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Phalera Hübner, [1819]
Phalera Hübner, [1819]; Verz. bek. Schmett. (10): 147, TS: Phalaena bucephala Linnaeus
Acrosema Meigen, 1830; Syst. Beschr. eur. Schmett. 3 : 24, TS: Phalaena bucephala Linnaeus
Hammatophora Westwood, 1843; in Humphreys & Westwood, Br. Moths 1: 63, TS: Phalaena bucephala Linnaeus
Anticyra Walker, 1855; List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 980 (key), 1091 (preocc. Anticyra Curtis, 1834 (Trichoptera)), TS: Anticyra combusata Walker
Dinara Walker, 1856; List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 7: 1699, TS: Dinara lineolata Walker
Horishachia Matsumura, 1929; Insecta Matsumurana 4 (1-2): 39,40, TS: Horishachia infusca Matsumura
Phaleromimus Bryk, 1950; Arkiv Zool., 42 (A) 19: 9, TS: Phaleromimus albocalceolata Bryk
Erconholda Kiriakoff, 1968; in Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 217 (C): 220, TS: Fentonia mangholda Schaus
= ; [MOB4, 37]
Phalaera ; Felder, 1861, (missp.)
Phalera (Notodontinae) ; [AUCL]
Phalera (Phalerinae) ; [NEN50]

fiPhalera bucephala (Linnaeus, 1758)
EU, AM, AC, E.Asia. See [About maps] Härkäpää Härkäpääkehrääjä Kuututlane Buff-tip Mondvogel Ochsenkopf La Bucéphale La Lunule Porte-écu-jaune Pájaro Luna Oxhuvudspinnare Lindspinnare Måneplet
Phalaena bucephala Linnaeus, 1758; Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 508
lunula Retzius, 1783
tenebrata Strand, 1903
philonica Stauder, 1923
velata Dannehl, 1925
Phalera bucephala, Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera [Kimmo Silvonen]
Phalera bucephala, Svenska fjärilar [SVF]
Phalera bucephala, Norges Sommerfugler [NORLEP]
Phalera bucephala, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]
Phalera bucephala, UK Moths [Ian Kimber]
Phalera bucephala ; de Freina, 1999, Atalanta 30 (1/4): 218
[bucephala-1.jpg] 640x429 (~46Kb) Littleborough, England, 7.6.1998, Photo © Ian Kimber [bucephala-2.jpg] 800x580 (~98Kb) Bromierzyk near Sochaczew, central Poland. August 1998. Photo © Marek Michalski [bucephala-3l.jpg] 900x588 (~47Kb) larva Finland, Sipoo 670:39, 12.08.1978, Photo © Pertti Pakkanen
[bucephala-4l.jpg] 544x409 (~62Kb) larva Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schönenberg, 8° 49' E, 48° 58' N, altitude 255m, 17.08.1997, Photo © Karl Hofsäß [bucephala-5.jpg] 723x400 (~52Kb) An open birch forest on the right bank of the Shipunikha Rivulet 1 km upstream of its fall into the Inya River, Novosibirsk District and Province, West Siberia, Russia. 8th June 1997, Photo © Oleg Kosterin [bucephala-6.jpg] 400x575 (~64Kb) Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch
[bucephala-6l.jpg] 400x600 (~44Kb) larva Central Europe 1990-2000, Photo © Michael Borsch [bucephala-7mf.jpg] 960x1280 (~195Kb) male female Finland: Tarkeelanjärvi, Nummi-Pusula, 8.6.2002, Photo © Suvi Tuomi [bucephala-8.jpg] 955x621 (~72Kb) Belgium, Antwerpen, Hobokense Polder, 18.7.2004, Photo © Toon Verbruggen
[bucephala-9.jpg] 900x1185 (~109Kb) FINLAND: Ka: Virolahti, Virojoki (6719:539) 24.7.2004, Photo © Markku Savela [bucephala-a1.jpg] 988x457 (~107Kb) Russia, Moscow area, 16.7.2008, Photo © D. Smirnov [bucephala-a1l.jpg] 1014x452 (~84Kb) larva Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 30.8.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov
[bucephala-a1x.jpg] 633x622 (~88Kb) Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 15.6.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [bucephala-a1y.jpg] 993x600 (~117Kb) Russia, Moscow area (36°25'E, 56°00'N), 15.6.2009, Photo © D. Smirnov [bucephala-l.jpg] 500x632 (~36Kb) larva FINLAND: Siikaneva, Photo © Juha Salokannel
[bucephala.jpg] 500x498 (~39Kb)

