 1996; The butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia; ISBN 0 906802 05 9
[BOA]
Interactive Listing of American Butterflies; Listado Interactivo de la Mariposas Americanas; Butterflies of America
[BOW]
Lewis, 1974; Butterflies of the World; ISBN 0 245 52097 X
[BRU2]
Tuzov (ed.), Bogdanov, Churkin, Devyatkin, Dantchenko, Murzin, Samodurov, Zhdanko, 2000; Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories; Libytheidae, Danaidae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae; Volume 2
[Christopher A. Rickards]
Ann Arbor, Mi 48105, USA.; e-mail: Christopher A. Rickards
[CiNii]
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[EBW]
Smart, Paul, 1976; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World; ISBN 0 600 31381 6
[ESP]
Heppner, 1981; The dates of E. J. C. Esper's Die Schmetterlinge in Abblidungen... 1776-[1830]; Archives of Natural History (1981) 10 (2): 251-254
[Erich Mangl]
http://www.mangl.at
[FLNHM]
Florida Museum of Natural History ; Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
[GALEPS]
Moths and Butterflies of Georgia and the Southeastern United States; James K. Adams; Dept. of Natural Science, Dalton State College, Dalton, GA ; http://www.daltonstate.edu/galeps/index.htm
[H&R]
Higgins, L.G, Riley, N.D, 1970; A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Harri Arkkio]
Finland; For the time being these pictures are only for this site. Other usage not allowed.
[ILMB]
Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies
[Jean Delacre]
http://homepage.mac.com/jdelacre
[Jonathan P. Tyler]
Botanical Illustrator; http://www.jonathantyler.co.uk
[Karl Hofsäß]
Karl Hofsaess; e-mail: Karl Hofsäß
[Kimmo Silvonen]
Espoo, Finland; Kimmo's Lep Site
[LAMAS-2005]
Gerardo Lamas; Entomofauna 26 (6): 57-100; A Bibliography of the Zoological Publications of Hans Fruhstorfer (1886* - 1922+)
[LAMAS-NEO]
Gerardo Lamas; Bibliography of butterflies; An Annocated Bibliography of the Neotropical Butterflies and Skipper (Lepididoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea); Revised Electronic Edition (2007)
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MRS]
Chou Io (Ed.); Monographia Rhopalocerum Sinensium, 1-2
[Mario Maier]
Europäische Schmetterlinge; e-mail: Mario Maier
[Michael Borsch]
Geesthacht, Germany; contact through; e-mail: Francisco Welter-Schultes
[Michal Koupý]
Czech Republic
[Michel Tarrier]
Michel R. Tarrier; Malaga, Spain; http://www.tarrier.org
[NAB]
Pyle, 1981; Field Guide to North American Butterflies, National Audubon Society; ISBN 0-394-51914-0
[NACL]
Hodges, 1983; Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[NL4A]
Gerardo Lamas, 2004; Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera; Checklist: Part 4A; Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea
[NORLEP]
Norges Sommerfugler
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Opler]
Opler & Warren, 2003 (April); Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico.
[PBSA]
Dickson, C.G.C (ed.), Kroon, D.M.; Pennington's Butterflies of Southern Africa; AD. DONKER 1978
[Pertti Pakkanen]
e-mail: Pertti Pakkanen; Butterfly and moth observations from Finland
[Peter Groenendijk]
http://www.home.zonnet.nl/groenendijk1963
[S. Shuichi Haupt]
e-mail: S. Shuichi Haupt; http://www.tu-berlin.de/fb7/ioeb/biologie/stefan.htm
[SPRK]
Seppänen, E. J, 1970; Suomen suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit, Animalia Fennica 14
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)
[SZMN]
Lepidoptera; Siberian Zoological Museum
[Simon Coombes]
1 Park Street, Plymouth, PL3 4BL, UK; 01752 607854; e-mail: Simon Coombes; http://www.butterfly-guide.co.uk
[Tero Piirainen]
Tampere, Finland; e-mail: Tero Piirainen
[Wahlberg]
Niklas Wahlberg; The NSG's voucher specimen database; Nymphalidae Systematics Group
[²]
This may require parentheses or not. I don't have the necessary information for this taxon.


