April 24, 2010 INSTALL 8 NetBSD

NAME

INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/alpha.

CONTENTS

                                                              

About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................2 Changes Between the NetBSD 5.0 and 5.1 Releases................3 Security Advisory Fixes.....................................3 Other Security Fixes........................................4 Kernel......................................................4 File Systems................................................5 Networking..................................................6 Miscellaneous Drivers.......................................7 Audio.......................................................7 Security....................................................7 Storage.....................................................8 Platform specific...........................................8 Miscellaneous..............................................12 Known Problems.............................................15 Features to be removed in a later release.....................15 The NetBSD Foundation.........................................16 Sources of NetBSD.............................................16 NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Contents...............................16 NetBSD/alpha subdirectory structure........................17 Bootable installation/upgrade floppies.....................18 Binary distribution sets...................................18 NetBSD/alpha System Requirements and Supported Devices........19 Supported PCI bus devices..................................20 Supported ISA bus devices..................................20 Supported EISA bus devices.................................20 Supported Turbochannel bus devices.........................21 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................22 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................24 Installing the NetBSD System..................................24 Running the sysinst installation program...................27 Introduction............................................27 Possible hardware problems..............................28 General.................................................28 Quick install...........................................28 Booting NetBSD..........................................29 Network configuration...................................29 Installation drive selection and parameters.............29 Selecting which sets to install.........................29 Partitioning the disk...................................29 Preparing your hard disk................................30 Getting the distribution sets...........................30 Installation from CD-ROM................................31 Installation using ftp..................................31 Installation using NFS..................................31 Installation from an unmounted file system..............31 Installation from a local directory.....................31 Extracting the distribution sets........................31 Finalizing your installation............................32 Post installation steps.......................................32 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................34 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............35 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......36 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases.......36 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases.......37 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................38 Administrivia.................................................38 Thanks go to..................................................39 We are........................................................39 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................45 The End.......................................................52

DESCRIPTION

About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD 5.1_RC3 on the alpha platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where .ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt:

.ps
PostScript.

.html
Standard Internet HTML.

.more
The enhanced text format used on UNIX-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

.txt
Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on 57 different system architectures (ports) across 15 distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. Please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/ for information on them.)

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Between the NetBSD 5.0 and 5.1 Releases

The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is the first feature update of the NetBSD 5.0 release branch. It represents a selected subset of fixes deemed critical for security or stability reasons, as well as new features and enhancements.

Please note that all fixes in security/critical updates (i.e., NetBSD 5.0.1, 5.0.2, etc.) are cumulative, so the latest update contains all such fixes since the corresponding minor release. These fixes also appear in minor releases (i.e., NetBSD 5.1, 5.2, etc.).

The complete list of changes can be found in the CHANGES-5.1: http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.1/CHANGES-5.1 file in the top level directory of the NetBSD 5.1 release tree. An abbreviated list is as follows:

Security Advisory Fixes

Advisories prior to NetBSD-SA2009-004 do not affect NetBSD 5.0: http://www.NetBSD.org/support/security/patches-5.0.html.

Other Security Fixes
Kernel
File Systems
Networking
Miscellaneous Drivers
Audio
Security
Storage
Platform specific
Miscellaneous
Known Problems

Using block device nodes (e.g., wd0a) directly for I/O may cause a kernel crash when the file system containing /dev is FFS and is mounted with -o log. Workaround: use raw disk devices (e.g., rwd0a), or remount the file system without -o log.

Occassionally, gdb may cause a process that is being debugged to hang when ``single stepped''. Workaround: kill and restart the affected process.

gdb cannot debug running threaded programs correctly. Workaround: generate a core file from the program using gcore(1) and pass the core to gdb, instead of debugging the running program.

Statically linked binaries using pthreads are currently broken.

The sparc port does not have functional SMP support in this release.

Features to be removed in a later release

The following features are to be removed from NetBSD in the future:

The NetBSD Foundation

The NetBSD Foundation is a tax exempt, not-for-profit 501(c)(3) corporation that devotes itself to the traditional goals and Spirit of the NetBSD Project and owns the trademark of the word ``NetBSD''. It supports the design, development, and adoption of NetBSD worldwide. More information on the NetBSD Foundation, its composition, aims, and work can be found at: http://www.NetBSD.org/foundation/

Sources of NetBSD

Refer to http://www.NetBSD.org/mirrors/

NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is organized as follows:

.../NetBSD-5.1_RC3/

CHANGES
Changes between the 4.0 and 5.0 releases.

CHANGES-5.0
Changes between the initial 5.0 branch and final release of 5.0.

CHANGES-5.1
Changes between the 5.0 and 5.1 releases.

CHANGES.prev
Changes in previous NetBSD releases.

LAST_MINUTE
Last minute changes and notes about the release.

README.files
README describing the distribution's contents.

source/
Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD 5.1_RC3 has a binary distribution.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the source subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

gnusrc
This set contains the ``gnu'' sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
79 MB gzipped, 450 MB uncompressed

sharesrc
This set contains the ``share'' sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program; the sources for the typesettable document set; the dictionaries; and more.
7 MB gzipped, 32 MB uncompressed

src
This set contains all of the base NetBSD 5.1_RC3 sources which are not in gnusrc, sharesrc, or syssrc.
59 MB gzipped, 350 MB uncompressed

syssrc
This set contains the sources to the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 kernel for all architectures as well as the config(1) utility.
34 MB gzipped, 197 MB uncompressed

xsrc
This set contains the sources to the X Window System.
127 MB gzipped, 694 MB uncompressed

All the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree.