Larva on Betula verrucosa, B. pubescens, Quercus robur, Salix lapponum, S. caprea, S. cinerea, S. phylicifolia, Populus tremula, P. balsamifera, Ulmus sp., Rosa glauca, Tilia cordata, T. platyphylla, Acer platanoides [SPRK]


P. b. infulgens Graeser, 1888
Phalera bucephala infulgens ; [NEN50]

Phalera bucephalina (Staudinger & Rebel, 1901)
es, NAF. See [About maps] Marokonhäränpääkehrääjä
bucephalina (Staudinger & Rebel, 1901); , TL: Morocco, Tanger

Larva on Quercus [BSW]


Phalera bucephaloides (Ochsenheimer, 1810)
SEU, Asia Minor, Syria. See [About maps] Etelänhäränpääkehrääjä La Pygère Bucéphaloide
bucephaloides (Ochsenheimer, 1810); , TL: Austria
Phalera bucephaloides, Moths and Butterflies of Europe [MBE]

Larva on Arbutus unedo [BSW], Quercus [EKK]

Phalera bucephaloides bucephaloides ; de Freina, 1999, Atalanta 30 (1/4): 218
P. b. syriaca Zerny, 1938
Phalera bucephaloides syriaca ; de Freina, 1999, Atalanta 30 (1/4): 218

Phalera ora Schintlmeister, 1989
Phalera ora ; [NEN50]

Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey, 1852)
assimilis (Bremer & Grey, 1852) (Pygaera); in Motschulsky, Etud. Ent. 1: 62
Phalaera ningpoana C. & R. Felder, 1862; Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (2): 37, TL: Ning-Po
Phalera fuscescens Butler, 1881
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera formosicola Matsumura, 1934
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera assimilis ; [NEN50]

Phalera takasagoensis Matsumura, 1919
Phalera matsumurai Okano, 1959
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera takasagoensis ulmivora Yang & Lee, 1978
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera takasagoensis ; [NEN50]

Phalera alpherakyi Leech, 1898
Phalera alpherakyi alpherakyi ; [NEN50]
P. a. dharma Schintlmeister, 1989
Phalera alpherakyi dharma ; [NEN50]

Phalera minor Nagano, 1916
Phalera beijingiana Yang & Lee, 1978
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera minor ; [NEN50]

Phalera huangtiao Schintlmeister & Fang, 2001
Yunnan, Myanmar, Thailand. See [About maps] Phalera huangtiao Schintlmeister & Fang, 2001; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 50: 93, f. 117, pl. 17, f. 160, TL: Yunnan, 42km N Fugong, 1390m

Phalera angustipennis Matsumura, 1919²
Phalera angustipennis ; [NEN50, 93 (note)]

Phalera goniophora Hampson, 1910
?himalayana Nakamura²
= ?; [MOB4, 35]
Phalera goniophora ; [NEN50]

Phalera wanqu Schintlmeister & Fang, 2001
Sichuan. See [About maps] Phalera wanqu Schintlmeister & Fang, 2001; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 50: 94, f. 118, pl. 17, f. 161, TL: Sichuan, Siao-Lou

Phalera raya Moore, 1849²
?alaya Nakamura²
= ?; [MOB4, 35]
Phalera raya ; [NEN50, 94 (note)]

Larva on (India) Wagatea, Derris, Cassia [MOB4]


Phalera acuta Gaede²
Java. See [About maps] Phalera acuta ; [MOB4, 35 (note)]

Phalera acutoides Holloway, 1983
Borneo, ?Peninsular Malaysia. See [About maps] Phalera acutoides Holloway, 1983; Moths of Borneo, 4: 35, pl. 3, f. 28, TL: Brunei, Ulu Temburong

Phalera sebrus Schintlmeister, 1989
Phalera sebrus ; [NEN50]

Phalera eminens Schintlmeister, 1997
Thailand, Myanmar, Yunnan. See [About maps] Phalera eminens Schintlmeister, 1997; Entomofauna Supplement 9: 136, TL: N.Vietnam, Fan-si-pan
Phalera eminens ; [NEN50: 94, pl. 18, f. 166]