Some related literature:
Abadjiev, 2002
Types of Balkan butterflies in the collection of The Natural History Museum, London Neue Ent. Nachr. 23: 3-53
Ballmer & Pratt, 1989
Instar number and larval developement in Lycaena phlaeas hypophlaeas (Boisduval) J. Lep. Soc. 43 (1): 59-65
A. Bang-Haas, 1906
Neue oder wenig bekannte palaearctische Macrolepidopteren Dt. ent. Z. Iris, 19 (3) : 127-144
Bates, 1867
New species of insects from the province of Canterbury, New Zealand, collected by R. W. Fereday, Esq. Ent. mon. Mag. 4 : 52-56, 78-80
Behr, 1866
Description of a new species of Chrysophanus Proc. ent. Soc. Philad. 6 : 208
Bethune-Baker, 1914
Synonymic Notes on the Ruralidae Ent. Rec. J. Var. 26 (5): 133-136, (6): 159-164
Bienert, [1870]
Lepidopterologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Persien in den Jahren 1858 und 1859. Inauguraldissertation Lepid. Erg. Reise Persiens: 56pp
Blachier, 1905
Descriptions de Lépidoptères nouveaux de Maroc Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1905 : 212-215
Blachier, 1908
Lépidoptères du Maroc - Remarque sur diverses espèces et descriptions de variétés nouvelles Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 77 (2) : 209-222
Boisduval, 1852
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (2) 10 : 275-324
Boisduval, 1869
Lépidoptères de la Californie Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 12 : 5-28,37-94
Boisduval & Le Conte, [1835]
Histoire générale et iconographie des lépidoptères et des chenilles de l'Amérique septentrionale Hist. Lép. Am. Sept. (1): 1-16. pl. 1-3 (1829), (2): 17-24, pl. 4-6 (1829), (3/4): 25-40, pl. 7-12 ([1830]), (5/6): 41-56, pl. 13-18 ([1830]), (7/8): 57-80, pl. 19-24 ([1830]), (9/10): 81-100, pl. 25-30 (1833), (11-22): 101-196, pl. 31-65 ([1835]), (23-26): 197-228, pl. 66-78 ([1837])
Bryk, 1942
Zur Kenntnis der Großschmetterlinge der Kurilen Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 56 : 1-90, pl. 1-2
Bryk, 1946
Zur Kenntnis der Grossschmetterlinge von Korea. I Ark. Zool. 38 A (3) : 1-74, pl. 1-5
Butler, 1876
List of the butterflies now known to inhabit New Zealand, with descriptions of a new genus, and a new species, in the collection of John D. Enys, Esq. Ent. mon. Mag. 13 : 152-154
Capronnier, 1889
Liste des Lépidoptères capturés au Congo par Messieurs Thys, Legat, Martini et Machado en 1887 Bull. Ent. Soc. Belg. 33 : cxviii-cxxvii [118-127]
Churkin, 1999
New taxa of butterflies from Transbaikalia, Russia Atalanta 29 (1/4): 107-204
Courvoisier, 1911
Entdeckungsreisen und kritische Spaziergänge ins Gebiet der Lycaeniden Ent. Zs. 24 (12): 59-60, (13): 65-67, (14): 70-71, (15): 77-78, (16): 81-82, (17): 88-89, (18): 92-94, (19): 99-101, (20): 106-108, (21): 112, (23): 125-127, (24): 131-132, (26): 141-142, (27): 147-149, (28): 156, (31): 167-170, (32): 175-177, (33): 181-182, (34): 185-188, (35): 190-192, (36): 196-200, (37): 201-204, (38): 205-209, (39): 210-214, (40): 227-228, (41): 230-231, (42): 233-236, (43): 237-238, (44): 241-242, (45): 245-247, (46): 249-250, (47): 253-255, (48): 257-259, (49): 261-263, (50): 265-266, (51/52): 269-270
Courvoisier, 1911
Einige neue oder wenig bekannte Lycaeniden-Formen Dt. ent. Z. Iris 25 (9) : 103-109, pl. 2