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. Except for the pkgsrc set, which is traditionally unpacked into /usr/pkgsrc, all sets may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       # cd / ; tar -zxpf set_name.tgz

In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:

MD5
MD5 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a MD5 file.

SHA512
SHA512 digests in the format produced by the command:
cksum -a SHA512 file.

The SHA512 digest is safer, but MD5 checksums are provided so that a wider range of operating systems can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/alpha subdirectory structure
The alpha-specific portion of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release is found in the alpha subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-5.1_RC3/alpha/. It contains the following files and directories:

INSTALL.html
INSTALL.ps
INSTALL.txt
INSTALL.more
Installation notes in various file formats, including this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
binary/
kernel/
netbsd-GENERIC.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release.
netbsd-GENERIC.MP.gz
A gzipped NetBSD kernel containing code for everything supported in this release. This kernel supports SMP on systems with more than one CPU.
sets/
alpha binary distribution sets; see below.
installation/
floppy/
alpha boot and installation floppies; see below.
diskimage/
an image file cdhdtape is included for the case where the installer is written to a CD, hard drive, or tape. This image file is the same for the CD, HD, and tape cases.
instkernel/
contains a netbsd.gz installation kernel; this is the same installer kernel as in all the other install images, but without the various boot program and file system wrappers. It can be netbooted or diskbooted from a previous installation. no need to gunzip this image.
Bootable installation/upgrade floppies

There are three bootable images in the NetBSD alpha distribution. One is for a floppy boot and is split into three separate files. The other is a single-file image containing the same install kernel, but intended to be written to a CD, tape, or hard drive. The third image is a GENERIC kernel intended for production use in unusual cases. This can be useful at some sites when:

Binary distribution sets
The NetBSD alpha binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 release for alpha. The binary distribution sets can be found in the alpha/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD 5.1_RC3 distribution tree, and are as follows:

base
The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 alpha base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional.
33 MB gzipped, 103 MB uncompressed

comp
Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
50 MB gzipped, 207 MB uncompressed

etc
This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

games
This set includes the games and their manual pages.
4 MB gzipped, 9 MB uncompressed

kern-GENERIC
This set contains a NetBSD/alpha 5.1_RC3 GENERIC kernel, named /netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
5 MB gzipped, 10 MB uncompressed

man
This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
12 MB gzipped, 50 MB uncompressed

misc
This set includes the system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
4 MB gzipped, 13 MB uncompressed

text
This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
4 MB gzipped, 12 MB uncompressed

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86 4.5.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

xbase
The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
8 MB gzipped, 25 MB uncompressed

xcomp
The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
16 MB gzipped, 70 MB uncompressed

xfont
Fonts needed by the X server and by X clients.
31 MB gzipped, 39 MB uncompressed

xetc
Configuration files for X which could be locally modified.
1 MB gzipped, 1 MB uncompressed

xserver
The X server.
8 MB gzipped, 19 MB uncompressed

The alpha binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore the files are extracted below the current directory. Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar -xzpf command from the root directory ( / ) of your system.

Note:
Each directory in the alpha binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does.

NetBSD/alpha System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/alpha 5.1_RC3 runs on most of the DEC Alpha PCI platforms, on all of the TURBOChannel models, on the high end 8200 and 8400 systems, and on the 4100 series.

The SRM console is required. This console can be distinguished from the ARC console (which is used to boot Windows NT) by the fact that it has a command line interface, rather than a menu-driven interface. The SRM prompt is `>>>'.

Some platforms have both the SRM console and the ARC console, and can switch between them, and other platforms have only one type of console loaded at any one time. If your system comes up with the ARC firmware, it may be possible to switch it to SRM with a menu or to download SRM from ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/Digital/Alpha/firmware/index.html You may want to buy a firmware update CD from Compaq Computer Corporation.

More information on supported platforms and devices can be found on the alpha port web pages at http://www.NetBSD.org/

A basic system will fit on a 200 MB disk (including swap) without too much difficulty, but you will probably want at least 500 MB of disk to have any level of comfort.

Although it is actually possible to boot and install NetBSD/alpha in only 16 MB of RAM, you will want to have at least 32 MB. We support add-in devices on the PCI, ISA, EISA and TurboChannel buses. Because NetBSD has an extremely machine-independent device driver system, many device drivers are the same as used in other ports that use the same bus. For example, the de network card driver is shared by the i386 and alpha ports. Some drivers on inspection appear as if they will work on the alpha but have not been tested because that hardware was not available to NetBSD testers; these are marked as UNTESTED below. If you have one of these devices, and it does work, please get in touch with port-alpha-maintainer@NetBSD.org and let us know that it works. If it doesn't work, do the same thing and we can probably fix it pretty easily.