Phalera ordgara Schaus, 1928
Phalera yunnanensis Mell, 1931
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera ordgara ; [NEN50]

Phalera albizzae Mell, 1931
China (Hubei, Shaanxi). See [About maps] Phalera albizzae Mell, 1931; Lignan Science J. 9: 379, TL: Guangdong, Lung Tao Shan
Phalera albizzae ; [NEN50: 94, f. 119, pl. 17, f. 164 (neotype)]

Phalera flavescens (Bremer & Gery, 1852)
Phalera flavescens kuangtungensis Mell, 1931
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera flavescens alticola Mell, 1931
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera flavescens ; [NEN50]

Phalera obscura Wileman, 1910
Horishachia infusca Matsumura, 1929; Insecta Matsumurana 4 (1-2): 39, pl. 1, f. 19, TL: Taiwan, Horisha
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera sargerechti Mell, in litt.
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera immaculata Yang & Lee, 1978
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera obscura ; [NEN50]

Phalera hadrian Schintlmeister, 1989
Phalera hadrian ; [NEN50]

Phalera torpida Walker, 1865
Phalera torpida ; [NEN50]

Phalera niveomaculata Kiriakoff, 1963
Phalera niveomaculata ; [NEN50]

Phalera albocalceolata (Bryk, 1950)
Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan. See [About maps] Phaleromimus albocalceolata Bryk, 1950; Arkiv Zool., 42 (A) 19: 9, pl. 1, f. 3, TL: Burma, Kambaiti
Phalera albocalceolata ; [NEN50: 95, pl. 17, f. 163]

Phalera argenteolepis Schintlmeister, 1997
Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, Yunnan. See [About maps] Phalera argenteolepis Schintlmeister, 1997; Entomofauna Supplement 9: 137, TL: N.Vietnam, Fan-si-pan
Phalera argenteolepis ; [NEN50: 98, pl. 17, f. 162]

Phalera parivala Moore, 1859
Phalera parivala ; [NEN50]

Phalera grotei Moore, 1859
India - Sumatra, Borneo. See [About maps] Phalera grotei Moore, 1859; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. Nat. East India House 2 : 434
Phalera sangana birmicola Bryk, 1949
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera cihuai Yang & Lee, 1978
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera birmicola obfuscata Nakamura, 1978
= ; [NEN50]
Phalera grotei ; Holloway, 1982, in Barlow, Intr. Moths of South East Asia. Taxonomic app.: 201; [MOB4: 36, pl. 3, f. 27]; [NEN50]

Phalera sundana Holloway, 1982
Sundaland, Bali, Mindanao. See [About maps] Phalera sundana Holloway, 1982; in Barlow, Intr. Moths of South East Asia. Taxonomic app.: 201
Phalera sundana ; [MOB4: 36, pl. 3, f. 30]

Phalera surigaona Schaus²
Philippines. See [About maps] Phalera surigaona ; [MOB4, 37 (note)]

Phalera cossoides Walker, 1862
Himalaya. See [About maps] Phalera cossoides Walker, 1862; Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3) 1 : 80
Phalera cossioides ; [NEN50, (missp.?)]
Phalera cossoides ; [MOB4, 34 (note)]

Phalera sangana Moore, 1859
Sikkim, Bhutan, China (Yunnan, Hainan). See [About maps] Phalera sangana Moore, 1859; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. Nat. East India House 2 : 433, TL: Sikkim, Darjeeling
Phalera stigmifera Butler, 1880; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 6 (31): 66, TL: Bhutan
= ; [NEN50, 96]
Phalera sangana ; [NEN50: 96, pl. 18, f. 165]

Phalera combusta (Walker, 1855)
Anticyra combusta Walker, 1855; List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1092, TL: Philippines
Dinara lineolata Walker, 1856; List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 7: 1700, TL: Hindostan
= ; [GNM2]
Phalera combusta ; [NEN50]

Phalera javana Moore, 1859
Java, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. See [About maps] Phalera javana Moore, 1859; in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. Nat. East India House 2 : 432

Larva on Canavalia, Mucuna, Vigna [MOB4]

P. j. albifrons (Walker, 1862)
Plusiana albifrons Walker, 1862; J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 6 : 141
Phalera javana amplificata Gaede, 1930; in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 613
= ; [MOB4, 34]
Phalera javana albifrons ; [MOB4: 34, pl. 2, f. 29]