Cramer, [1775]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 1 (1-7): 1-132, pl. 1-84 (1775), (8): 133-155, pl. 85-96 (1776)
Cramer, [1777]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) Uitl. Kapellen 2 (9-16): 1-152, pl. 97-192 (1777)
Dalman, 1816
Försök till systematiks Uppställing af Sveriges Fjärilar K. VetenskAcad. Handl. 1816 (1): 48-101, (2): 199-225
de Nicéville, 1902
On new and little-known Butteflies, mostly from the Oriental Region. I-II J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 14 (2): 236-251, pl. FF, (3): 450-457
dos Passos, 1938
Some new subspecies of North American Lycaenidae Can. Ent. 70 (3): 45-48, pl. 2
dos Passos, 1964
A synonymic list of the Nearctic Rhopalocera Lepid. Soc. Mem. 1: 145pp
Doubleday, 1847
List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous insects in The Collection of the British Museum List Spec. lep. Ins. B. M. 2 : 1-57
Westwood, 1852
The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habitats and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus; illustrated with 86 plates by W. C. Hewitson Gen. diurn. Lep. (1): 1-18, pl. A, 1-4 (1-2) (1846), (1): 19-132, pl. 4*, 5-25, 28 (3-14) (1847), (1): 133-200, pl. 1*, 26, 27, 29, 31-44 (15-23) (1848), (1): 201-242, pl. 30, 45-52, 56-58, 60-62, 64 (24-31) (1849), (1): 243-250 [?], (2): 243-326, pl. 53-55, 63, 65, 66 (32-38) (1850), (2): 327-466, pl. 59, 67-77 (39-50) (1851), (2): 467-534, 143, 144, pl. 78-80 (Index) (51-54) (1852)
Dyar, 1903
A List of North American Lepidoptera and Key to the Literature of this Order of Insects Bull. U.S. nat. Mus. 52 : 1-723
Eliot, 1973
The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative Arrangement Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 28 (6) : 373-505, 162fgs, pl. 1-6
Edwards, 1870
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (1) : 10-22
Edwards, 1871
Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 (3/4) : 205-216
Edwards, 1871
Descriptions of new species of North American butterflies Trans. amer. ent. Soc. 3 : 266-277
Edwards, 1881
Description of a new species of Chrysophanus Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 7: 69-70
Edwards, 1883
Descriptions of new species of North American butterflies Can. Ent. 15 (11) : 209-211
H. Edwards, 1877
Pacific Coast Lepidoptera. No. 26. - Description of two new forms of Diurnals Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc.: 1 (Dec. 17)
Esaki & Nakahara, 1930
Some new aberrant forms of Japanese and Formosan butterflies Zephyrus 2 (3) : 148-150
Esper, 1781; Esper, 1784
Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Theil I. Die Tagschmetterlinge. Fortsetzung. Band 2 Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 2 (1): 1-36, pl. 51-56 (1780), (2): 37-68, pl. 57-62 (1781), (3): 69-100, pl. 63-68 (1781), (4): 101-124, pl. 69-74 (1781), (5): 125-140, pl. 75-80 (1782), (7): 141-156, pl. 81-82 (1783), (8): 157-172, pl. 83-88 (1783), (9): 173-184, pl. 89-92 (1784), (28): 185-190, pl. 93 (1786)
Erschoff, 1874
Travels in Turkestan. Volume 2. Zoogeographical Investigations. Lepidoptera [in Russian] in Fedschenko, Travels in Turkestan. 2 (5) : 1-128, pl. 1-6
Fabricius, 1807