Supported PCI bus devices
Supported ISA bus devices
Supported EISA bus devices
Supported Turbochannel bus devices

Note that some devices, especially ISA-based devices, have to have certain settings set properly for the install and GENERIC kernels to detect them. (Once installed, you can always rebuild your own kernel to detect them anywhere you wish, of course.) Here is a list of such devices and the necessary settings:

Device          Name    Port    IRQ     DRQ     Misc
------          ----    ----    ---     ---     ----
Serial ports    com0    0x3f8   4               [8250/16450/16550/clones]
                com1    0x2f8   3               [8250/16450/16550/clones]
                com2    0x3e8   5               [8250/16450/16550/clones]
                                                                                     

Parallel ports lpt0 0x378 7 [interrupt-driven or polling] lpt1 0x278 [polling only] lpt2 0x3bc [polling only]

AHA-174x SCSI host adapters (in enhanced mode) ahb0 any any any

AHA-2X4X or AIC-7xxx-based SCSI host adapters ahc0 any any any

Bus Logic BT445, BT74x, or BT9xx SCSI host adapters bha0 0x330 any any bha1 0x334 any any

MFM/ESDI/IDE/RLL hard disk controllers wdc0 0x1f0 14 [supports two devices] wdc1 0x170 15 [supports two devices]

ATA disks wd0, wd1, ... SCSI disks sd0, sd1, ... SCSI tapes st0, st1, ... SCSI and ATAPI CD-ROMs cd0, cd1, ... For each SCSI and IDE controller found, the SCSI or ATA(PI) devices present on the bus are probed in increasing ID order for SCSI and master/slave order for ATA(PI). So the first SCSI drive found will be called sd0, the second sd1, and so on ...

3COM 3x59X or 3COM 3x90X PCI Ethernet boards ep0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]

Intel EtherExpress 100 Fast Ethernet adapters fxp0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]

DEC DE200,201,202 EtherWORKS II/Turbo ISA Ethernet boards le? 0x3005memory at D0000-DFFFF le? 0x20010memory at D8000-DFFFF

You should enter the following SRM console command to enable the le device: >>> isacfg -mk -slot ? -dev 0 -handle DE200-LE -irq0 5 -membase0 d0000 -memlen0 10000 -iobase0 300 -etyp 1 -enadev 1

DEC DE203,204,205 EtherWORKS III ISA Ethernet boards lc0 0x300any lc1 0x320any

You should enter the following SRM console command to enable the device: >>> add_de205


Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Note that if you are installing or upgrading from writable media, it can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.

CD-ROM / DVD
Find out where the distribution set files are on the CD-ROM or DVD. Likely locations are binary/sets and alpha/binary/sets.

Proceed to the instructions on installation.

MS-DOS floppy
NetBSD does not include split distribution sets for installation by floppy. However, they can be created on a separate machine using the split(1) command, running e.g. split -b 235k base.tgz base. to split the base.tgz file from alpha/binary/sets into files named base.aa, base.ab, and so on. Repeat this for all set_name.tgz files, splitting them into set_name.xx files. Count the number of set_name.xx files that make up the distribution sets you want to install or upgrade. You will need one sixth that number of 1.44 MB floppies.

Format all of the floppies with MS-DOS. Do not make any of them bootable MS-DOS floppies, i.e. don't use format /s to format them. (If the floppies are bootable, then the MS-DOS system files that make them bootable will take up some space, and you won't be able to fit the distribution set parts on the disks.) If you're using floppies that are formatted for MS-DOS by their manufacturers, they probably aren't bootable, and you can use them out of the box.

Place all of the set_name.xx files on the MS-DOS disks.

Once you have the files on MS-DOS disks, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

FTP
The preparations for this installation/upgrade method are easy; all you need to do is make sure that there's an FTP site from which you can retrieve the NetBSD distribution when you're about to install or upgrade. If you don't have DHCP available on your network, you will need to know the numeric IP address of that site, and, if it's not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself. If you don't have access to a functioning nameserver during installation, the IPv4 address of ftp.NetBSD.org is 204.152.190.15 and the IPv6 address is 2001:4f8:3:7:230:48ff:fec6:9aaa:21 (as of May, 2010).

Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

NFS
Place the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install into a directory on an NFS server, and make that directory mountable by the machine on which you are installing or upgrading NetBSD. This will probably require modifying the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)

You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.

Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.

Tape
To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to make a tape that contains the distribution set files, in `tar' format.

If you're making the tape on a UNIX-like system, the easiest way to do so is probably something like:

       # tar -cf tape_device dist_directories

where tape_device is the name of the tape device that describes the tape drive you're using; possibly /dev/rst0, or something similar, but it will vary from system to system. (If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.) In the above example, dist_directories are the distribution sets' directories, for the distribution sets you wish to place on the tape. For instance, to put the kern-GENERIC, base, and etc distributions on tape (in order to do the absolute minimum installation to a new disk), you would do the following:


       # cd .../NetBSD-5.1_RC3
       # cd alpha/binary
       # tar -cf tape_device kern-GENERIC base etc

Note:
You still need to fill in tape_device in the example.

Once you have the files on the tape, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.


Preparing your System for NetBSD installation

If you have any data on your disks that you want to keep, back it up before starting. Note that NetBSD/alpha does not support booting more than one operating system from a single disk, although it's fine to have multiple operating systems on your machine if you have a separate disk for NetBSD, or if one of them uses a network boot.

Installing the NetBSD System

To install or upgrade NetBSD, you need to first boot an installation program and then interact with the menu-based program sysinst. The installation program actually consists of the NetBSD kernel plus an in-memory file system of utility programs.

The traditional procedure is to write the installation system to a floppy disk set and then boot from the floppies. However, there are six ways to boot the NetBSD/alpha installation system. Each approach loads the exact same installation bits. The six paths are:

In all cases, you need to transfer a bootable image of the installation system from the NetBSD CD or from an ftp site to the chosen media type. Although booting from floppy is the usual path, the hard drive boot is useful if you have another operating system (and a spare drive) already installed, or if you don't mind swapping hard drives from box to box. CD and tape boots are nice and fast if you have a CD writer or a tape format in common with another previously installed UNIX-like system. Finally, most versions of SRM can locate the NetBSD boot program netboot via bootp and download it via tftp. netboot then mounts the root file system (/) via NFS and loads the kernel.