Phalera bobi Swinhoe²
Himalaya. See [About maps] Phalera bobi ; [MOB4, 34 (note)]

Phalera amboinae (Felder, 1861)
Phalaera[sic] amboinae Felder, 1861

Subgenus Erconholda Kiriakoff, 1968
Erconholda Kiriakoff, 1968; in Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 217 (C): 220, TS: Fentonia mangholda Schaus

Phalera styx Holloway, 1983
Borneo. See [About maps] Phalera styx Holloway, 1983; Moths of Borneo, 4: 37, pl. 3, f. 35, TL: Brunei, Labi

Phalera melantata West
Luzon. See [About maps] Phalera melantata ; [MOB4, 37 (note)]

Phalera erconvalda (Schaus, ?1928)
Philippines (Mindanao). See [About maps] Erconholda erconvalda ; Kiriakoff, 1968, in Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 217 (C): 220
Phalera erconvalda ; [MOB4, 37 (note)]

Phalera banksi Holloway, 1983
Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, ?Borneo. See [About maps] Phalera banksi Holloway, 1983; Moths of Borneo, 4: 38, pl. 3, f. 34, TL: Peninsular Malaysia, Maxwell's Hill

Phalera mangholda (Schaus, 1928)
Philippines (Mindanao). See [About maps] Fentonia mangholda Schaus, 1928; Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 73 (2740) : 79, TL: Philippines, Mindanao, Surigao and Luzon [Mt Makiling]
Erconholda mangholda ; Kiriakoff, 1968, in Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 217 (C): 220
Phalera mangholda ; [MOB4, 37 (note)]

Phalera atrata (Grünberg, 1907)
Togo, Cameroon, .... See [About maps] Anticyra[?] atrata Grünberg, 1907; Dt. Ent. Zs. 1907 : 432
Dinara acholi Bethune-Baker, 1908; Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 2 (9) : 256, TL: Patigo, Acholi County
= ; [NHM]


17.9.2011 (42)

References:
[AUCL]
Nielsen & Rangsi, 1996; Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia; CSIRO, Australia
[About maps]
Warning! The maps are automatically generated from the textual information, and the process does not always produce acceptable result; See about maps for more info.
[BSW]
de Freina & Witt, 1987; Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpalearktis; ISBN 3-926285-00-1
[D. Smirnov]
Russia, Moscow; e-mail: D. Smirnov
[EKK]
Sotavalta (Finnish Ed.), Rougeot & Viette; Euroopan ja Pohjois-Afrikan kiitäjät ja kehrääjät (Guide des Papillons Nocturnes)
[GNM2]
Watson, 1980; Generic Names of Moths of the World, Vol. 2; British Museum (Natural History), London 1980
[HBN]
Francis Hemming, 1937; HÜBNER, A bibliographical and systematic account of the entomological works of Jacob Hübner and of the supplements thereto by Carl Geyer, Gottfried Franz von Frölich and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, Vol 1 & 2
[Ian Kimber]
http://www.ukmoths.force9.co.uk/
[Karl Hofsäß]
Karl Hofsaess; e-mail: Karl Hofsäß
[Kimmo Silvonen]
Espoo, Finland; Kimmo's Lep Site
[MBE]
Moths and Butteflies of Europe; Paolo Mazzei, Diego Reggianti and Ilaria Pimpinelli; http://www.leps.it/
[MOB4]
Holloway, 1983; The Moths of Borneo, Part 4; Family Nododontidae
[Marek Michalski]
Lodz, Poland; e-mail: Marek Michalski
[Michael Borsch]
Geesthacht, Germany; contact through; e-mail: Francisco Welter-Schultes
[NEN50]
Schintlmeister & Lai, 2001; Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 50; New and less known Notodontidae from mainland China
[NHM]
Natural History Museum; The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
[NORLEP]
Norges Sommerfugler
[Oleg Kosterin]
Institue of Cytology & Genetics; Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk; e-mail: Oleg Kosterin; http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/
[Pertti Pakkanen]
e-mail: Pertti Pakkanen; Butterfly and moth observations from Finland
[SPRK]
Seppänen, E. J, 1970; Suomen suurperhostoukkien ravintokasvit, Animalia Fennica 14
[SVF]
Svenska fjärilar; Naturhistoriska riksmuseet; (Sweden)
[Toon Verbruggen]
Toon Verbruggen
[²]
This may require parentheses or not. I don't have the necessary information for this taxon.