Systema Glossatorum. Die neueste Gattungs-Eintheilung der Schmetterlinge aus den Linnéischen Gattungen Papilio und Sphinx Magazin f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 6: 277-295
Felder, 1862
Verzeichniss der von den Naturforschern der k. k. Fregatte Novara gesammelten Macropepidoteren Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12 (1/2) : 473-496
Fereday, 1877
Brief observations on the genus Chrysophanus, as represented in New Zealand Trans. N.Z. Inst. 9 : 460-463
Ferris, 1974
Distribution of arctic-alpine Lycaena phlaeas L. (Lycaenidae) in North America with designation of a new subspecies Bull. Allyn Mus. 18 : 1-13
Ferris, 1977
Taxonomic revision of the species dorcas Kirby and helloides Boisduval in the genus Epidemia Scudder (Lycaenidae: Lycaeninae) Bull. Allyn Mus. 45: 1-42
Field, 1936
Three New Butterfly Races (Lepid.: Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae) Ent. News 47 (5) : 121-124
Freyer, 1845
Neuere Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur. (65-80) Neuere Beitr. Schmett. 5 : 1-40 (1842), : 41-92 (1844), : 93-164 (1845)
Freyer, [1850]
Neuere Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde mit Abbildungen nach der Natur. (81-100) Neuere Beitr. Schmett. 6 : 1-20 (1846), : 21-82 (1848), : 83-104 (1849), : 105-146 (1850), : 147-198 (1851), : (1852)
Fruhstorfer, 1909
Neue Palaearkten Int. ent. Zs. 3 (20): 112-113 (14 August), (21): 120-121 (21 August)
Fruhstorfer, 1910
Neue palaearktische Rhopaloceren Ent. Zs. 24 (26) : 144 (1 October)
Fruhstorfer, 1917
Neue Lycaeniden Ent. Rundschau 34 (4) : 16-18 (13 April)
Gabriel, 1954
Lepidoptera Rhopalocera. British Museum (Natural History) expedition to south-west Arabia 1937-8 Exped. S.W. Arabia 1937-38, 1 : 351-391
Godman & Salvin, [1887]
Biologia Centrali-Americana. Rhopalocera. (1887-1901) Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2: 1-782, 3: pl. 1-112
Graeser, 1888
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lepidopteren-Fauna des Amurlandes Berl. Ent. Zs. 32 (1): 33-153 (1888), (2): 309-414 (1889)
Graves in Graves & Hemming, 1928
The geographical variation of Lycaena virgaureae Linn. Entomologist 61: (777) 25-31, 2pls, (778) 56-62, (779) 86-90, (780) 104-109, (781): 128-135
Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
Novae species et varietates Rhopalocerum e Pamir Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 22 (3-4) : 303-307
Grum-Grshimailo, 1890
Le Pamir et sa faune lépidoptérologique in Romanoff, Mém. Lép. 4 : 1-576, pl. A,1-21
Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Lepidoptera nova in Asia centrali novissime lecta et descripta Horae Soc. ent. Ross. 25 (3-4) : 445-465
Grum-Grshimailo, 1899
Lepidoptera nova vei[sic] rarum cognita regionis palaearcticae. I Ann. Mus. Zool. Imp. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb. 4 (4) : 455-472
Grum-Grshimailo, 1902
Lepidoptera nova vel rarum cognita regionis palaearcticae. II Ann. Mus. Zool. Imp. Acad. Sci. St.-Petersb. 7 : 191-205
Guérin-Méneville, [1832]
Iconographie du Règne Animal de G. Cuvier. Insectes. Icon. Règne anim. Cuvier 3 (Insectes) : pl. 3-12 (1829), : pl. 13-14,21-24 (1830), : pl. 25-30,42-46,52-55,60,62,76,24-25,25bis,28bis (1831), : pl. 77-92,99,84bis (1832), : pl. 31,36-39,47-49,59,101,39bis (1833), : pl. 32-35,50,61,64-66,49bis (1834), : pl. 15-20,40,51,56-58,67-75,93-98 (1835), : pl. 100,102-104 (1836), : pl. 1-2,41,63 (1837), : 1-576 (1844)