Note that if you are installing or upgrading from a writable media, the media can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.

Running the sysinst installation program

  1. Introduction

    Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. Still, you should read this document and have it in hand when doing the installation process. This document tries to be a good guide to the installation, and as such, covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.

  2. Possible hardware problems

    Should you encounter hardware problems during installation, try rebooting after unplugging removable devices you don't need for installation. Non-removable devices can be disabled with userconf (use boot -c to enter it).

  3. General

    The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while getting NetBSD installed on your hard disk. sysinst is a menu driven installation system that allows for some freedom in doing the installation. Sometimes, questions will be asked and in many cases the default answer will be displayed in brackets (``[ ]'') after the question. If you wish to stop the installation, you may press CONTROL-C at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation process again from scratch by running the /sysinst program from the command prompt. It is not necessary to reboot.

  4. Quick install

    First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD-ROM install as an example.

  5. Booting NetBSD

    Boot your machine. The boot loader will start, and will print a countdown and begin booting. The most important thing to know is that wd0 is NetBSD's name for your first IDE disk, wd1 the second, etc. sd0 is your first SCSI disk, sd1 the second, etc.

    Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.

  6. Network configuration

    If you do not intend to use networking during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response when asked to provide a server.

  7. Installation drive selection and parameters

    To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu.

    The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to install NetBSD. sysinst will report a list of disks it finds and ask you for your selection. You should see disk names like wd0, wd1, sd0 or sd1.

  8. Selecting which sets to install

    The next step is to choose which distribution sets you wish to install. Options are provided for full, minimal, and custom installations. If you choose sets on your own, base, etc, and a kernel must be selected.

  9. Partitioning the disk

  10. Editing the NetBSD disklabel

    The partition table of the NetBSD part of a disk is called a disklabel. If your disk already has a disklabel written to it, you can choose Use existing partition sizes. Otherwise, select Set sizes of NetBSD partitions.

    After you have chosen your partitions and their sizes (or if you opted to use the existing partitions), you will be presented with the layout of the NetBSD disklabel and given one more chance to change it. For each partition, you can set the type, offset and size, block and fragment size, and the mount point. The type that NetBSD uses for normal file storage is called 4.2BSD. A swap partition has a special type called swap. Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.

    a
    Root partition (/)

    b
    Swap partition.

    c
    The NetBSD portion of the disk.

    d-h
    Available for other use. Traditionally, d is the partition mounted on /usr, but this is historical practice and not a fixed value.

    You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.

  11. Preparing your hard disk

    You are now at the point of no return. Nothing has been written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to install NetBSD, your hard drive will be modified. If you are sure you want to proceed, select yes.

    The install program will now label your disk and make the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.

  12. Getting the distribution sets

    The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets that come in the form of gzipped tarfiles. At this point, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first load the sets on your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.

    For all these methods, the first step is making the sets available for extraction, and then do the actual installation. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of those methods. After reading the one about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.

  13. Installation from CD-ROM

    When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify the device name for your CD-ROM drive (usually cd0), and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.

    sysinst will then check if the files are indeed available in the specified location, and proceed to the actual extraction of the sets.

  14. Installation using ftp

    To be able to install using ftp, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.

    sysinst will proceed to transfer all the default set files from the remote site to your hard disk.

  15. Installation using NFS

    To be able to install using NFS, you first need to configure your network setup if you haven't already done so. sysinst will do this for you, asking you if you want to use DHCP. If you do not use DHCP, you can enter network configuration details yourself. If you do not have DNS set up for the machine that you are installing on, you can just press RETURN in answer to this question, and DNS will not be used.

    You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e., correctly exported to your machine.

    If you did not set up DNS, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.

  16. Installation from an unmounted file system

    In order to install from a local file system, you will need to specify the device that the file system resides on (for example sd1e) the type of the file system, and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located. sysinst will then check if it can indeed access the sets at that location.

  17. Installation from a local directory

    This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.

  18. Extracting the distribution sets

    Before extraction begins, you can elect to watch the files being extracted; the name of each file that is extracted will be shown. This can slow down the installation process considerably on machines with slow graphics consoles or serial consoles. Alternatively, you can choose to see a progress bar. This is the preferred option as it shows progress without significantly slowing down the installation process.

    After all the files have been extracted, the device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files. The next menu will allow you to select the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC. Finally you will be asked to select a password encryption algorithm and can then set a password for the "root" account, to prevent the machine from coming up without access restrictions.

  19. Finalizing your installation

    Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD 5.1_RC3. You can now reboot the machine and boot NetBSD from hard disk.


Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state. The most important steps are described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf (sysinst usually will), the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message

           /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.

    and with the root file system (/) mounted read-only. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press RETURN to get to a /bin/sh prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and press RETURN. You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
           # stty erase '^h'
           # stty erase '^?'
    At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
           # /sbin/mount -u -w /
    Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. Default values for the various programs can be found in /etc/defaults/rc.conf, where some in-line documentation may be found. More complete documentation can be found in rc.conf(5).

    When you have finished editing /etc/rc.conf, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that may need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname and possibly defaultroute. You may also need to add an ifconfig_int for your <int> network interface, along the lines of


           ifconfig_le0="inet 192.0.2.123 netmask 255.255.255.0"

    or, if you have myname.my.dom in /etc/hosts:


           ifconfig_le0="inet myname.my.dom netmask 255.255.255.0"

    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information. Instead of manually configuring network and naming service, DHCP can be used by setting dhclient=YES in /etc/rc.conf.