Some related literature:
Bethune-Baker, 1908
Descriptions of new African Heterocera Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 2 (9) : 255-264
Bremer & Grey, 1852
Diagnoses de Lépidopterères nouveaux, trouvés par Mm. Tatarinoff et Gaschkewitch aux environs de Pekin in Motschulsky, Etud. Ent. 1: 58-67
Butler, 1880
Descriptions of new Species of Asiatic Lepidoptera Heterocera Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 6 (31): 61-69, (32): 119-129, (33): 214-230
C. & R. Felder, 1862
Observationes de Lepidoteris nonullis Chinae centralis et Japoniae Wien. ent. Monats. 6 (1): 22-32, (2): 33-40
de Freina, 1999
Beitrag zur systematischen Erfassung der Bombyces- und Sphinges-Fauna Kleinasiens, Weitere Kenntnisse über Artenspektrum, Systematik und Verbreitung der Lasiocampidae, Lemoniidae, Notodontidae, Thaumetopoeidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae und Cymatophoridae Atalanta 30 (1/4): 187-257
Grünberg, 1907
Einige neue afrikanische Heteroceren. (Lep.) Dt. Ent. Zs. 1907 : 431-437
Hübner, [1819]
Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge, 1816-[1826] Verz. bek. Schmett. (1): [1-3], 4-16 (1816), (2): 17-32 (1819), (3): 33-48 (1819), (4): 49-64 (1819), (5): 65-80 (1819), (6): 81-96 (1819), (7): 97-112 (1819), (8): 113-128 (1819), (9): 129-144 (1819), (10): 145-160 (1819), (11): 161-176 (1819), (12): 177-192 (1820), (13): 193-208 (1820), (14): 209-224 (1821), (15): 225-240 (1821), (16): 241-256 (1821), (17): 257-272 (1823), (18): 273-288 (1823), (19): 289-304 (1823), (20): 305-320 (1825), (21): 321-336 (1825), (22): 337-352 (1825), (23-27): 353-431 ([1825])
Kiriakoff, 1968
Lepidoptera, Familia Notodontidae, pars tertia, Genera Indo-Australica in Wytsman, Genera Insectorum 217 (C): -
Linnaeus, 1758
Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Clases, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Symonymis, Locis. Tomis I. 10th Edition Syst. Nat. (Edn 10) 1 : 1-338, : 339-824
Meigen, 1830
Systematische Beschreibung der europäischen Schmetterlinge; mit Abbildungen auf Steintafeln Syst. Beschr. eur. Schmett. 3 : 1-276, pl. 81-125
Moore, 1859
A Catalogue of the lepidopterous Insects in the Museum of natural History at East-India House in Horsfield & Moore, Cat. Lep. Ins. Mus. Nat. East India House 2: : 279-440, pl. 13-23,7a,8a,9a,10a,11a,12a,13a
Schaus, 1928
New moths of the family Ceruridae (Notodontidae) in the Unites States National Museum Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 73 (2740) : 1-90
Schintlmeister, 1997
Moths of Vietnam with special reference to Mt. Fan-si-pan Entomofauna Supplement 9: 33-248
Schintlmeister & Fang, 2001
New and less known Notodontidae from mainland China Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 50: 3-141
Walker, 1855; Walker, 1856
List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum List Spec. Lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 1: 1-278 (1854), 2: 279-581 (1854), 3: 583-775 (1855), 4: 777-976 (1855), 5: 977-1258 (1855), 6: 1259-1508 (1855), 7: 1509-1808 (1856)
Walker, 1862
Characters of undescribed Lepidoptera in the Collection of W. W. Saunders, Esq Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. (3) 1 : 70-128, : 263-279
Walker, 1862
Catalogue of the Heterocerous Lepidopterous Insects collected at Sarawak, in Borneo, by Mr. A. R. Wallace, with Descriptions of New Species J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 6 : 82-145, 171-198


If you have corrections, comments or information to add into these pages, just send mail to Markku Savela
Keep in mind that the taxonomic information is copied from various sources, and may include many inaccuracies. Expert help is welcome.