Gunder, 1925
Several New Aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera) Ent. News 36 (7) : 193-200, pl. 5
Gunder, 1926
Several new aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera) Ent. News 37 (1) : 1-9, pl. 1
Gunder, 1927
New transition forms of "abs" and their classification Ent. News. 38 (5) : 129-138, pl. 2
Hall, 1924
Notes on Polygonia j-album, Cercyonis alope, Phyciodes tharos, Heodes epixanthe and Euphydryas gillettii J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 32: 109-111, 1pl
Harris, 1862
A treatise on some of the insects injurious to vegetation Treatise Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd edn): 1-640, 8pls
Herrich-Schäffer, [1844]; Herrich-Schäffer, [1846]; Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]
Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa, zugleich als Text, Revision und Supplement zu J. Hübner's Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge, 1843 (-1855), Die Tagfalter Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 1 (9): Title ("1843"), (1): [1-3], 4-16, (ii) pl. 1-5, f. 1-29 (1843), (2): 17-40, (ii) pl. 29-34, f. 131-156 (1843), (3): 41-56, (ii) pl. 6-12, f. 30-60, pl. 35-36, f. 157-164 (1844), (4): 57-80, (ii) pl. 13-22, f. 61-107 (1844), (5): 81-90, (ii) pl. 23-28, f. 108-130, pl. 37-41, f. 165-189 (1844), (6): 91-98, (ii) pl. 42-44, f. 190-203 (1844), (7): 99-114, (ii) pl. 45-52, f. 204-248 (1844), (9): 115-122 (1844), (10): 123-146, (ii) pl. 53-57, f. 249-274 (1845), (11): 147-162 (1845), (12): (iii) pl. 1-3, f. 1-17 (1845), (13): 163-164, (ii) pl. 58-65, f. 275-315 (1846), (14): (ii) pl. 66-70, f. 316-338, (iii) pl. 4-5, f. 18-30 (1846), (26): (ii) pl. 71-77, f. 339-376 (1847), (32): (ii) pl. 78-82, f. 377-400 (1848), (36): (ii) pl. 83-89, f. 401-426, (iii) pl. 6, f. 31-36 (1848), (37): (ii) pl. 90-91, f. 427-437 (1849), (43): (ii) pl. 92-94, f. 438-450, 452-453 (1850), (45): (ii) pl. 95-102, f. 453-489 (1850), (47): (ii) pl. 103, f. 490-495 (1851), (49): (ii) pl. 104-109, f. 496-528 (1851), (51): (ii) pl. 110-118, f. 529-570 (1851), (54): (ii) pl. 119-123, f. 571-596 (1852), (56): (ii) pl. 124-127, f. 597-618, pl. 130-132, f. 628-639, pl. 134, f. 646-651 (1852), (59): (ii) pl. 128-129, f. 619-627, pl. 133, f. 640-645 (1853), (65): (iii) pl. 7, f. 37-42, (index) [1], 2-20 (1854), (66): (index) 21-24 (1855)
Herrich-Schäffer, [1852]
Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa, zugleich als Text, Revision und Supplement zu J. Hübner's Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge, Sechter un letzter Band, 1843-1856 Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europ. 6 (1): (i) pl. I (1843), (3): (i) I-II, pl. II-IV (1844), (6): (i) pl. V (1844), (7): (i) pl. VI (1844), (8): (i) III-X, pl. VII-VIII (1844), (9): (i) pl. IX-XI (1844), (11): (i) pl. XII (1845), (13): (i) XI-XIV, pl. XIII-XIV (1846), (17): (i) pl. XVI (1846), (22): (ii) pl. I-III (1847), (35): (i) pl. XV (1848), (36): (i) pl. XVII-XIX (1848), (37): (i) pl. XX (1849), (?38): (i) XV-XVIII (1849), (38): (i) pl. XXI-XXII (1849), (40): (ii) I-II-IV, pl. IV-IX (1849), (48): [1], 2-24 (1851), (55): 25-80, (iv) [1], 2-36 (1852), (60): (ii) V-VIII, pl. X-XIV (iv) 37-40 (1853), (65): (iv) 41-60 (1854), (66): (iv) 61-72 (1855), (68): 81-152 (1855), (69): 153-178, (Index univ.) [1], 2-48 (1856), (69): (Schlusswort) i-iv (1856)