    Other files in /etc that may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. Unless you've set a password in sysinst, there is no initial password. You should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the ``root'' account with good passwords. By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via ssh(1)). One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different user that belongs to group ``wheel'' (see group(5)) and use su(1) to become root.

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the useradd(8) command to add accounts to your system. Do not edit /etc/passwd directly! See vipw(8) and pwd_mkdb(8) if you want to edit the password database.

  4. The X Window System

    If you installed the X Window System, you may want to read the chapter about X in the NetBSD Guide: http://netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html

  5. Installing third party packages

    If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system, pkgsrc. pkgsrc automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD. This includes the retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend.

  6. Misc

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

The easiest way to upgrade to NetBSD 5.1_RC3 is with binaries, and that is the method documented here.

To do the upgrade, you must have one form of boot media available. You must also have at least the base and kern binary distribution sets available. Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the new binaries. Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place, you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases. If you have a few megabytes free on each of your root (/) and /usr partitions, you should have enough space.

Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, boot blocks, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.

The upgrade procedure is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning. sysinst will attempt to merge the settings stored in your /etc directory with the new version of NetBSD. Also, file systems are checked before unpacking the sets. Fetching the binary sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure; refer to the installation part of the document for help.

After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your machine is a complete NetBSD 5.1_RC3 system. However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process. You will probably want to update the set of device nodes you have in /dev. If you've changed the contents of /dev by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if not, you can just cd into /dev, and run the command:

       # sh MAKEDEV all

Finally, you will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD 5.1_RC3.

If your port uses X.Org and you see messages from the X server indicating that no devices were found, you may need to run X -configure and update your existing xorg.conf to use the BusID line from the newly-generated config file.

Dual-head support for PC systems has become broken for many configurations with the update to xorg-server 1.6.x, which has removed the userland PCI configuration mechanism, and needs to rely upon the OS. We hope to correct this for future releases. Workaround: The only workaround is non-trivial and requires programming several PCI BAR registers as they previously were in NetBSD 5.0.

If you are updating to NetBSD 5.1_RC3 without the aid of sysinst or postinstall and your port uses X.Org, be sure to remove /usr/X11R7/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/pc before extracting the xbase set. In the version of X.Org shipped with 5.0, this was a directory, but in more recent X.Org versions it is a file.

On ports using X.Org, libpixman and libXfont had their major versions bumped. This can be a source of trouble if using binary packages built on 5.0.x.

pkg_install now depends on the pkgdb cache for automatic conflict detection. It is recommended to rebuild the cache with


       # pkg_admin rebuild

audit-packages.conf(5) has been superseded by pkg_install.conf(5). The default configuration is the same.

Support for pkg_view(1) has been retired.

The functionality of audit-packages(1) and download-vulnerability-list(1) has moved into pkg_admin(1). However, wrapper scripts that handle the common use cases are provided.

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases

The pthread libraries from previous versions of NetBSD require that the sysctl(3) node kern.no_sa_support be set to 0. This affects the following environments:

The 5.0 kernel defaults to 0 for kern.no_sa_support, which covers the first case. However, please note that a full installation of 5.0 (either from scratch or through an upgrade) will set kern.no_sa_support to 1 during the boot process. This means that for the last two cases, you will have to manually set kern.no_sa_support to 0, using either the sysctl(8) command or through sysctl.conf(5).

Note that sysinst will automatically invoke

postinstall fix
and thus all issues that are fixed by postinstall by default (see below) will be handled.
Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 3.x releases
See the section below on upgrading from NetBSD 4.x as well.

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 4.x releases

The following issues can generally be resolved by running postinstall with the etc set:

postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz check
postinstall -s /path/to/etc.tgz fix

Issues fixed by postinstall:

The following issues need to be resolved manually:

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you installed the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by `name(section)'. Some examples of this are

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man [section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter


       # man passwd

to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5), enter


       # man 5 passwd

instead.

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter


       # apropos subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.

Administrivia

If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions. See http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/ for a web interface.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details.

Bugs also can be submitted and queried with the web interface at http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/

If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-users@NetBSD.org.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

We are...

(in alphabetical order)


The NetBSD core group:
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

The portmasters (and their ports):
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org cobalt
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org xen
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org evbmips
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org pmax
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org sbmips
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org atari
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org dreamcast
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org amd64
Andrew Doranad@NetBSD.org i386
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org cesfic
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org iyonix
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org zaurus
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org sun2
Ichiro FUKUHARAichiro@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org cats
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org acorn26
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org alpha
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org hp700
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org sparc64
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org hpcarm
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org next68k
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org sgimips
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org mipsco
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org ia64
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org sparc
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org macppc
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org vax
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org ia64
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org x68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org luna68k
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org sandpoint
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org sparc64
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org mac68k
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org ofppc
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org prep
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org rs6000
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org arc
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org amiga
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org pmax
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org hpcmips
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org alpha
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org netwinder
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org algor
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org evbarm
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org shark
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org ews4800mips
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org hp300
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org news68k
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org landisk
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org sun3
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org evbppc
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvme68k
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org mvmeppc
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org acorn32

The NetBSD 5.1_RC3 Release Engineering team:
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org