Holland, 1892
Descriptions of some new species of African Lepidoptera Entomologist 25 (Suppl.) : 89-95
Holland, 1896
List of the Lepidoptera Collected in Eastern Africa by Dr. W. L. Abbot, with descriptions of some apparently new Species Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 18 (1062) : 229-258, pl. 7-8
Howarth & Povolny, 1976
Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fauna Afghanistans Èas. morav. Mus. Brn. 61: 139-170, pl. 3-4
Huang, 2001
Report of H. Huang's 2000 Expedition to SE. Tibet for Rhopalocera Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 51: 65-152
Huang & Murayama, 1992
Butterflies of Xinjiang province, China Tyô to Ga 43 (1) : 1-22
Huene, 1883
Polyommatus var. Estonica Ent. Nachr. 9 (4) : 49-51
Jachontov, 1908
[? Notice sur les Lèpidoptères Rhopalocères du Caucase] Revue Russe Ent. 8 : 282-292
Johnson & Balogh, 1977
Studies in the Lycaeninae 2. Taxonomy and evolution of the Nearctic Lycaena rubidus complex, with decription of a new species Bull. Allyn Mus. 43: 1-62
Kirby, 1837
Fauna Boreali-Americana or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America in Richardson, Fauna Boreal Amer.: 325pp, 8pls
Kirby, 1882
European Butterflies and Moths Eur. Butts Moths : 1-427
Krulikovsky, 1909
[russian] Rev. russ. ent. 9 (3) : 292-323
Lederer, 1869
Verzeichniss der von Herrn Jos. Haberhauer bei Astrabad in Persion gesammelten Schmetterlinge Horae Soc. ent. ross. 6 (2) : 73-93, pl. 4-5
Leech, 1887
On the Lepidoptera of Japan and Corea, Pt I. Rhopalocera Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1887 : 398-431, pl. 35-36
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Lucas, 1866
Quelques remaques sur une variete du Chrysophanus phlaeas, Lepidoptere Acalinoptere de la tribu des Eryciniens et de la famille des Lycenides Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (4) 5 : 499-500
MacLean, 1990
Lycaena hyllus (Cramer): new host and mating behaviour in a drought-induced population explosion J. Lep. Soc. 44 (1): 33-34
Matsumura, 1928
New Butterflies especially from the Kuriles Insecta Matsumurana 2 (4) : 191-201
Maynard, 1891
A Manual for North American Butterflies Man. N. Amer. Butt., app.: -
McDunnough, 1940
A new race of Lycaena dorcas from northeastern New Brunswick Can. ent. 72 (7) : 130-131
McLachlan, 1878
Report on Insecta (including Arachnida) collected by Captain Feilden and Mr. Hart between Parallels of 78° and 83° North Latitude, during the recent Arctic Expedition J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 14 : 98-122
Mead, 1878
Description of two new Californian butterflies Can. Ent. 10 (10) : 196-199
Miller & Brown, 1979
Studies in the Lycaeninae (Lycaenidae). 4. The higher classification of the American coppers Bull. Allyn Mus. 51 : 1-30
Moore, 1865
List of diurnal Lepidoptera collected by Capt. A.M. Lang in the N. W. Himalayas Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1865 (2) : 486-509, pl. 30-31
Moore, 1874
List of Diurnal Lepidoptera collected in Cashmere Territory by Capt. R. B. Reed, 12th Regt., with Descriptions of new Species Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (1) : 264-274, pl. 43
Moore, [1875]
Descriptions of new Asiatic Lepidoptera Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1874 (4) : 565-579, pl. 66-67
Moore, 1884
Descriptions of some new Asiatic diurnal Lepidoptera; chiefly from specimens contained in the Indian Museum, Calcutta J. asiat. Soc. Bengal 53 Pt.II (1) : 16-52
Nekrutenko, 1977
[An undescribed taxon of the Polyommatus eros-eroides group from the Caucasus Major] Rep. Acad. Sci. SSR Ukraine (B) 2: 180-181 (Ukrainian)
Nekrutenko, 1983
A Revision of the Genus Hyrcanana. (in Russian) Vestnik zool. 1983 (3): 7-16
Neuburger, 1903
Chrysophanus ochmus H.-S. var. hyrcana ♂ Neubgr. Soc. Ent. 18 (8) : 59
Oberthür, 1886
[Lépidoptères de la Chine et du Thibet] Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. (6) 6 : xii-xiii,[12-13], : xxii,[22-23]
Oberthür, 1891
Nouveaux Lépidoptères d'Asie Étud. d'Ent. 15 : 7-25, pl. 1-3
Oberthür, 1910
Notes pour servir à établir la Faune Française et Algérienne des Lépidoptères Ètud. Lépid. Comp. 4 : 15-691, pl. 35-58
Ochsenheimer, 1808
Die Schmetterlinge von Europa. Erster Theil, Zweyte Abtheilung. Falter, oder Tagschmetterlinge Schmett. Europa 1 (2) : 1-240
Pelham, 2008
A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada J. Res. Lepid. 40: 1-652
Poda, 1761
Insecta Musei Graecensis, quae in ordines, genera et species juxta Systema Naturae Caroli Linnaei digessit Ins. Mus. Graecensis: 8+127, 2pls
Poulton, 1922
A form of Heodes phlaeas L., in S.W. Uganda Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. 1921 : lxxxi-lxxxvi (1922)
Pratt & Ballmer, 1986
Clarification of the larval host plant of Epidemia mariposa in northern California J. Lep. Soc. 40 (2): 127
Rawson, 1948
A new subspecies of Lycaena epixanthe Boisduval & Leconte with comments on the Identity of typical epixanthe (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) J. N.Y. ent. Soc. 56 (1) : 55-62
Reakirt, 1866
Coloradian butteflies Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. 6 (1) : 122-151
Reiff, 1913
Some new forms of Lepidoptera from Massachusetts Ent. News 24 (7) : 305-310, pl. 10
Riley, 1921
Some undescribed Rhopalocera from Mesopotamia and N. W. Persia; and other Notes Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9) 8 (47) : 590-600
Rottemburg, 1775
Unmertungen zu den Hufnagelifchen Tabellen der Schmetterlinge Der Naturforscher 6 : 1-34
Rudkin, 1933
A New Lycaenid Transition Form (Lepid.) Ent. News 44 (4) : 97-98
Sakai, 1978
Butterflies from the Hindukush, Karakorum, Kashmir and Ladak, with Descriptions of two new Species and six Subspecies Atalanta 9 (1): 104-131, 69figs
Scott, 1981
New Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea from North America Papilio (n.s.) 1: 1-12
Scott, 2006
Taxonomic studies and new taxa of North American butterflies Papilio (n.s.) 12: 1-74
Scudder, 1868
[no title] Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11 : 401-403
Scudder, 1872
A systematic Revision of some of the American Butterflies; with brief notes on those known to occur in Essex County, Mass. 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 24-83