NetBSD Developers:
Nathan Ahlstromnra@NetBSD.org
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.org
Jukka Andbergjandberg@NetBSD.org
Julian Assangeproff@NetBSD.org
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.org
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.org
Bang Jun-Youngjunyoung@NetBSD.org
Dieter Barondillo@NetBSD.org
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.org
Alan Barrettapb@NetBSD.org
Grant Beattiegrant@NetBSD.org
Jason Beeganjtb@NetBSD.org
Erik Berlscyber@NetBSD.org
Hiroyuki Besshobsh@NetBSD.org
John Birrelljb@NetBSD.org
Mason Loring Blissmason@NetBSD.org
Charles Blundellcb@NetBSD.org
Rafal Bonirafal@NetBSD.org
Stephen Borrillsborrill@NetBSD.org
Sean Boudreauseanb@NetBSD.org
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.org
John Brezakbrezak@NetBSD.org
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.org
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.org
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.org
Andrew Brownatatat@NetBSD.org
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.org
Frederick Bruckmanfredb@NetBSD.org
Jon Bullerjonb@NetBSD.org
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.org
Robert Byrnesbyrnes@NetBSD.org
Pavel Cahynapavel@NetBSD.org
D'Arcy J.M. Caindarcy@NetBSD.org
Daniel Carosonedan@NetBSD.org
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.org
James Chaconjmc@NetBSD.org
Mihai Chelarukefren@NetBSD.org
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.org
Julian Colemanjdc@NetBSD.org
Ben Collverben@NetBSD.org
Marcus Comstedtmarcus@NetBSD.org
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.org
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.org
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.org
Aidan Cullyaidan@NetBSD.org
Garrett D'Amoregdamore@NetBSD.org
Johan Danielssonjoda@NetBSD.org
John Darrowjdarrow@NetBSD.org
Jed Davisjld@NetBSD.org
Matt DeBergalisdeberg@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Degrootedegroote@NetBSD.org
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.org
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.org
Tracy Di Marco Whitegendalia@NetBSD.org
Jaromír Dolecekjdolecek@NetBSD.org
Andy Doranad@NetBSD.org
Roland Dowdeswellelric@NetBSD.org
Emmanuel Dreyfusmanu@NetBSD.org
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.org
Jun Ebiharajun@NetBSD.org
Håvard Eidneshe@NetBSD.org
Jaime A Fournierober@NetBSD.org
Stoned Elipotseb@NetBSD.org
Michael van Elstmlelstv@NetBSD.org
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.org
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.org
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.org
Gavan Fantomgavan@NetBSD.org
Hauke Fathhauke@NetBSD.org
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.org
Jason R. Finkjrf@NetBSD.org
Matt J. Flemingmjf@NetBSD.org
Marty Foutsmarty@NetBSD.org
Liam J. Foyliamjfoy@NetBSD.org
Matt Fredettefredette@NetBSD.org
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.org
Castor Fucastor@NetBSD.org
Ichiro Fukuharaichiro@NetBSD.org
Quentin Garniercube@NetBSD.org
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.org
Simon J. Gerratysjg@NetBSD.org
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.org
Chris Gilbertchris@NetBSD.org
Eric Gillespieepg@NetBSD.org
Brian Ginsbachginsbach@NetBSD.org
Paul Goyettepgoyette@NetBSD.org
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.org
Brian C. Graysonbgrayson@NetBSD.org
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.org
Andreas Gustafssongson@NetBSD.org
Ulrich Habelrhaen@NetBSD.org
Jun-ichiro itojun Haginoitojun@NetBSD.org
HAMAJIMA Katsuomihamajima@NetBSD.org
Adam Hamsikhaad@NetBSD.org
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.org
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.org
Ben Harrisbjh21@NetBSD.org
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.org
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.org
John Hawkinsonjhawk@NetBSD.org
HAYAKAWA Koichihaya@NetBSD.org
John Heasleyheas@NetBSD.org
Geert Hendrickxghen@NetBSD.org
René Hexelrh@NetBSD.org
Iain Hibbertplunky@NetBSD.org
Kouichirou Hiratsukahira@NetBSD.org
Michael L. Hitchmhitch@NetBSD.org
Ádám Hókaahoka@NetBSD.org
Jachym Holecekfreza@NetBSD.org
David A. Hollanddholland@NetBSD.org
Christian E. Hoppschopps@NetBSD.org
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.org
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.org
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.org
Nick Hudsonskrll@NetBSD.org
Shell Hungshell@NetBSD.org
Martin Husemannmartin@NetBSD.org
Dean Huxleydean@NetBSD.org
Love Hörnquist Åstrandlha@NetBSD.org
Roland Illigrillig@NetBSD.org
Bernardo Innocentibernie@NetBSD.org
Tetsuya Isakiisaki@NetBSD.org
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.org
IWAMOTO Toshihirotoshii@NetBSD.org
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.org
Soren Jacobsensnj@NetBSD.org
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.org
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.org
Nicolas Jolynjoly@NetBSD.org
Chris Jonescjones@NetBSD.org
Søren Jørvangsoren@NetBSD.org
Takahiro Kambetaca@NetBSD.org
Masanori Kanaokakanaoka@NetBSD.org
Antti Kanteepooka@NetBSD.org
Frank Kardelkardel@NetBSD.org
Mattias Karlssonkeihan@NetBSD.org
KAWAMOTO Yosihisakawamoto@NetBSD.org
Mario Kempermagick@NetBSD.org
Min Sik Kimminskim@NetBSD.org
Thomas Klausnerwiz@NetBSD.org
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.org
John Klosjklos@NetBSD.org
Wayne Knowleswdk@NetBSD.org
Takayoshi Kochikochi@NetBSD.org
John Kohljtk@NetBSD.org
Daniel de Kokdaniel@NetBSD.org
Jonathan A. Kollaschjakllsch@NetBSD.org
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Kundraklkundrak@NetBSD.org
Jochen Kunzjkunz@NetBSD.org
Martti Kuparinenmartti@NetBSD.org
Kentaro A. Kurahonekurahone@NetBSD.org
Arnaud Lacombealc@NetBSD.org
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.org
David Laightdsl@NetBSD.org
Johnny C. Lamjlam@NetBSD.org
Martin J. Laubachmjl@NetBSD.org
Greg Leheygrog@NetBSD.org
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.org