Scudder, 1876
Synonymic list of the butterflies of North America, north of Mexico. (2) Rurales Bull. Buffalo Soc. nat. Sci. 3 : 98-129
Scudder, 1889
The Butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada, with special reference to New England Butts eastern U.S. Canada 1: 1-766, 2: 767-1774, 3: 1775-1958, pl. 1-89
Shchetkin, 1963
[To the fauna of higher hlepidopterans of low-montane southern Tajikistan] Trudy Inst. Zool. Parasit., Stalinabad 24: 21-73
Snellen, 1899
Beschrijving van Lycaena Bathinia Snell. nov. spec. Tijdschr. Ent. 42 : 212-214
Sodoffsky, 1837
Entomologische untersuchungen ueber die Gattungsnamen der Schmetterlinge Bull. Soc. imp. Nat. Moscou 1837 (6) : 76-97
South, 1913
A list of butterflies collected by Captain F.M. Bailey in western China, south-eastern Tibet, and the Mishimi hills, 1911 J. Bomb. nat. Hist. Soc. 22 (2): 345-365, (3): 598-615
Staudinger, 1878
Lepidopteren-Fauna Kleinasiens Horae Soc. Ent. Ross. 14 : 176-482
Staudinger, 1881
Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna Central-Asiens Stettin ent. Ztg 42 (7-9): 253-300, (10-12): 393-424
Staudinger, 1886
Centralasiatische Lepidopteren Stett. Ent. Ztg. 47 (4-6): 193-215, (7-9): 225-256
Staudinger, 1892
Lepidopteren des Kentei-Gebirges Dt. Ent. Z. Iris 5 (2) : 300-393
Staudinger, 1892
Die Macrolepidopteren des Amurgebiets. I. Theil. Rhopalocera, Sphinges, Bombyces, Noctuae in Romanoff, Mém. Lépid. 6 : 83-658, pl. 4-14
Stoll, [1780]
Uitlandsche Kapellen (Papillons exotiques) in Cramer, Uitl. Kapellen 4 (26b-28): 29-90, pl. 305-336 (1780), (29-31): 91-164, pl. 337-372 (1781), (32-32): 165-252, 1-29, pl. 373-400 (1782)
Strecker, 1878
Butterflies and Moths of North America Synon. Cat. Macroplep.: -
Swinhoe, 1889
On new Indian Lepidoptera, chiefly Heterocera Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1889 (4) : 396-431, pl. 43-44
Tilden, 1955
A Revision of Tharsalea (S.Str.), with Description of a new Subspecies Bull. Southern Calif. Acad. Sci. 54 (2): 67-77
Tutt, 1906
A Study of the generic Names of the British Lycaenides and their close Allies Ent. Rec. J. Var. 18 (5) : 129-132
Verity, 1913
Revision of the Linnean Types of Palaearctic Rhopalocera J. Linn. Soc. Zool. Lond. 32 : 173-191
Verity, 1919
Seasonal polymorphism and races of some European Grypocera and Rhopalocera Ent. Rec. J. Var. 31 : 26-31,43-48,87-89,121-129,178-184,193-201
Watson & Comstock, 1920
Notes on American Lepidoptera with descriptions of new varieties Bull. Amer. Mus. 42 (10) : 449-455
Wright, 1905
The Butterflies of the West Coast of the United States Butts. West Coast: 257pp
Wyatt, 1961
Additions to the Rhopalocera of Afghanistan with descriptions of new species and subspecies J. Lep. Soc. 15 (1): 1-18, 3pls
Zeller, 1847
Bemerkungen über die auf einer Reise Nach Italien und Sicilien Beobachteten Schmetterlingsarten Isis von Oken 1847 (2): 121-159, (3): 213-233, (4): 284-308, (6): 401-457, (7): 481-522, (8): 561-594, (9): 641-673, (10): 721-771, (11): 801-859, (12): 881-914
Zhdanko, 1990
[New species and subspecies of the Lycaenidae from Asiatic part of the USSR and North Iran] Ent. Obozr. 69 (1): 134-143 (Russian)


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