Christian Limpachcl@NetBSD.org
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.org
Joel Lindholmjoel@NetBSD.org
Tonnerre Lombardtonnerre@NetBSD.org
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.org
Michael Lorenzmacallan@NetBSD.org
Warner Loshimp@NetBSD.org
Tomasz Luchowskizuntum@NetBSD.org
Federico Lupifederico@NetBSD.org
Brett Lymnblymn@NetBSD.org
Paul Mackerraspaulus@NetBSD.org
MAEKAWA Masahidegehenna@NetBSD.org
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.org
Cherry G. Mathewcherry@NetBSD.org
David Maxwelldavid@NetBSD.org
Gregory McGarrygmcgarry@NetBSD.org
Dan McMahilldmcmahill@NetBSD.org
Jared D. McNeilljmcneill@NetBSD.org
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.org
Julio M. Merino Vidaljmmv@NetBSD.org
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.org
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.org
Jean-Yves Migeonjym@NetBSD.org
Brook Milliganbrook@NetBSD.org
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.org
Simas Mockeviciussymka@NetBSD.org
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.org
Joseph Myersjsm@NetBSD.org
Ken Nakatakenn@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Nakayamanakayama@NetBSD.org
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.org
John Nemethjnemeth@NetBSD.org
Bob Nestorrnestor@NetBSD.org
NISHIMURA Takeshinsmrtks@NetBSD.org
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.org
NONAKA Kimihirononaka@NetBSD.org
Takehiko NOZAKItnozaki@NetBSD.org
Tobias Nygrentnn@NetBSD.org
OBATA Akioobache@NetBSD.org
Jesse Offjoff@NetBSD.org
Tatoku Ogaitotacha@NetBSD.org
OKANO Takayoshikano@NetBSD.org
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.org
Atsushi Onoeonoe@NetBSD.org
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.org
Rui Paulorpaulo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Perkinsketch@NetBSD.org
Andrey Petrovpetrov@NetBSD.org
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.org
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.org
Chris Pinnockcjep@NetBSD.org
Adrian Portelliadrianp@NetBSD.org
Peter Postmapeter@NetBSD.org
Dante Profetadante@NetBSD.org
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.org
Niels Provosprovos@NetBSD.org
Mindaugas Rasiukeviciusrmind@NetBSD.org
Michael Rauchmrauch@NetBSD.org
Marc Rechtrecht@NetBSD.org
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.org
Jeremy C. Reedreed@NetBSD.org
Antoine Reillestonio@NetBSD.org
Tyler R. Retzlaffrtr@NetBSD.org
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.org
Michael Richardsonmcr@NetBSD.org
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.org
Alan Ritterrittera@NetBSD.org
Jeff Rizzoriz@NetBSD.org
Hans Rosenfeldhans@NetBSD.org
Gordon Rossgwr@NetBSD.org
Steve Rumblerumble@NetBSD.org
Ilpo Ruotsalainenlonewolf@NetBSD.org
Heiko W. Rupphwr@NetBSD.org
Blair J. Sadewitzbjs@NetBSD.org
David Saintydsainty@NetBSD.org
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.org
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.org
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.org
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.org
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.org
SATO Kazumisato@NetBSD.org
Jan Schaumannjschauma@NetBSD.org
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.org
Silke Schelersilke@NetBSD.org
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.org
Amitai Schlairschmonz@NetBSD.org
Konrad Schroderperseant@NetBSD.org
Georg Schwarzschwarz@NetBSD.org
Lubomir Sedlaciksalo@NetBSD.org
Christopher SEKIYAsekiya@NetBSD.org
Reed Shadgettdent@NetBSD.org
John Shannonshannonjr@NetBSD.org
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.org
Takeshi Shibagakishiba@NetBSD.org
Naoto Shimazakiigy@NetBSD.org
Takao Shinoharashin@NetBSD.org
Takuya SHIOZAKItshiozak@NetBSD.org
Daniel Siegerdsieger@NetBSD.org
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.org
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.org
Jeff Smithjeffs@NetBSD.org
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.org
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.org
SOMEYA Yoshihikosomeya@NetBSD.org
Bill Sommerfeldsommerfeld@NetBSD.org
Jörg Sonnenbergerjoerg@NetBSD.org
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.org
T K Spindlerdogcow@NetBSD.org
Bill Squiergroo@NetBSD.org
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.org
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.org
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.org
SUNAGAWA Keikikei@NetBSD.org
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.org
Robert Swindellsrjs@NetBSD.org
Shin Takemuratakemura@NetBSD.org
TAMURA Kentkent@NetBSD.org
Shin'ichiro TAYAtaya@NetBSD.org
Ian Lance Taylorian@NetBSD.org
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.org
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.org
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.org
Greg Troxelgdt@NetBSD.org
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.org
Izumi Tsutsuitsutsui@NetBSD.org
UCHIYAMA Yasushiuch@NetBSD.org
Masao Uebayashiuebayasi@NetBSD.org
Shuichiro URATAur@NetBSD.org
Valeriy E. Ushakovuwe@NetBSD.org
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.org
Aymeric Vincentaymeric@NetBSD.org
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.org
Mike M. Volokhovmishka@NetBSD.org
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.org
Lex Wennmacherwennmach@NetBSD.org
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.org
Assar Westerlundassar@NetBSD.org
Todd Whiteseltoddpw@NetBSD.org
Frank Willephx@NetBSD.org
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.org
Rob Windsorwindsor@NetBSD.org
Dan Winshipdanw@NetBSD.org
Jim Wisejwise@NetBSD.org
Michael Wolfsonmbw@NetBSD.org
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.org
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.org
YAMAMOTO Takashiyamt@NetBSD.org
Yuji Yamanoyyamano@NetBSD.org
David Youngdyoung@NetBSD.org
Reinoud Zandijkreinoud@NetBSD.org
S.P.Zeidlerspz@NetBSD.org
Maria Zevenhovenmaria7@NetBSD.org
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.org

Other contributors:
Dave Burgessburgess@cynjut.infonet.net
Brian R. Gaekebrg@dgate.org
Brad Granthamgrantham@tenon.com
Lawrence Kestelootkesteloo@cs.unc.edu
Waldi Ravenswaldi@moacs.indiv.nl.net

All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation.
This product includes software developed by The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project. See http://www.netbsd.org/ for information about NetBSD.
This product contains software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD project.
This product contains software written by Ignatios Souvatzis and Michael L. Hitch for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Intel Corporation and its contributors.
This product contains software written by Michael L. Hitch for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Microsoft.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@mincom.oz.au)
This product includes software designed by William Allen Simpson.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea, Sweden and its contributors.
This product includes software developed at Ludd, University of Lulea.
This product includes software developed at the Information Technology Division, US Naval Research Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
This product includes software developed by David Jones and Gordon Ross
This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross and Leo Weppelman.
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This product includes software developed by Adam Ciarcinski for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass and Charles M. Hannum.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.
This product includes software developed by Adrian Portelli for the NetBSD project.
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This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda, and Colin Wood for the NetBSD Projet.
This product includes software developed by Alex Zepeda.
This product includes software developed by Alistair G. Crooks.
This product includes software developed by Alistair G. Crooks. for the NetBSD project.
This product includes software developed by Allen Briggs.
This product includes software developed by Amancio Hasty and Roger Hardiman
This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.
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This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
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This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor and Washington University.
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This product includes software developed by Ezra Story.
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This product includes software developed by Jonathan R. Stone for the NetBSD Project.
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This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.
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This product includes software developed by Scott Bartram.
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This product includes software developed by Softweyr LLC, the University of California, Berkeley, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Soren S. Jorvang.
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This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura and Reinoud Zandijk for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by Tohru Nishimura. for the NetBSD Project.
This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.
This product includes software developed by Trimble Navigation, Ltd.
This product includes software developed by WIDE Project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by Waldi Ravens.
This product includes software developed by Wasabi Systems for Zembu Labs, Inc. http://www.zembu.com/
This product includes software developed by Winning Strategies, Inc.
This product includes software developed by Wolfgang Solfrank.
This product includes software developed by Yasushi Yamasaki.
This product includes software developed by Yen Yen Lim and North Dakota State University.
This product includes software developed by Zembu Labs, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the Alice Group.
This product includes software developed by the Center for Software Science at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by the Charles D. Cranor, Washington University, University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the David Muir Sharnoff.
This product includes software developed by the Harvard University and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Network Research Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.OpenSSL.org/)
This product includes software developed by the PocketBSD project and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD kernel team
This product includes software developed by the RiscBSD team.
This product includes software developed by the SMCC Technology Development Group at Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors, as well as the Trustees of Columbia University.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
This product includes software developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana and their contributors.
This product includes software developed by the Urbana-Champaign Independent Media Center.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.
This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.
This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Bernd Ernesti.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christopher G. Demetriou.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Christos Zoulas
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Emmanuel Dreyfus.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Ignatios Souvatzis.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.
This product includes software developed by Kyma Systems.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Kyma Systems LLC.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Michael L. Hitch.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Scott Bartram and Frank van der Linden
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Allegro Networks, Inc., and Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Genetec Corporation.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jonathan Stone.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by SUNET, Swedish University Computer Network.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Shigeyuki Fukushima.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom Opsycon AB for RTMX Inc, North Carolina, USA.
This product includes software developed under OpenBSD by Per Fogelstrom.
This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.
This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with "386BSD" and similar operating systems. "Similar operating systems" includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to "NetBSD", "FreeBSD", "Mach" (by CMU).
This software includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah.
This product includes software developed by Computing Services at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/).
This product includes software developed by Marshall M. Midden.
This product includes software developed or owned by Caldera International, Inc.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and The Open Group, have given us permission to reprint portions of their documentation.

In the following statement, the phrase ``this text'' refers to portions of the system documentation.

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form in NetBSD, from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2004 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between these versions and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document.

The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html.

This notice shall appear on any product containing this material

In the following statement, "This software" refers to the parallel port driver:
This software is a component of "386BSD" developed by William F. Jolitz, TeleMuse.

The End